The apparatus for the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

 

The invention relates to a device for thermal processing of crushed hydrocarbons, in particular for pyrolysis of rubber-materials in the form of small chips with obtaining useful components used in the power industry and in the production of building materials. The system includes a furnace in the form of a cylindrical metal casing with a liner installed therein coaxially of the pyrolysis chamber with the annular gap, a source of heat, means for removal of pyrolysis products, including pipe for exhaust gas-vapor mixture, the loading mechanism of the raw material, with metal casing of the furnace is made integral with the extension at the bottom of the pyrolysis chamber is stationary in the form of a coil installed inside a metal enclosure, a means for removal of pyrolysis products are made in the form of pipe for exhaust gas-vapor mixture and the solid residue, the loading mechanism of the raw material made in the form of a hopper and a loading device, connected to the bottom of the pyrolysis chamber through pipe alternate supply of inert gas or gas mixture with the raw materials. In addition, the installation further comprises a hollow cylinder coaxially mounted inside pyrolidine vapor-gas mixture from the solid residue and the movement of raw materials and gas-vapor mixtures consisting of a cyclone and fan and connected with the upper part of the pyrolysis chamber through the pipe outlet of the pyrolysis products, switchgear, United with cyclone installation through the pipe outlet gas mixture and with the charging device through the pipe by a variable feed gas mixture or an inert gas, in this case, the distribution device is additionally connected to the heat exchanger, cylinder with an inert gas and a pipe of the exhaust air. The invention allows to speed up the process of pyrolysis, the possibility of processing large volume of crushed hydrocarbon, for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of the inventive device in a mode of continuous operation. 1 Il.

The invention relates to a device for thermal processing of crushed hydrocarbons, in particular for pyrolysis of rubber-materials in the form of small chips with obtaining useful components used in the power industry and in the production of building materials.

Known installation pyrolysis of household and industrial waste mixed with coal Swedish company “Motala Ve with a rotating grate to support combustion and removal of the slag residue, closed conveyor connecting the receiving station with the gas generator, a device for feeding coal into the gasifier from a separate hopper, while the plant is equipped with ducts for venting gas from the upper and Central part of the gas generator, a refrigerator, an electrostatic precipitator, a cyclone to remove dust from the gas flows from the Central part of the core. In addition, the system includes a mechanism for handling slag steam-air mixture (see Alexeev, M. and others, “Industrial methods of sanitary cleaning of cities”, - L.: stroiizdat, 1983. - S. 14-15).

The disadvantages of the known devices are used for operation of the gasifier, along with household waste, coal, leading to the formation in the flue gas increased content of soot and soot and, therefore, complicates the design of the introduction of wastewater treatment systems, leading to increased costs and environmental degradation. In addition, received at such plant gas has a low calorific value and a high percentage of harmful emissions when it is used.

The closest technical solution to the claimed is a furnace for pyrolysis of hydrocarbons, such as worn unground tires and addnewline it interchangeable camera pyrolysis basket for loading of raw material, the source of heating furnace flue gases, means removal of pyrolysis products in the form of a tray and pipe for exhaust gas mixture (see P. RU # 2078111, IPC610 IN 1/04, C 10 G 1/10, 10 IN 53/08).

The disadvantages of the known furnaces are high energy costs due to heat loss from the waste heat gases, the need for cooling the furnace at the end of the pyrolysis of each batch of raw materials and subsequent heating at the beginning of each new cycle, and also because of the irrational use of heat warming gases by forced heating of the entire volume of the furnace despite the decrease in the amount of raw material in the pyrolysis chamber as its decomposition. In addition, the location of the source of heating in one place simultaneously provides uniform heating of the entire mass of raw material, which reduces the efficiency of the pyrolysis and heating of the flue gases to the same leads to environmental pollution. The disadvantages include the complexity and structure, based on the implementation of the furnace split horizontally, what complicates maintenance. Furthermore, the design of this furnace, providing the cyclical nature of the work is not efficient for processing large volumes of raw materials, as it requires the installation of several packagesthe processing a large volume of crushed hydrocarbon, for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of the inventive device in a mode of continuous operation.

