The method of obtaining the radioactive isotope cobalt-57 and cadmium-109
The invention relates to the field of production of radioactive isotopes on charged particle accelerators, in particular cobalt-57 and cadmium-109, on the cyclotron using the internal beam of protons. The method of obtaining the radioactive isotope cobalt-57 and cadmium-109 includes the production of two-layer target, the irradiation of the beam of accelerated protons and chemical processing target. Fabrication of two-layer target is performed by applying a layer of metallic silver-109 on a metal substrate by diffusion welding, then applying a layer of Nickel-58 electrochemical method with the following implementation of the diffusion welding of the layers of silver-109 and Nickel-58, and the target is irradiated by protons with initial energy to their energy at the transition between layers of silver-109 and Nickel-58 was in the range of from 13 to 15 MeV. The technical result - the provision of high performance practices of radionuclides, the simplification of the processing of irradiated targets, improved security conditions and opportunities cobalt-57 with specified characteristics admixtures Co-56 Co-58. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 2 PL.
Izobreteniya-57 and cadmium-109, on the cyclotron using the internal proton beam.
Known methods for producing radioactive isotopes cobalt-57 and cadmium-109 on the cyclotron by irradiation, respectively, of Nickel-58 and silver-109 proton (Kaufman, S., Reactions of Protons with Ni-58 and Ni-60// J, PR, 117, 1532, 60 /1/. Tanaka, S., Furukawa, M., Chiba, M., Nuclear Reactios of Nikel with Protons up to 56 MeV//J, Jin, 34, 2419, 72 /2/. Wing J., J. R. Huizenga, (p, n) Cross Sections of V-51 Cr-52, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ag-107 and Ag-109 Cd-111 Cd-114 and La-139 from 5 to 10.5 MeV// J, PR, 128, 280, 62 /3/. Krasnov N. N., Sevastianov Yu.G., Konyakhin N. A., A. A. Razbash, Ognev A. A., Ponomarev A. A. Radionuclide Production on Cyclotron of the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering.// Proceedings of the IVth International Workshop on Targetry and Target Chemistry, Villigen PSI, Switzerland September 9-12, 1991, p.54-56 /4/. Strelov F. W. E. Improved separation of cadmium-109 from silver cyclotron targets by anion exchange chromatography in nitric acid hydrobromic acid mixtures//Anal. Chim. Acta, 1978, Vol.97, p.87 /5/).
The disadvantages of the known methods are: receive only one isotope in the target, i.e. the need for irradiation of two different targets to produce cobalt-57 and cadmium-109; relative low heat targets due to not enough good adhesion irradiated with the substrate material of the target; some difficulties in the processing of Nickel targets associated with the ingestion of significant quantities of copper from the substrate into the solution when dissolved Nickel layer that Ovelia technical essence and the achieved result is a way of simultaneously receiving radioactive isotopes of cadmium-109, cobalt-57 manganese-54 on the cyclotron by irradiation of targets containing silver-109 and iron-56 deuterons with an energy of 16 MeV (Smith-Jones, P. M., Strelov F. W. E., Haasbroek F. J.,Bohmer R. G. Production of Carrier Free109Cd57Co and54Mn from a Composite Cyclotron Target of Enriched Silver-109 and Iron-56// Appl. Radial Isot., 1988, vol.39, No.10, p.1073-1078 /6/).
The target for obtaining the radioactive isotopes is a copper substrate, which is applied to two layers: the first layer of iron-56, and on the iron surface is covered with a layer of silver-109.
The thickness of the silver layers are selected such that the silver deuterons lose energy 16 MeV to 7 MeV, and this layer is formed a radioactive isotope of cadmium-109 nuclear reactions 109Ag(d,2n)109Cd. In the iron layer is formed cobalt-57 manganese-54 nuclear reactions56Fe(d,n)57Co and56Fe(d)54Mn.
After the end of irradiation and the corresponding exposure time-irradiated silver and iron are removed by milling with a copper substrate, dissolved, and the obtained solutions make all three radioisotope.
The disadvantages of the method, selected as a prototype, it should be considered that this method is aimed mainly at obtaining cadmium-109, as the ratio of activity of cadmium to aktivnost-109. In addition, the deposition of silver on the copper substrate is carried out from cyanide electrolytes electrochemical method that represents a certain difficulty and danger. Processing of irradiated targets is quite time-consuming. Upon irradiation of the target produces a significant amount of chemically detachable part of the radionuclide cobalt-56 from radionuclide cobalt-57. The relatively low resistance of the target, due to not enough good adhesion caused by an electrolytic method layers of irradiated materials with the target substrate and to each other, restricts the values of the currents of charged particles on the target.
Solved the technical problem was to eliminate these drawbacks, namely high performance practices of radionuclides, the simplification of the processing of irradiated targets, improved security conditions and opportunities cobalt-57 with specified characteristics admixtures Co-56 Co-58.
