The method of applying a wear-resistant coatings on cutting tools

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a method of wear-resistant coatings on cutting tools and can be used in Metalworking. Multi-coating is applied by vacuum plasma method on the working surface of the cutting tool. The top coating layer has a high level of residual compressive stresses within 1500-2000 MPa and reduces the level of equivalent stresses in the cutting wedge of the tool during cutting to values 0,2-0,25 from the tensile strength of the tool material. The inner layer of the coating has a level of residual stresses is equal to 0.4-0.5 of the stresses in the top layer that provides good adhesion of the coating to the instrumental basis, increases efficiency tools and reduces tool materials. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table.

The invention relates to a method of wear-resistant coatings on cutting tools and can be used in Metalworking.

Known method of applying a wear-resistant coatings on cutting tools (RI), wherein on the surface of the vacuum-arc method are coated with titanium nitride (TiN) or carbonitride tit nitrides and carbonitrides of titanium. Ulyanovsk: UlSTU, 1998, 122 S.). For reasons that impede the achievement of specified following technical result when using the known method is that the known method of coating with good adhesion to the tool material have a relatively low hardness and level of compressive stresses, or have a high microhardness, but insufficient adhesion strength with the instrumental basis. As a result, the coating is easily subjected to abrasive wear, it quickly arise and propagate cracks, leading to the destruction of the coating, which reduces the resistance RI is coated.

The closest way to the same destination to the claimed invention on the totality of symptoms is the method of applying a wear resistant coating on the RI, including the vacuum-plasma deposition of multilayer coatings consisting of alternating layers of pure titanium (Ti) and TiN (see Vereshchaka A. C. Performance of cutting tool with a wear resistant coating. M: engineering, 1993, S. 294) adopted for the prototype.

For reasons that impede the achievement of specified following technical result when using the known method adopted for the prototype, well resist the initiation and development of cracks, but reduce the microhardness and cohesive strength of the coating. As a result, the coating is poorly resists abrasion, which leads to the destruction of the coating and to reduce the resistance RI.

The recent rise in the cost of cutting tools and the stricter requirements for precision machined parts made even more urgent the problem of increasing resistance RI. The main reason for the deterioration of RI in continuous cutting is the occurrence of fatigue cracks in its cutting part, which is the cause of chips and vyrashivanii in the impact force and thermal effects. One of the ways to increase the stability and health of RI coating is a multilayer coating type. The presence of the coating layers with defined thermal and mechanical properties can inhibit the formation and propagation of cracks without a decrease in the microhardness, improve thermostress condition RI coated to improve resistance RI.

The technical result - improving the health of RI and quality of processing.

This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved in that in the known ability is considered as the method is as the upper layer connection having a high level of residual compressive stresses in the coating material at the level of 1500-2000 MPa and provide the lowest level of the equivalent stresses in the cutting wedge during cutting to values 0,2-0,25 from the tensile strength of the tool material and the inner layer is a compound which has good adhesion with the instrumental material, which is achieved by reducing the difference between the stresses in the upper layer and the voltage in the instrumental basis. When this voltage in the inner layer should be 0.4 to 0.5 of the stresses in the top layer. In addition, for two-layer coating, the thickness of the outer layer is 25-50% of the total thickness of the coating depending on the cutting conditions.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including the search for patents and scientific and technical information sources, and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not discovered sources, characterized by signs, identical with all the essential features of the claimed invention. The definition of the list of identified unique PR is the R against perceived by the applicant to the technical result of the distinctive features in the proposed method, set forth in the claims. Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of “novelty.”

To verify compliance of the claimed invention the term “inventive step”, the applicant conducted an additional search of the known solutions to identify signs that match the distinctive features of the prototype of the characteristics of the claimed method of increasing the resistance RI. The search results showed that the claimed invention not apparent to the expert in the obvious way from the prior art because the prior art defined by the applicant, not the influence provided the essential features of the claimed invention transformations to achieve a technical result. In particular, the claimed invention does not provide for the following conversions:

- addition of known means of any known part attached to it according to certain rules, to achieve a technical result, in respect of which it is the effect of such additions;

- replacement of any part of the other known means known part to obtain a technical result, in respect of which it is vladilena its functions and the achievement of a result of such exclusion;

- increasing the number of identical elements, actions to strengthen the technical result due to the presence in the vehicle is of such elements, actions;

- execution of a known drug or part of a known material to achieve a technical result due to the known properties of this material;

- creation of tools, consisting of well-known parts, the choice of which and the relationship between them is carried out on the basis of known rules, recommendations, and achievable technical result is due only to the known properties of the parts of this tool and the relationships between them.

The described invention is not based on the change of the quantitative characteristic (s), the submission of such evidence in the relationship, or change its appearance. This refers to the case when the known fact of the influence of each of these features on the technical result, and the new values for these characteristics or their relationship could be obtained from the known dependency relationships. Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of “inventive step”.

