The hydraulic wheeled vehicles
The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in hydraulic systems of tractors and other self-propelled and road-building machines. The hydraulic actuator includes pump unit with a drive motor 4. It consists of three unregulated pumps 1, 2, 3 with three position proportional valve 8. Four-way valve 15 is connected to a pressure hydroline 14 with pump unit and hose 16, 17 with hydraulic motors 18 and 19. The cylinder 13 is installed through the three-position valve 10 to the pressure of hydroline 14. Managed the flow control 20 and 21 introduced in the area between four-valve 15 and the hydraulic motors 18 and 19. Hydraulic accumulator 28 is introduced into a pressurized hydroline 14 through a two-position valve 26. The technical result - the reduction of the energy consumption in the hydraulic system, eliminating movement of the vehicle “Hughes” and the exception spinning wheels in straight-line motion. 1 Il.
The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in hydraulic systems of tractors and other self-propelled is a (see RF patent №2098292, MCI 60 To 17/10, 1997). containing the pump and kinematically associated with the wheels of the vehicle reversible hydraulic motor. Hydraulic motor and pump are connected by hose through the three-position valve. In the section between the pump and the three position valve pressure and drain the hydroline are connected via the controlled shut-off valve. In the known transmission removed the wheels from locking and stable braking of the vehicle with hydrostatic transmissions. However, the hydraulic actuator is intended for the propulsion of a major axis that defines low traction and maneuvering ability of the vehicle.
The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a hydraulic self-propelled machines (see RF patent №2037434, MCI 60 To 17/10, 1995), containing the pump with engine-driven, three-position spool valve, operating channels which are used for connection of the motors, the control lever speed and direction, and oil tank. The hydraulic drive has two sets of motors respectively for the front and rear axles, self-propelled machine. In addition to the ü to control the hydraulic cylinder mounted equipment. Direct connection blocks hydraulic motors driving wheels of both axles makes the design simple with a sufficiently high efficiency of the hydraulic drive, defining thereby increasing the traction properties of the machine. Perform valve with two chetyrekhfotonnymi sections provide the capabilities for each of the major axes of the driving modes “forward” and “back”, “braking” and “roll forward”. However, the drawback of such a hydraulic drive is the lack of locking of the wheels when slipping and constant frequency rotates the shafts of the motors when turning due to the absence of the scheme managed flow control, which causes movement of the machine “Hughes”. To power the hydraulic pump is used for high performance. This leads to large energy losses during movement of the vehicle.
The invention aims at eliminating the above drawbacks.
This is due to the fact that the hydraulic drive containing a pump unit with a driving engine and connected pump hydroline with four-valve, knitted hose with hydraulic motors and a hydraulic cylinder mounted via three position hydroaromatic managed flow control. In pressure hydroline entered the hydraulic accumulator through a two-position valve. Pump installation is composed of three parallel connected unregulated pumps with proportional three-position directional control valve.
Through the use of a hydraulic actuator controlled flow regulator varies the flow of the working fluid during the rotation of each motor, and therefore, the rotational speed, thereby eliminating the movement of the vehicle “Hughes”.
The use of hydraulic three unregulated parallel-connected pumps with three position proportional control valve and a hydraulic accumulator reduces energy losses in the hydraulic drive compared to the prototype due to the energy recovery fluid.
The drawing shows the principal hydraulic scheme of the proposed hydraulic wheeled vehicles.
The hydraulic drive wheel of the vehicle includes three parallel connected unregulated pump 1, 2, 3 with the driving motor 4 related work routes 5, 6, 7 proportional controlled valve 8, through which the hydroline 9 through the three-position gidroraspredeliteli the valve 15, related work the channels 16, 17 with the hydraulic motors 18 and 19. Moreover, the working channel 16 of the valve 15 is connected by a hose with hydraulic motors 18 and 19 through controlled flow control 20 and 21 associated with the rotation mechanism of the vehicle (not shown). In addition, the hydraulic actuator includes a hydraulic tank 22, a filter 23, a valve 24, valve 25, and a controlled valve 26 associated with hydroline 14 with the valve 8 on the one hand and hydroline 27 with the hydraulic accumulator 28 on the other.
The hydraulic drive wheel of the vehicle is as follows.