The invention consists in the following. Method for obtaining radioactive isotope cobalt-57 and cadmium-109, including the production of two-layer target, the irradiation of the beam of accelerated protons and chemical processing carried out by applying a layer of metallic silver-109 on a metal substrate by diffusion welding, then applying a layer of Nickel-58 electrochemical method with the following implementation of the diffusion welding of the layers of silver-109 and Nickel-58, and the target is irradiated by protons with initial energy to their energy at the transition between layers of silver-109 and Nickel-58 was in the range of from 13 to 15 MeV.
Additionally serves as a beam of accelerated protons to use the internal proton beam of the cyclotron.
In addition, offered the irradiated surface of the target to perform curved in the shape of a cylinder with radius equal to the radius of the final orbit of the internal proton beam.
It is also advisable layer of Nickel after exposure to dissolve in the target in hydrochloric acid by chemical or electrochemical method fully or in layers.
Suitable as the substrate material to use copper.
This technical result is achieved due to the fact that:
It is proposed to use a two-layer target, on a copper substrate which first a layer of silver (silver-109), and then the silver is coated with a layer of Nickel-58.
Cobalt-57 is formed by irradiation of Nickel-58 protons with the energy of the protons bolgoda cobalt-57 and at the same time, a significant release of cadmium-109 can be obtained in the case if the layer of silver will fall protons with energy 13-15 MeV. Therefore, the thickness of the layer of Nickel-58 is chosen with regard to the initial energy of the proton energy loss in the layer of Nickel-58 to the amount of energy 13-15 MeV.
To the target had a high heat resistance, so that it is possible to irradiate its proton beam with a higher energy and thus ensure better performance must be reliable and durable connection between the layers irradiated substance and the surface of the target substrate.
In the proposed method, to ensure strong adhesion of the layers is proposed to use the method of diffusion welding in vacuum. First welded foil silver-109 with a copper substrate target. Then, on the surface of the silver is applied by electrochemical method, a layer of Nickel-58. This is followed by diffusion welding in vacuum Nickel with silver and additionally silver and copper substrate. This manufacturing method of the target provides a higher thermal resistance of the target. In addition, in the irradiation process, the reverse side of the substrate of the target is cooled by water flow.
Upon irradiation of the target in the cyclotron to prevent possible heat damage to some parts is carried out using the remote measurement of the intensity of infrared radiation, emitted from the target surface (Method of producing radioactive isotopes. Copyright certificate№965197, 1982 /7/).
In order to provide the same angle of internal proton beam on the irradiated surface of the target along its entire length, and therefore the same activity distribution of radioisotopes on the thickness of the layers of irradiated materials throughout the irradiated target surface, the target surface is made curvilinear with a radius of curvature equal to the radius of the final beam orbit. When this becomes more uniform distribution of the proton beam on the target surface and thereby becomes more uniform thermal loading, which also allows the irradiation of the proton beam of higher intensity, providing better performance.
The application of Nickel-58 on the silver layer allows you to easily dissolve the Nickel chemical or electrochemical method in hydrochloric acid. After the dissolution of Nickel on the surface of the silver film is formed difficultly soluble silver chloride and further dissolution stops. Thus, copper misses solution that facilitates the selection of cobalt-57.
One of the main hut-58. This value varies according to the depth of Nickel from layer to layer. Therefore, using layer-by-layer dissolution, can be obtained cobalt-57 with different content of radioactive impurities. Curved surface of the target, providing a uniform distribution of activity of radioisotopes on the thickness of the layers of irradiated materials over the entire irradiated surface of the target, allows you to more accurately predict the thickness of the dissolved Nickel layers to obtain cobalt-57 with the specified characteristics.
The proposed method of producing radioactive isotopes cobalt-57 and cadmium-109 as follows.
Made irradiated target by applying a silver thickness of 90 μm on a copper substrate with a thickness of 2 mm by the method of diffusion welding. On the silver layer by electrochemical method, a layer of Ni-58 with a thickness of 45 μm. This is followed by diffusion welding in vacuum Nickel with silver and additionally silver and copper substrate. Then the irradiated surface by pressing impart the desired curvature with a radius of curvature equal to 640 mm Target is installed in the target device, is placed in a vacuum chamber of the cyclotron and beam is accelerated to an energy of 20 MeV em about 1500 kW and depends on accumulating the required number of isotopes. After dialing a given dose, the target is removed from the target device and transmitted to the radiochemical processing, where layer-by-layer electrochemical dissolution of Nickel and silver and subsequent radiochemical selection of isotopes of the respective solutions.
The invention is illustrated by the following examples.
When the irradiation target in the cyclotron to prevent possible heat damage to individual sections of the irradiated surface due to overheating using the control system of the temperature field.
