Method development and initial concentration of alluvial deposits of diamonds

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used with open alluvial mining. The technical result is to increase the efficiency of developing remote key diamond placers. For this purpose, the method includes conducting mining and preparation work with overburden removal in external dumps, formation of ground from osypaemy overburden, formation developed in the space of a sedimentation reservoir, overburden peat and placement in the developed space, layer-by-layer excavation of sand and move them to the installation, relocation installation as placer mining. When this area of osypaemy overburden form in the developed space, piles of peat placed initially on Board placers, and then after the work areas move in the mined-out area, the installation of the modular sorting complex feature formed on the Playground in the developed space, the silt fraction is sent to a settling pond, Galya and boulders in external dumps their subsequent move after working the placers in the mined-out area, and the productive class is transported to the beneficiation comp is isolano when open development of diamond deposits.

As mining of placer deposits and involvement in the development of other remote key diamond placers continuously increasing distance transportation diamond Sands from the ground to the beneficiation complex, which leads to higher operating costs and, consequently, increase the cost of commercial products

Known methods of development of permafrost and seasonal freezing placers, including the preparation of deposits, the removal of peat, extraction of sand when layered trimming dozer blade thawed breed and its transportation to the receiving hopper wash plant with the subsequent washing. Tails leaching discharged into the tailings pond (Emelyanov Century. And. Technology bulldozer development of permafrost deposits. - M.: Nedra, 1976, 287 S.).

The main disadvantage of the considered methods is the discharge of certain classes of diamonds in the tails leaching, which is unacceptable in the development of diamond deposits. This significantly reduces the effectiveness of development due to the loss of the mineral and the need for re-testing data tails. In addition, the decrease in the efficiency of mining operations is determined by the additional operation is to raise productivity, hard link and difficult the interface between mining and drilling works.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a method of mining of alluvial deposits of minerals, including mining and preparation work with the transportation of overburden in external dumps, removal of peat and their movement in the mined-out area, the excavation of sand and move to the installation, located on Board placers, forming a part of the goaf TMF limited dam of osypaemy overburden, loading sand in the installation and their leaching, deposition of tailings leaching in the tailings pond formation as mining placer following dam and transfer the installation to a new location as a failover site placers (A. C. of the USSR №1765413, CL E 21 41/26. How open development of permafrost placers /G. R. Savenko/ application No. 4756873/03; claimed 09.11.89; publ. 30.09.92, BI No. 36).

The disadvantages of this method of development of alluvial deposits of diamonds are the low efficiency of placer developments in connection with the re-mining of tailings leaching to reduce the loss of valuable IP is setting new Parking lot and in the formation of several dams, limiting the tailings during one drilling season, and in addition, breaks in the flushing operations and, as a consequence, the performance degradation of the installation as a result of transfers of plants within a wash of the season.

The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of developing remote key diamond placers by reducing operational costs in the production of surface mining and transportation of sand for final enrichment and recovery of diamonds.

This objective is achieved in that in the method development and initial concentration of alluvial deposits of diamonds, including mining and preparation work with overburden removal in external dumps, formation of ground from osypaemy overburden, formation developed in the space of a sedimentation reservoir, overburden peat and placement in the developed space, layer-by-layer excavation of sand and move them to the installation, relocation installation as placer mining, site otepaeae the overburden form in the developed space, piles of peat placed initially on Board career, and then, after working the area is formed on the pad in the developed space, the silt fraction is sent to a settling pond, Galya and boulders in external dumps their subsequent move after working the placers in the mined-out area, and the productive class is transported to the beneficiation complex.

Forming a pad from osypaemy overburden for installation of the modular sorting complex in the developed space scattering improves the efficiency of development in the minimization of distance transportation of produced Sands with working ranges.

Storage of peat in external dumps aboard a career in an initial period of testing allows you to achieve rapid removal of peat in winter and to provide the necessary amount of trained reserves to the beginning of the production season and thus increase the efficiency of development of diamond fields by eliminating performance degradation during the flush season.

