The method of maintaining soil vineyards
The invention relates to the field of agriculture, particularly viticulture. The method includes seeding sideratos culture in the row of bushes in each 4-year agriculture technology cycle, different sorttype triticale, successively alternating in equal largest gaps gaps and sowing green manure. In each of the subsequent rows these sequential intervals are shifted to the same equivalent size, fold and inversely proportional to the total length of sown aisle. Subsequent annual sealing Mature biomass and Semenych ears of green manure is performed each time in the opposite direction last year. The invention reduces material costs, restructuring and intensification of the biotic self-purification processes and the removal of toxins from the soil, increasing soil fertility, productivity, vineyards, and quality products. 1 Il., 1 PL.
The invention relates to agriculture, will find application in crop production and horticulture, namely in viticulture.
Known methods row Agropromizdat”. - 1987. - S. 252-254; Sodding spacing perennial grasses (Agrocare on viticulture /Ed. by N. Kachanov. - Chisinau: Changes to the Mac”. -1989. - S. 524); Annual planting siderotic cultures (Zeltser Century Ya On improving the system of care for the soil in the vineyard/Viticulture and winemaking. -1990, No. 2. - S. 19-22).
The closest analogue of the proposed method is a way of cultivating vineyards (A. T. Kiyan, V. B. Timofeev, I. N. Vorobyov. Triticale in the vineyards Taman//Wheat and triticale /Materials of scientific-practical conference “Green revolution p.p. Lukyanenko”. Krasnodar: “The Soviet Kuban”. - 2001. - S. 734-744) patent of Russian Federation RU 2029453 C1 (Description from 27.02.95,, bull. No. 8 - prototype).
The essence of the prototype is a single autumn-solid seeding in each aisle vines winter zernotorgovaja triticale, upset his green mass at the outlet to the tube spring and the incorporation into the soil between the rows in the summer of Mature vegetation along with serenyi ears green manure.
The disadvantages of this method are: the high cost of expensive seed sown clear in each aisle with a high per-hectare ical processes of soil self-purification, detoxification and removal of soil horizons residues sprayed against malicious objects grape pesticides, reducing food security and quality of grape products; limited recovery of soil fertility and increase productivity of the culture of grapes.
The technical result of using the invention is:
reduced material costs by reducing the per hectare consumption of green manure seeds, restructuring and intensification of biotic soil processes of self-purification and the removal of toxins from the supply grapes soil horizons sideritis rotation, increase soil fertility, productivity of the vineyards and the quality of grape production.
Technical result is achieved by a special agrotechnology application sideratos culture in the vineyards.
The essence of the invention lies in the positive restructuring and revitalization of the biotic self-purification processes of the soil and biodetoxification a green manure pesticides used against malicious objects grapes. This is achieved: the original single planting green manure through the rows of bushes, grape culture at the beginning of each 4-godinraider sealing and skip sowing seeds with a shift in the next aisle at the same equivalent value, determined from the ratio of the total length of the aisle (gon) to the amount equivalent cropped and UN-cropped gaps in a multiple ratio equal to 10 for every 100 meters of total length sown aisle; the mowing his green mass at the outlet to the tube spring and the incorporation into the soil between the rows in the summer of Mature vegetation along with serenyi ears green manure.
In subsequent years, each agrotechnological loop vector of the direction of movement tillage unit with annual incorporation into the soil ripe biomass and Semenych ears green manure each time is changed to the opposite direction relative to last year, and after 4 years of agrotechnological cycle single source sowing green manure in the beginning of the new agricultural technology cycle is performed, starting with the UN-cropped in the previous cycle aisle, green manure than those used in the previous cycle of the successive assortment: “the Green HELL”, “Krasnodar zernotorgovaj”, “World”, etc.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed method of maintaining soil vineyards were performed on the basis of the results of a 4-year agriculture technology cycles of new technology Neandertal edge. The objects of research were production sites vineyards Pinot Blanc planting scheme 3,0×1.5 m forming bole height 1,0... 1,2 meter type duplicator horizontal cordon on bunk basis.
Control served as a way of cultivating the patent RU 2029453 C1 (prototype) with sowing at the beginning of each new 4-year agriculture technology cycle winter triticale varieties “Krasnodar zernotorgovaj” with a seeding rate of 4.5 million/ha of viable seed beans green manure.