Table 1 presents the results obtained when irradiation 6 experimental targets.
Experimental data show that the proposed technical solutions, namely the application of the method of diffusion welding in vacuum during deposition of each layer of the irradiated material and the curved surface of the target to allow the irradiation target with a proton beam of higher intensity and thereby significantly improve the performance achievements of radioisotopes.
Table 2 presents the results of the layer-by-layer Resto conditions removing layers of Nickel-58 can be obtained cobalt-57 with different content of impurities.
Double-layer targets№№7624, 7625, 7638, 7639, 7660, 7661 and 7666 were made on the proposed method. The silver layer was made of natural material. After dissolution of Nickel-58 and excretion of cobalt-57 in the targets was 606 MCI cadmium-109. The silver target was translated into the solution and standard technology was selected 540 MCI cadmium-109, i.e. about 90%. Thus, in addition to cobalt-57 under irradiation of a two-layer targets also received the radioisotope cadmium-109, and almost without reducing the output of cobalt-57.
1. The method of obtaining the radioactive isotope cobalt-57 and cadmium-109, including the production of two-layer target, the irradiation of the beam of accelerated protons and chemical processing of the target, characterized in that the manufacture of two-layer target is performed by applying a layer of metallic silver-109 on a metal substrate by diffusion welding, then applying a layer of Nickel-58 electrochemical method with the following implementation of the diffusion welding of the layers of silver-109 and Nickel-58, and the target is irradiated by protons with initial energy to their energy at the transition between layers of Nickel-58 and silver-109 was in the range of 13 - 15 MeV.
2. The method according to p. 1, is.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the layer of Nickel after irradiation dissolve from the target surface in hydrochloric acid by chemical or electrochemical method fully or in layers.
4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the substrate material using copper.
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: the proposed method for production of the actinium-225 and its daughter isotopes is based on the interaction of electron beams with the converting substance. As a result of this interaction photon production takes place. The produced photons are directed on the liquid target from radium-226. These photons interacts with radium-226 and as a result radium-225 is produced. The actinium-225 is produced after radium-225 decay. In conformity with these processes the target for the electron beam from an electron accelerator includes a metal plate, coated with electrolythically deposited radium-226. Then the produced photons interact with the liquid target also from the radium-226.
EFFECT: safety and reliability of production of actinium-225 and its daughter isotopes.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg, 9 ex
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for impact compression of material involves use of relativistic vacuum diode that has axisymmetrical vacuum chamber with electricity conducting walls, plasma cathode, and concentrating anode. Target in the form of axisymmetrical part is produced from condensed material and is used at least as part of concentrating anode. The latter is installed in relativistic vacuum diode in a spaced relation to plasma cathode and pulse discharge is applied from power supply to relativistic vacuum diode as electron beam is self-focused on concentrating anode surface. For the purpose use is made of axisymmetrical plasma cathode in the form of conducting rod and butt-end dielectric member coupled to the latter; surface area of conducting rod in dielectric member is larger than maximal cross-sectional area of concentrating anode. Concentrating anode is installed in a spaced relation to plasma cathode so that center of curvature of concentrating anode working surface is disposed within focal length of collectively self-focusing electron beam.
EFFECT: ability of compressing material to superdense condition.
22 cl, 17 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to obtaining radionuclide palladium-103 on cyclotron using beam of charged particles. Method of production of carrier-free radionuclide palladium-103 includes irradiation of metal rhodium target on accelerator, electrochemical dissolving of irradiated target in hydrochloric acid and isolation of radionuclide palladium-103 from obtained solution. Isolation of radionuclide palladium-103 is performed by sorption on strong-base anionite with further elution of palladium-103 with ammonia solution. Before performing sorption oxidiser is added to solution of palladium-103 in hydrochloric acid.
EFFECT: reduction of number of organic reagents; reduction of contact time of organic reagents with radioactive substances; increase of stability and substance output.
7 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: metal cadmium is used as target substance and irradiated by high-energy protons. Target substance is separated by distillation in hydrogen atmosphere. Nuclear reaction and transformation products are collected on quartz sand surface. Obtained radioactive sample is placed into start zone of quartz thermochromatographic column. The sample undergoes high-temperature chemical processing in the presence of reagent, with transfer of obtained volatile compounds. Volatile compounds are precipitated on the column walls at certain temperatures. Phosphor or arsenic vapours are used as reagent.
EFFECT: enhanced radiochemical purity of silver radioisotopes.