The technical result is achieved in that the apparatus for the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons, containing the furnace in the form of a cylindrical metal casing with a liner installed therein coaxially of the pyrolysis chamber with the annular gap, a source of heat, means for removal of pyrolysis products, including pipe for exhaust gas-vapor mixture, the loading mechanism of the raw material, with metal casing of the furnace is made integral with the extension at the bottom of the pyrolysis chamber is stationary in the form of a coil installed inside a metal enclosure, a means for removal of pyrolysis products are made in the form of pipe for exhaust gas-vapor mixture and the solid residue, the loading mechanism of the raw material made in the form of a hopper and a loading device connected to the bottom of the pyrolysis chamber through pipe alternate supply of inert gas or gas mixture with the raw materials. In addition, the installation further comprises a hollow cylinder coaxially mounted inside the pyrolysis chamber with a gap, a pipe supplying air installed in the lower part of the furnace, cyclone set the cyclone and fan and connected with the upper part of the pyrolysis chamber through the pipe outlet of the pyrolysis products, the distribution device is connected to the cyclone installation through the pipe outlet gas mixture and with the charging device through the pipe by a variable feed gas mixture or an inert gas, in this case, the distribution device is additionally connected to the heat exchanger, cylinder with an inert gas and a pipe of the exhaust air.

The comparison of the proposed technical solutions to the prototype allowed us to establish the presence of the distinctive features of the prototype characteristics, therefore, this solution meets the criterion of “NOVELTY”.

Studies prior art has not revealed the prominence of the proposed technical solution, therefore, this solution meets the criterion of “INVENTIVE step”.

Performing a pyrolysis chamber in the form of a coil coaxially installed inside a hollow cylinder with a gap to form additional space heating of the pyrolysis chamber, and, in addition, create optimal, i.e. the path of least resistance for the passage of flue gases in the furnace spiral annular space formed by the outer walls of the hollow cylinder, the coil and the inner walls of the furnace, passing through which the flue gases maximum heat raw materials, inside the coil, significantly speeding up the process of pyrolysis and increasing the efficiency of the installation. Introduction cyclone setup, consisting of a cyclone and fan, allowing to separate the gas-vapor mixture from the solid residue with the purpose of using it in the pyrolysis process raw materials as a secondary coolant and the activating agent, and also to move the raw material and the steam-gas mixture in a closed system installation, also accelerates the pyrolysis process, as small particles of raw material are suspended in the medium gas mixture, is heated from all sides. To improve the efficiency of the facility contributes to the regulation of the combustion gases in the furnace due to the supply installation pipe for feeding air into the furnace. The design elements of the unit that performs multiple functions, such as fan cyclone installation for supplying inert gas distribution system, the kiln shell is made with an extension in the lower part with the formation of the furnace and the tube to alternately feed gas mixture or an inert gas and an outlet for alternate supply of inert gas or gas mixture with the raw materials, as well as rational compone run it as a closed system, providing effective continuous process pyrolysis processing of a large volume of crushed hydrocarbons.

The drawing shows a General view of the installation, the vertical section.

The installation consists of the furnace 1, is made in the form of a cylindrical metal case with extension in the lower part with the formation of the furnace and insulated walls, for example, lined with brick. In the lower part of the stove nozzle 2 and the pipe 3 for supplying air to the furnace. Inside the furnace 1 is installed with an annular gap pyrolysis chamber 4 made in the form of a coil, inside of which is in alignment with the gap set hollow cylinder 5. The lower end of the pyrolysis chamber 4 through the pipe 6 alternate supply of inert gas or gas mixture of raw materials is connected with the charging device 7 connected to the hopper 8. The upper end of the pyrolysis chamber 4 through the pipe 9 removal of pyrolysis products connected with cyclone plant, consisting of a cyclone 10 and a fan 11 is designed for separation of vapor-gas mixture from the solid residue and bring it with raw materials or inert gas system: boot device 7 - outlet 6 - pyrolysis chamber 4 to the outlet 9 of the exhaust products OK 13 exhaust gas mixture with cyclone installation and through the pipe 14 to alternately feed gas mixture or an inert gas with the charging device 7. In addition, the distribution unit 12 is connected to the cylinder 15 of inert gas, with the heat exchanger 16 and the pipe 25 to exhaust air. Under the cyclone 10 is installed discharge device 17 with a capacity of 18 for collecting the solid fraction of pyrolysis. For collection of liquid and gaseous fractions of the pyrolysis unit is supplied containers 19, 20, respectively, connected to the heat exchanger 16 and the pipe 21, through which the liquid fraction of the pump 22 or gas compressor 23 is fed into the combustion chamber of the furnace 1. In the upper part of the furnace 1 has a pipe 24 for the flue gases.