The working fluid from the tank 22 by means of pumps 1, 2, 3 is pumped through a proportional spool valve 8, through the control valve 10 in the cylinder attachments or through the control valve 15 and the controlled flow control in hydraulic motors 18 and 19, which directly transmit the rotational movement to the drive wheels of the machine. When turning vehicle operated flow control change the flow rate of the working fluid in the hydraulic motors 18 and 19, causing the wheels of the vehicle rotate with different angular velocity. Chetyrehokisi is At the position of the spool valve “forward” is provided by the flow of working fluid from the pump 1, 2, 3 through the control valve 8, hydroline 14, 16, controlled flow control 20 and 21 to the hydraulic motors 18 and 19 and drain it through the working channel 17 into the tank 22. Due to this, the wheels receive a rotational movement corresponding to the movement of the machine forward. When the position of the valve in the position “Decel” working channels 16, 17 are locked. The working fluid enters the hydraulic accumulator 28, or merges into the tank 22 through the valve 25. When the position of the valve in the position “back” similar position “forward” with the difference that the working fluid is supplied to the motors in the opposite direction, so the wheels get rotation corresponding to the movement “back”. When the position of the spool in the position of “neutral” operating channels 16 and 17 are interconnected, and the discharge channel 14 from the drain. The working fluid in the hydraulic motor not supplied and drained from pumps through four-way valve 15 back into the tank 22. Similarly controlled by a hydraulic cylinder accessories 13 through valve 10. When moving the spool is proportional to the three-position valve 8 from the leftmost to the rightmost position of Prosti and the rotational speed of the hydraulic motors 18 and 19, consequently, the speed of the vehicle. Hydraulic accumulator 28 is used for energy recovery and is automatically activated by using a two-position valve 26 when the pressure in the hydraulic system exceeds the beforehand set value.
The hydraulic drive wheel of a vehicle, containing a pump unit with a driving engine and connected pump hydroline with four-valve, knitted hose with hydraulic motors and a hydraulic cylinder mounted through the three-position valve in the pressure hydroline, characterized in that it introduced in the area between four-valve and hydraulic motors driven flow control and pressure hydroline - hydraulic accumulator through a two-position valve, when this pump unit is made consisting of three parallel connected unregulated pumps with proportional three-position directional control valve.
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle contains frame 1 with cab 9, front and rear steerable wheels 4, 6 and middle wheels 5, engine placed behind the cab along vehicle and covered by hood 11. hydrostatic transmission contains pumping station 21 consisting of matching reduction gear driven by engine placed behind the cab, and three pumps connected by pipelines with hydraulic motors providing separate drives of wheels. Hydraulic motors are arranged along frame 1 between sidemembers on solid brackets made in form of boxes with flanges connected with wall of side member between its webs. Invention makes it possible to create ecologically clean and reliable multipurpose all-wheel-drive vehicle of high cross-country capacity with hydrostatic transmission to drive all wheels.
EFFECT: provision of convenient mounting and servicing of transmission units.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.
FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles with positive displacement hydraulic drive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission includes constant-capacity guided-vane hydraulic pump mechanically connected with vehicle engine communicating through pressure, drain and suction hydraulic lines through hydraulic distributor enclosing pressure and drain hydraulic lines and playing the part of reversor with at least one constant-capacity reversible guide-vane hydraulic motor to transmit torque to one or two driving wheels of automobile. Spaces of suction and drain hydraulic lines communicate with space of hydraulic tank. Suction hydraulic line passes through adjustable hydraulic restrictor whose control lever is mechanically coupled with automobile accelerator pedal.
EFFECT: simplified design of transmission, reduced fuel consumption and weight of transmission and its cost, and increased efficiency of automobile.
18 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; machine building hydraulics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used on vehicles and machine-and-tractor units operating under unsteady conditions of movement. Proposed device contains planetary train 1, reactive link 3 connected with drive gear of oil pump 5. Planetary train is connected through carrier shaft with gearbox 9 and is set into operation by engine 11. Two-step adjustable restrictor 12 is installed in pressure main line of pump. Safety valve 14 and control cock 15 are connected to input of adjustable restrictor, being also installed in pressure main line of pump pneumohydraulic accumulator, being end member of pressure main line, is provided with three spaces. It consists of hydraulic cylinder, free piston, piston with rod, piston position regulator, oil line and oil channel. Space between pistons is filled with oil which regulates volume.
EFFECT: reduced influence of vibrations of external traction load onto functioning of machine-and-tractor unit.
FIELD: transport engineering; hydrostatic transmissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrostatic transmission contains pumping unit consisting of main and makeup pumps driven by vehicle engine, hydraulic motors connected by main hydraulic lines with pumping unit and forming circulating hydraulic circuit, and electrically driven self-contained pump whose delivery space is connected with hydraulic circuit formed by main hydraulic lines. Hydrostatic transmission is furnished additionally with sealed hydraulic tank with device for charging its air space with compressed air from vehicle pneumatic system and containing shutoff cock, compressed air pressure regulator in sealed hydraulic tank with safety valve and vacuum manual control valve to discharge compressed air from sealed hydraulic tank, two-position manual control valve for alternate hydraulic coupling of suction space of self-contained electrically-driven pump with hydraulic tank and with device for charging the tank with working liquid, check valve arranged in drain hydraulic line at inlet of sealed hydraulic tank, and manually controlled shutoff valve in suction hydraulic line at outlet of sealed hydraulic tank.