2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: physics, nuclear physics.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to the field of nuclear technology and radio chemistry and is intended for preparation and extraction of radioactive isotopes for medical purpose. Method for preparation of radiostrontium includes radiation of target with flow of accelerated charged particles. Inside target shell there is metal rubidium. After target radiation rubidium is melted inside target shell. Extraction of radiostrontium from liquid rubidium is done by surface sorption of different materials that contact with liquid rubidium. Sorption is carried out at the temperature of sorbing surface of 275-350°C. Sorbing surface is internal surface of radiated target shell. After performance of sorption rubidium is removed from target shell. Then radiostrontium is washed from internal surface of target shell by dissolvents.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of radiostrontium preparation and simplification of technology in case of its extraction from large mass of liquid metal rubidium by sorption directly on internal target shell.
8 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns radionuclide reception 230U for therapy of oncologic diseases. The invention allows simplifying process of manufacture of a radio drug on the basis of short-living α-nuclides due to a natural radionuclide 230Th. The way includes irradiation of the target containing a natural isotope of thorium - 230Th in a proton beam of a cyclotron. A target radioactive isotope 230Th is accumulated in a target in the course of threshold nuclear reaction 230Th (p, n) 230Pa→230U. As a target material bonds of 230ThF4 or 230ThO2 or metal 230Th are used. The irradiated target is taken from the accelerator, held and exposed to radiochemical clearing for radioactive isotope reception 230U of standard quality. The chain of natural disintegration of an isotope 230U leads to an output of the α-particles used in a nuclear medicine for therapy of oncologic diseases.
EFFECT: simplification of process of manufacture of a radio drug on the basis of short-living α-nuclides due to a natural radionuclide 230Th.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining radioactive isotope europium-155 for being used in gamma flaw detection at target irradiation with ionising radiation with samarium-154. Target irradiation is performed with proton beam of cyclotron.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency and reducing material costs owing to increasing the re-charging period of gamma flaw detector; possibility of accumulating on the target of europium-155 in the quantity which is enough for obtaining the radiation source of gamma flaw detectors.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method to produce radioisotope strontium-82 includes radiation of α-particles or 3He target from krypton by accelerated beams. The target is one isotope or cascade from several isotopes of crypton, every of which represents crypton enriched by i isotope to concentration that exceeds concentration of i isotope in natural mix of crypton isotopes, and simultaneously exceeding concentration of any other isotope in mixture of crypton isotopes, at the same time crypton isotopes in the cascade are arranged in series in direction of the accelerated particle beam in the decreasing order of atomic masses of isotopes having maximum concentration in the mixture of crypton isotopes, and in process of one or more threshold nuclear reactions 80,82,83,84,86Kr(α,xn)82Sr or accordingly one or more threshold nuclear reactions 80,82,83,84,86Kr(3He,xn)82Sr, the target radioisotope 82Sr is accumulated in the target.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase yield of target radioisotope 82Sr and provides for control and minimisation of the value of accompanying activities of the main interfering admixtures 85Sr and 83Sr.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes irradiating a target on a proton accelerator and separating 82Sr without a carrier from the irradiated target. The target used is the 84Sr isotope; the target is irradiated with a beam of protons; during irradiation, as a result of a threshold nuclear reaction 84Sr(p, 3n)82Y, 82Y is produced in the target and extracted from the target using a radiochemical technique, wherein the decay product of 82Y, which is the desired 82Sr (without carrier) isotope, is further separated using a radiochemical technique. The object of the invention is to produce 82Sr without a carrier in the proton energy range of Ep≤30-40 MeV, using standard cyclotrons with Ep≤30-40 MeV to produce 82Sr, increasing the integrated yield of 82Sr in a production scheme based on the reaction Rb(p, xn)82Sr on accelerators with Ep=70-100 MeV for producing 82Sr.
EFFECT: solving the set task.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics, atomic power.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing isotopes for radiation medicine. The method includes irradiating a target with neutrons and separating 177Lu from the irradiated target. The target used is the 176Yb isotope. The target is irradiated with a stream of neutrons from a nuclear reactor. During the irradiation process, as a result of the nuclear reaction 176Yb(n,γ)177Yb, 177Yb is generated in the target, the decay product of which is the desired 177Lu (without a carrier), which is then separated by a chromatographic technique on an ion-exchange column. The eluent used to wash off 177Lu from the column is a 0.07 N solution of α-isobutyric acid. The product is cleaned from α-isobutyric acid traces on a second ion-exchange column. The eluate is acidified to pH=1-2. 177Lu is collected on the column and the eluate with α-isobutyric acid is discharged as wastes. The column is then washed with 100 ml of distilled water, followed by elution of 177Lu with 10 ml of 0.5 N HCl. The eluate is evaporated dry and the residue is washed with HCl with pH=5.1.
EFFECT: producing the 177Lu radioisotope without a carrier in significant amounts (tens of curies) on standard research reactors, using domestic raw materials and chemicals to produce, separate and clean the 177Lu radioisotope, providing labelling quality during synthesis of radiopharmaceutical agents based on 177Lu.
6 cl, 1 dwg