The method of obtaining the radioactive isotope cobalt-57 and cadmium-109

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of production of radioactive isotopes on charged particle accelerators, in particular cobalt-57 and cadmium-109, on the cyclotron using the internal beam of protons. The method of obtaining the radioactive isotope cobalt-57 and cadmium-109 includes the production of two-layer target, the irradiation of the beam of accelerated protons and chemical processing target. Fabrication of two-layer target is performed by applying a layer of metallic silver-109 on a metal substrate by diffusion welding, then applying a layer of Nickel-58 electrochemical method with the following implementation of the diffusion welding of the layers of silver-109 and Nickel-58, and the target is irradiated by protons with initial energy to their energy at the transition between layers of silver-109 and Nickel-58 was in the range of from 13 to 15 MeV. The technical result - the provision of high performance practices of radionuclides, the simplification of the processing of irradiated targets, improved security conditions and opportunities cobalt-57 with specified characteristics admixtures Co-56 Co-58. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 2 PL.

Izobreteniya-57 and cadmium-109, on the cyclotron using the internal proton beam.

Known methods for producing radioactive isotopes cobalt-57 and cadmium-109 on the cyclotron by irradiation, respectively, of Nickel-58 and silver-109 proton (Kaufman, S., Reactions of Protons with Ni-58 and Ni-60// J, PR, 117, 1532, 60 /1/. Tanaka, S., Furukawa, M., Chiba, M., Nuclear Reactios of Nikel with Protons up to 56 MeV//J, Jin, 34, 2419, 72 /2/. Wing J., J. R. Huizenga, (p, n) Cross Sections of V-51 Cr-52, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ag-107 and Ag-109 Cd-111 Cd-114 and La-139 from 5 to 10.5 MeV// J, PR, 128, 280, 62 /3/. Krasnov N. N., Sevastianov Yu.G., Konyakhin N. A., A. A. Razbash, Ognev A. A., Ponomarev A. A. Radionuclide Production on Cyclotron of the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering.// Proceedings of the IVth International Workshop on Targetry and Target Chemistry, Villigen PSI, Switzerland September 9-12, 1991, p.54-56 /4/. Strelov F. W. E. Improved separation of cadmium-109 from silver cyclotron targets by anion exchange chromatography in nitric acid hydrobromic acid mixtures//Anal. Chim. Acta, 1978, Vol.97, p.87 /5/).

The disadvantages of the known methods are: receive only one isotope in the target, i.e. the need for irradiation of two different targets to produce cobalt-57 and cadmium-109; relative low heat targets due to not enough good adhesion irradiated with the substrate material of the target; some difficulties in the processing of Nickel targets associated with the ingestion of significant quantities of copper from the substrate into the solution when dissolved Nickel layer that Ovelia technical essence and the achieved result is a way of simultaneously receiving radioactive isotopes of cadmium-109, cobalt-57 manganese-54 on the cyclotron by irradiation of targets containing silver-109 and iron-56 deuterons with an energy of 16 MeV (Smith-Jones, P. M., Strelov F. W. E., Haasbroek F. J.,Bohmer R. G. Production of Carrier Free109Cd57Co and54Mn from a Composite Cyclotron Target of Enriched Silver-109 and Iron-56// Appl. Radial Isot., 1988, vol.39, No.10, p.1073-1078 /6/).

The target for obtaining the radioactive isotopes is a copper substrate, which is applied to two layers: the first layer of iron-56, and on the iron surface is covered with a layer of silver-109.

The thickness of the silver layers are selected such that the silver deuterons lose energy 16 MeV to 7 MeV, and this layer is formed a radioactive isotope of cadmium-109 nuclear reactions 109Ag(d,2n)109Cd. In the iron layer is formed cobalt-57 manganese-54 nuclear reactions56Fe(d,n)57Co and56Fe(d)54Mn.

After the end of irradiation and the corresponding exposure time-irradiated silver and iron are removed by milling with a copper substrate, dissolved, and the obtained solutions make all three radioisotope.

The disadvantages of the method, selected as a prototype, it should be considered that this method is aimed mainly at obtaining cadmium-109, as the ratio of activity of cadmium to aktivnost-109. In addition, the deposition of silver on the copper substrate is carried out from cyanide electrolytes electrochemical method that represents a certain difficulty and danger. Processing of irradiated targets is quite time-consuming. Upon irradiation of the target produces a significant amount of chemically detachable part of the radionuclide cobalt-56 from radionuclide cobalt-57. The relatively low resistance of the target, due to not enough good adhesion caused by an electrolytic method layers of irradiated materials with the target substrate and to each other, restricts the values of the currents of charged particles on the target.

Solved the technical problem was to eliminate these drawbacks, namely high performance practices of radionuclides, the simplification of the processing of irradiated targets, improved security conditions and opportunities cobalt-57 with specified characteristics admixtures Co-56 Co-58.

The invention consists in the following. Method for obtaining radioactive isotope cobalt-57 and cadmium-109, including the production of two-layer target, the irradiation of the beam of accelerated protons and chemical processing carried out by applying a layer of metallic silver-109 on a metal substrate by diffusion welding, then applying a layer of Nickel-58 electrochemical method with the following implementation of the diffusion welding of the layers of silver-109 and Nickel-58, and the target is irradiated by protons with initial energy to their energy at the transition between layers of silver-109 and Nickel-58 was in the range of from 13 to 15 MeV.

Additionally serves as a beam of accelerated protons to use the internal proton beam of the cyclotron.

In addition, offered the irradiated surface of the target to perform curved in the shape of a cylinder with radius equal to the radius of the final orbit of the internal proton beam.