The device operates as follows.

Using nozzles 2 by combustion gas supplied by pipeline compressor 21 and 23, or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (pyrolysis liquid) supplied by a pump 22, the furnace 1 is heated to a temperature pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. Then blow the pyrolysis chamber 4, the loading device 7 and the cyclone 10 inert gas from the cylinder 15, removing from them the air through the distribution device 12 and the pipe 25 into the atmosphere by means of the fan 11. Coming from the furnace into the furnace 1 hot flue gases twisted raspolozhennymi inclined guide surfaces of the pyrolysis chamber 4 around the hollow cylinder 5 is heat chamber 4 and the inner walls of the furnace 1, give thermal energy through the walls of the pyrolysis chamber 4 moving inside her, inert gases and through the pipe 24 are released into the atmosphere. The required temperature of the gases in the furnace is maintained by regulating the amount of burnt fuel injectors 2 and supplied through the pipe 3 of air. After purging the system with an inert gas flow of inert gas stop and continue pumping in the inert gas system on koltseobrazno closed volume system: pyrolysis camera 4 - cyclone 10 - switchgear 12 - trumpet 14 - bootable device 7 - outlet 6 - pyrolysis chamber 4 until the temperature of the inert gas reaches a temperature of pyrolysis of the raw material, and then begin feeding material (e.g. rubber crumb size up to 6 mm) in a pyrolysis chamber 4 using the boot device 7 and the fan 11. Raw material enters the hot gas stream and is transported inside the pyrolysis chamber 4 in suspension, resulting in heating and pyrolysis of the raw material with the formation of the vapor-gas mixture and the solid residue in the form of small particles which are caught by the cyclone 10 and through the discharge device 17 is unloaded into the tank 18. At the beginning of the pyrolysis process held across the IR 16, where the division into a liquid fraction (liquid hydrocarbon fuel), merging into the tank 19, and a gaseous fraction (flammable gases) flowing into the container 20, and a portion of the vapor-gas mixture is directed back through the pipe 14, the loading device 7 and the pipe 6 in a pyrolysis chamber 4, providing, thus, a continuous cycle of operation. Further raw material in the pyrolysis chamber 4 moves already in the anoxic environment of gas-vapor mixture, which plays the role of a carrier and an activating agent, in which are suspended small particles of raw material are heated, each from all sides, which greatly accelerates the heating of raw materials and intensifies the process of pyrolysis. Part of the combustible gas or pyrolysis liquid required for heating and maintaining the pyrolysis process and is used in this setting, acting, respectively, of the containers 20 or 19 to the nozzle 2 of the furnace 1.

The inventive installation, allowing accelerated cost-effective pyrolysis of a large volume of crushed hydrocarbon in the continuous mode of operation, according to the applicants, will find wide industrial application.

Claims

Installation d is Oh, installed it coaxially pyrolysis chamber with the annular gap, a source of heat, means for removal of pyrolysis products, including pipe for exhaust gas-vapor mixture, the mechanism of the substrate, characterized in that the metal casing of the furnace is made integral with the extension at the bottom of the pyrolysis chamber is stationary in the form of a coil installed inside a metal enclosure, a means for removal of pyrolysis products are made in the form of pipe for exhaust gas-vapor mixture and the solid residue, the loading mechanism of the raw material made in the form of a hopper and a loading device, connected to the bottom of the pyrolysis chamber through pipe alternate supply of inert gas or gas mixture with the raw materials, the installation further comprises a hollow cylinder coaxially mounted inside the pyrolysis chamber with a gap, a pipe supplying air installed in the lower part of the furnace, a cyclone unit for separating gas mixture from the solid residue and the movement of raw materials and gas mixture consisting of a cyclone and fan and connected with the upper part of the pyrolysis chamber through the pipe outlet of the pyrolysis products, switchgear, United with the cyclone mouth gas mixture or an inert gas, in this case, the distribution device is additionally connected to the heat exchanger, cylinder with an inert gas and a pipe of the exhaust air.



 

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