In the proposed (compared with the prototype) method after pre-treatment of the soil between the rows at the beginning of each new 4-year agriculture technology cycle was sown winter triticale other types, respectively, from the set of sequential assortment: “Krasnodar zernotorgovaj”, “Green HELL”, and “World”. Farm expense seed green manure in the cycle was 2.25 million viable seeds.
In both cases, the experiments planting triticale was performed specially converted drill AWN-3,6 width of 2.2 m Seeds before sowing was not dressed as varieties of triticale breeding Krasnodar research Institute of agriculture named after. P.p. Lukyanenko not poraj the soba content of the soils of the vineyard are schematically illustrated by a drawing.
At the beginning of each new agrotechnological cycle source autumn single sowing green manure is the passage of seed unit with equivalent length and successively alternating intervals crossing (a) and termination (sowing) seeds (b). Value them as equal length when this is chosen so that the quotient of the total length of the sown rows (gon) vines (L) by the sum of the periods of access and seeding (a + b) equal to a multiple ratio of 10 for every 100 meters of total length sown aisle (rut), and sequential intervals in the next aisle in comparison with the previous shift to their equivalent value (“a” or “b”), which provides accommodation alternating intervals on sown area of grape land in a checkerboard pattern. When the length of the rut L=100 m, the optimal value of the intervals of each pass and each seeding (sowing) seeds triticale equal to 5 meters, i.e.: a=b=100/2A × 10=5 m, Or, in any case: a=b=L/2a × n, where n=10, 20, 30... and so on, respectively, for L=100, 200, 300... and so on meters. This allows to reduce the consumption of seed material and pre-spread it on sown area of vinagre them the disking and sealing Mature biomass and Semenych ears triticale in the soil between the rows, the movement direction vector tillage unit in the same rut reversed compared with the previous year (As at B, B on a And on B, and so on).
This provides effective mechanical dispersion and a more complete uniformity of distribution sown in the first year of each 4-year agriculture technology cycle grains (consequently, the Mature biomass plant triticale) in soil treated spacing than ensures a positive restructuring of the soil, improves its biotic structure, increased detoxification and removal of toxicants sideratos culture, and the self-cleaning ability of the soil, its fertility, productivity of the vineyards and the quality of their products. The results of the experiments are shown in the table.
Data presented in table show that the content of the soil between rows of vineyards on the proposed method with sequential seeding in each of the 4-year agriculture technology cycles of cultivation of grapes of different sorts of winter triticale by successive rotation rut (row) is equivalent quantities of skip intervals and seeding green manure into the soil with a shift in the next aisle bushes at the same equivalent value allows you to halve the cost of planting material in comparison with the abilities and removal of the green manure toxins from the soil (greening), consequently, the quality and food safety of products, improvement of cultivation of grapes when the content of the soils of the vineyards in the proposed method, the economic efficiency of production of grapes increased by 24.5%.
1. The method of maintaining soil of vineyards, including the autumn once the seeding in the aisle vines winter triticale zernotorgovaja type, mowing of green mass at the outlet to the tube spring disking with the incorporation into the soil ripe biomass together with the grain in the summer, characterized in that each of the 4-year agriculture technology cycles sowing sideratos culture perform various sorttype triticale sequentially alternating the rows equal in magnitude intervals pass and seeding, and at the end of the 4-year cycle in the beginning of the new planting begin with UN-cropped in the previous cycle of the aisle.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the equivalent value of skip intervals and sowing green manure into the soil between rows of vines is a multiple of the total length sown aisle and inversely proportional to its every 100 meters
3. The method according to p. 1, otlichuy acou value relative to the previous row, in each new 4-year agriculture technology cycle the direction of the annual embedded in the soil between rows of Mature biomass and Semenych ears of green manure is changed to the opposite relative to last year.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, basic tillage of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves calculating required power of individual and string-type cumulative charges; providing field marking and forming holes in soil; placing cumulative charges in holes; sequentially blowing charges so that after explosion soil is transferred from one strip onto adjacent strip; leveling field surface by means of any known farm machine.
EFFECT: increased quality and effectiveness of plowing soil.