It is also advisable layer of Nickel after exposure to dissolve in the target in hydrochloric acid by chemical or electrochemical method fully or in layers.

Suitable as the substrate material to use copper.

This technical result is achieved due to the fact that:

It is proposed to use a two-layer target, on a copper substrate which first a layer of silver (silver-109), and then the silver is coated with a layer of Nickel-58.

Cobalt-57 is formed by irradiation of Nickel-58 protons with the energy of the protons bolgoda cobalt-57 and at the same time, a significant release of cadmium-109 can be obtained in the case if the layer of silver will fall protons with energy 13-15 MeV. Therefore, the thickness of the layer of Nickel-58 is chosen with regard to the initial energy of the proton energy loss in the layer of Nickel-58 to the amount of energy 13-15 MeV.

To the target had a high heat resistance, so that it is possible to irradiate its proton beam with a higher energy and thus ensure better performance must be reliable and durable connection between the layers irradiated substance and the surface of the target substrate.

In the proposed method, to ensure strong adhesion of the layers is proposed to use the method of diffusion welding in vacuum. First welded foil silver-109 with a copper substrate target. Then, on the surface of the silver is applied by electrochemical method, a layer of Nickel-58. This is followed by diffusion welding in vacuum Nickel with silver and additionally silver and copper substrate. This manufacturing method of the target provides a higher thermal resistance of the target. In addition, in the irradiation process, the reverse side of the substrate of the target is cooled by water flow.

Upon irradiation of the target in the cyclotron to prevent possible heat damage to some parts is carried out using the remote measurement of the intensity of infrared radiation, emitted from the target surface (Method of producing radioactive isotopes. Copyright certificate№965197, 1982 /7/).

In order to provide the same angle of internal proton beam on the irradiated surface of the target along its entire length, and therefore the same activity distribution of radioisotopes on the thickness of the layers of irradiated materials throughout the irradiated target surface, the target surface is made curvilinear with a radius of curvature equal to the radius of the final beam orbit. When this becomes more uniform distribution of the proton beam on the target surface and thereby becomes more uniform thermal loading, which also allows the irradiation of the proton beam of higher intensity, providing better performance.

The application of Nickel-58 on the silver layer allows you to easily dissolve the Nickel chemical or electrochemical method in hydrochloric acid. After the dissolution of Nickel on the surface of the silver film is formed difficultly soluble silver chloride and further dissolution stops. Thus, copper misses solution that facilitates the selection of cobalt-57.

One of the main hut-58. This value varies according to the depth of Nickel from layer to layer. Therefore, using layer-by-layer dissolution, can be obtained cobalt-57 with different content of radioactive impurities. Curved surface of the target, providing a uniform distribution of activity of radioisotopes on the thickness of the layers of irradiated materials over the entire irradiated surface of the target, allows you to more accurately predict the thickness of the dissolved Nickel layers to obtain cobalt-57 with the specified characteristics.

The proposed method of producing radioactive isotopes cobalt-57 and cadmium-109 as follows.

Made irradiated target by applying a silver thickness of 90 μm on a copper substrate with a thickness of 2 mm by the method of diffusion welding. On the silver layer by electrochemical method, a layer of Ni-58 with a thickness of 45 μm. This is followed by diffusion welding in vacuum Nickel with silver and additionally silver and copper substrate. Then the irradiated surface by pressing impart the desired curvature with a radius of curvature equal to 640 mm Target is installed in the target device, is placed in a vacuum chamber of the cyclotron and beam is accelerated to an energy of 20 MeV em about 1500 kW and depends on accumulating the required number of isotopes. After dialing a given dose, the target is removed from the target device and transmitted to the radiochemical processing, where layer-by-layer electrochemical dissolution of Nickel and silver and subsequent radiochemical selection of isotopes of the respective solutions.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1

When the irradiation target in the cyclotron to prevent possible heat damage to individual sections of the irradiated surface due to overheating using the control system of the temperature field.

Table 1 presents the results obtained when irradiation 6 experimental targets.

Experimental data show that the proposed technical solutions, namely the application of the method of diffusion welding in vacuum during deposition of each layer of the irradiated material and the curved surface of the target to allow the irradiation target with a proton beam of higher intensity and thereby significantly improve the performance achievements of radioisotopes.

Example 2

Table 2 presents the results of the layer-by-layer Resto conditions removing layers of Nickel-58 can be obtained cobalt-57 with different content of impurities.

Example 3

Double-layer targets№№7624, 7625, 7638, 7639, 7660, 7661 and 7666 were made on the proposed method. The silver layer was made of natural material. After dissolution of Nickel-58 and excretion of cobalt-57 in the targets was 606 MCI cadmium-109. The silver target was translated into the solution and standard technology was selected 540 MCI cadmium-109, i.e. about 90%. Thus, in addition to cobalt-57 under irradiation of a two-layer targets also received the radioisotope cadmium-109, and almost without reducing the output of cobalt-57.

1. The method of obtaining the radioactive isotope cobalt-57 and cadmium-109, including the production of two-layer target, the irradiation of the beam of accelerated protons and chemical processing of the target, characterized in that the manufacture of two-layer target is performed by applying a layer of metallic silver-109 on a metal substrate by diffusion welding, then applying a layer of Nickel-58 electrochemical method with the following implementation of the diffusion welding of the layers of silver-109 and Nickel-58, and the target is irradiated by protons with initial energy to their energy at the transition between layers of Nickel-58 and silver-109 was in the range of 13 - 15 MeV.

2. The method according to p. 1, is.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the layer of Nickel after irradiation dissolve from the target surface in hydrochloric acid by chemical or electrochemical method fully or in layers.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the substrate material using copper.



 

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