Placing the installation in modular sorting complex located on the site in the developed space, provides the necessary technological conditions of this complex (loading height, overall placement of equipment and mechanisms, not the TCI placers, including by reducing costs for moving waste product. In addition, placement of the plant in the developed space on a used space reduces costs of land use, which also increases the development efficiency.

The device of the pond clarifier sludge fraction in the developed space scattering provides a more environmentally friendly way and reducing the cost of subsequent recovery of land used.

As a result of initial concentration and improve the qualitative composition of the productive class due to the preliminary desliming directly at the landfill mining operations are improved development efficiency placers by reducing operating costs transportation diamond Sands for further enrichment and extraction of diamonds.

The method is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a diagram of the mining operations, where 1 is a plot of defrost Sands, 2 - phase melt extraction of sand, 3 - phase delivery of the extracted Sands to the modular sorting complex, 4 - dumps of peat, 5 - modular sorting complex, 6 - mound overburden to accommodate modular, 7 retention pond the p>Development of alluvial diamond deposits of the stream Areas-Yuryakh is Anabar GOK AK “ALROSA”. When the Deposit is mined is used outdoor separate way with the transportation and laying of turf in external dumps 4 on Board placers. Pre is the removal of top soil and store it for subsequent reclamation of disturbed areas. Mining for year-round mode, the enrichment of sand in the summer.

Pre-select and prepare the site for installation of the modular sorting complex 5. When choosing a location is considered the minimum distance transportation of sand from the bottom to the boot module of the complex and the possibility of waste leaching in waste areas. Modular sorting complex 5 is positioned so that during the flush season, its not migrate. Prepare a site plan with a bulldozer. The required capacity of the piles is achieved by the location of the complex on the mound 6 of overburden. In the raft of the placers in the developed space is formed by the excavation of the pond 7 for placement of the silt fraction.

Is removed is her time with the use of mechanical and explosive loosening of frozen peat.

Mining works are carried out bulldozer way with the laying of sand in piles 8. Work is carried out in the summer in layers, as natural defrost and partial loosening of the sand bulldozer-loosening unit 9. For the smooth operation of the modular sorting complex 5 work process equipment for mining polygon organized with the division of mining operations in space: plot 1 - defrost Sands, section 2 - excavation melt Sands, section 3 - delivery to the modular sorting complex.

Excavated Sands moved and stored at the modular sorting complex 5. Download Sands on hydro thunder operate a bulldozer or loader.

Perform initial concentration of sand at the modular sorting complex 5.

This will involve the removal of Gali and boulders in the dumps peat 4. The placement of the silt fraction is produced by gravity into the pond 7.

Obtained by sorting the concentrate is transported to the processing complex.

After work wash season produce transfer modular sorting complex 5 at the new location.

Carry out the filling of pond otstoineishyi waste of space providing a layout of the worked surfaces, forming slopes, application of topsoil on the exhaust sections of the mine. Sands are transported to the beneficiation complex. For gaining the boards use sorted Galya.

Application of the proposed method will improve the efficiency of the development of remote alluvial diamond deposits while reducing maintenance costs for the transportation of sand for final enrichment and recovery of diamonds.

Claims

Method development and initial concentration of alluvial deposits of diamonds, including mining and preparation work with overburden removal in external dumps, formation of ground from osypaemy overburden, formation developed in the space of a sedimentation reservoir, overburden peat and placement in the developed space, layer-by-layer excavation of sand and move them to the installation, relocation installation as placer mining, characterized in that the area of osypaemy overburden form in the developed space, piles of peat placed initially on Board placers, and C is knogo units are formed on the Playground in the developed space, the silt fraction is sent to a settling pond, Galya and boulders in external dumps their subsequent move after working the placers in the mined-out area, and the productive class is transported to the beneficiation complex.

 

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FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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