The invention consists in the following. In about who is at the top of the cutter and at the site of the elastic contact of the chip front surface. High level equivalent stress leads to the destruction of the cutting edge and the formation of areas of wear on the rear surface. At the same time on the area of the front surface, the formation of holes wear. The top layer of the coating should provide the maximum reduction of the equivalent stresses in the cutting wedge to the level of 0,2-0,25 from the tensile strength of the tool material in order to increase the life of the tool before the formation of foci of wear. At the same time, it must have a high residual compressive stress at the level of 1500-2000 MPa to reduce the intensity of formation of fatigue cracks in the material of the coating. The inner layer of the coating should have a low level of residual compressive stresses at the level of 0.4-0.5 from the stresses of the outer layer in order to reduce the difference between the stresses in the top layer of the coating and instrumental basis for increasing the adhesion strength.

Plates with coatings produced by deviations in the claims limits the thickness of the inner and outer layers showed lower results. Increasing the thickness of the outer solid layer has led to an increase in the brittleness of the coating. Designed for people who have sigalas adhesion with the instrumental basis. Reducing the thickness of the outer solid layer leads to a decrease in the microhardness of the entire multilayer composition and, consequently, reduced tool life.

For experimental verification of the claimed method was coated prototype with a ratio of layers corresponding to the optimal value specified in a known way and two-layer coatings of the proposed method. The coating was applied to the tungsten carbide plates in a vacuum chamber installation “Bulat-6”, is equipped with three vacuum-arc evaporators arranged horizontally in the same plane. As cathodes vaporized metal in the coating layers of TiN and TiCN used titanium alloy W 1-0. When applied to complex compounds (Ti, Zr) N as the material of the two cathodes were used alloy W 1-0, and as the material of the third cathode - zirconium alloy e-110. The coating was applied after the pre-ion treatment. Coating thickness of 6 μm was deposited for 40 minutes at a temperature of 560-580°With the arc current of 110 A. TiN Layers were besieged in the environment of the reaction gas is nitrogen at a voltage on the substrate 140 C. For the deposition of layers of TiCN as a reaction gas used is a mixture of nitrogen and acetylene content of the acetyl is Ansatie TiCN - 0,4 A.

The following are specific examples of the proposed method.

Example 1. Carbide inserts MK8 (size 4,7×12×12 mm) washed in an ultrasonic bath, wipe with acetone, alcohol and set on the rotary device in a vacuum chamber installation “Bulat-6”, is equipped with three evaporators arranged horizontally in the same plane. As cathodes evaporated metal used titanium alloy grades W 1-0. The chamber is pumped out to a pressure of 6.65·10-3PA, include the rotator, serves him the negative voltage of 1.1 kV, include one evaporator and at the arc current of 100 a produce ion cleaning and heating the plates to a temperature of 560-580°C. Current to the focusing coil of 0.3 A. Then reduce negative voltage to 140 include two of the evaporator, is fed into the reaction chamber, the gas is nitrogen and the precipitated coating thickness of 4 μm (TiN layer) within 26 minutes Then raise the voltage up to 160, current focusing coils to 0.4 A. the camera is supplied reaction gas mixture of nitrogen and acetylene content of acetylene in a mixture of 30%) and precipitated a second coating layer (TiCN) thickness of 4 μm for 24 minutes Then turn off the evaporator, the flow of the reaction gas, napryajennymi 2. Carbide inserts MK8 washed in an ultrasonic bath, wipe with acetone, alcohol and set on the rotary device in a vacuum chamber installation “Bulat-6” equipped with three vacuum-arc evaporators arranged horizontally in the same plane. As a material of the first and third electrode used titanium alloy W 1-0, and as a material of the second electrode is an alloy of zirconium e-110. Ion cleaning is performed analogously to example 1. The first layer deposited TiN layer thickness of 6 μm for 40 minutes the Second deposited layer of (Ti, Zr) N with a thickness of 2 μm for 27 minutes and Then disconnected the evaporator, the flow of the reaction gas, voltage and rotation of the device. After 15-20 min the camera open and extract the tool from the floor.

Stoimostnye the tests were carried out on a lathe model C bushing cutters in the processing of structural steel HNM and stainless steel 12X18H10T without cooling. Experienced carbide inserts brand TK processed by the known and proposed methods. Criterion wear was a facet of the flank wear width of 0.4 mm

As can be seen from the table, the resistance plates, treated area is agemy method can significantly improve the wear resistance of the tools and to reduce the consumption of tool materials, that increases the effectiveness of the instrument's surfaces.

Thus, the presented data suggest the implementation of the use of the claimed method of applying a wear resistant coating on RI the following cumulative conditions:

- method of applying a wear resistant coating on RI embodying the claimed method in its implementation, is intended for use in industry, namely for wear-resistant coatings on RI, and can be used in Metalworking;

- for the claimed method of applying a wear resistant coating on RI, as he is described in the independent clause sets out the claims, confirmed the possibility of its implementation using known before the priority date tools and methods;

- method of applying a wear resistant coating on RI, embodying the claimed method in its implementation, is able to achieve perceived by the applicant of the technical result.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of “industrial applicability”.

1. The method of applying a wear-resistant coatings on cutting tools, including Vacu is connected, with a residual compression stress at the level of 1500-2000 MPa and reducing the level of equivalent stresses in the cutting wedge of the tool during cutting to values 0,2-0,25 from the tensile strength of the tool material and an inner layer connection with the level of residual compressive stress is equal to 0.4-0.5 of the stress of the top layer.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for two-layer coating, the thickness of the outer layer is 25-50% of the total thickness of the coating.



 

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