EFFECT: improved reliability of hydrostatic transmission of vehicle designed for operation under various road conditions.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in different vehicles and in devices and mechanisms for clashless engagement of driven shafts. Proposed torque converter contains drive and driven units of converter. Drive unit is made in form of disks 2-5 with slots freely fitted on splined shaft 1. Movable blades are fitted in said slots. Driven unit of converter is made in form of cylindrical housing 7 with driven shaft 16 and rings 11 and 12 fitted on shaft. Disks 2-5 with blades 6 of drive unit of converter are arranged inside rings. Slots in disks 2-5 of drive unit of converter are made through being arranged tangentially. Each of rings 11, 12 in cylindrical housing 7 of converter driven unit is installed for rolling on guide 13, being connected with axle-shaft 14 flush-fitted in cradle of step bearing 15 whose body is in rigid engagement with cylindrical housing 7. With drive unit rotating, summary driven torque is formed from its hydraulic and inertia components. Formulas for calculating the torque are given in description of invention.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydraulic - inertia converter, its control system, gearbox of converter and method of torque conversion.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed recuperative reversible stepless hydraulic transmission of wheeled vehicle contains drive engine 5, recuperator 20 with overrunning clutch 24, controllable reversible hydraulic machine 18 with pressure and suction and control plunger 8 communicating with hydraulic control system through pipelines, follow-up hydraulic booster with variable-capacity pump 12 of reverse capacity, four non-controllable hydraulic machines 29-32. Each of said hydraulic machines has vehicle wheel, and wheels of vehicle are in contact with road pavement. Recuperator 20 is made in form of planetary reduction gear whose carrier 19 is connected with pump 12 and with hydraulic machine 18 provided with two diametric pressure and two diametric suction spaces and connected with hydraulic machines 29-32 by pipelines. Hydraulic machine 18 contains "floating" plunger 33 with two cylindrical grooves between two end face spaces and "polar" plunger by channels of which end face spaces of floating plunger 33 are communicated, overlapped or reversed with pressure and suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Cylindrical grooves of floating plunger 33 synchronously overlap or hydraulically communicate two pressure and two suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Lever 6 of polar plunger is mechanically connected with corresponding slot of plate 3 of vehicle speed and reverse control member.
EFFECT: reduced number of control members, dispensing with brake system improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, reduced fuel consumption, reduced acceleration time, increased efficiency.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: public building structures, particularly drives for showcase rotation.
SUBSTANCE: drive to rotate showcase substantially formed as superimposed disc 4 installed on pin 5 provides force transmission from drive 12 to disc 4 by means of flexible tie having tensioning means. Flexible tie is formed as closed loop of chain 10 having rigid links. The chain passes around the disc 4 along disc surface generator. Drive has sprocket 11 of driving means. The sprocket 11 is installed on shaft of hydraulic drive 12. Hydraulic drive 12 is mounted on plate 13 moving in radial direction relative disc 4 by hydraulic power cylinder 16.
EFFECT: increased safety of the drive, improved disc position adjustment, reduced size, simplified mounting and enhanced maintainability.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises electric means for measuring working volume of pumps and hydraulic motors and pickup (60) for measuring the speed of rotation of the shaft of the pump station. The electric circuits are provided with threshold control members (67) and (80) interconnected between pickup (6) and the electric means. Between threshold control members (67) and (80) and electric means for changing working volume of pumps (67) and (80) and hydraulic motors (13), (14), (17), and (18) of the drive of end wheels are variable resistors (77), (78), (86), and (87) that are controlled by pickups (89) and (89) of pressure difference in hydraulic circuits of the drive of the intermediate wheels and the drive of each pair of end wheels.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering and may be used in production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles. The self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission contains: an input shaft 9 and an output shaft 6, a centrifugal type nonadjustable hydraulic pump 3, a gear differential unit 2 with two output shafts 5, 6 and a nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4. The hydraulic pump 3 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 5. The nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 6, which is an output shaft of the gear differential unit output shaft. Self-regulation of a torque of the output shaft is depending on a load by changing the number of revolutions per a minute of the centrifugal pump using the differential gear of the he self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission. The technical result is an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.