Way to reopen the pit

 

The invention relates to mining, in particular to the development of quarrying, and can be used when developing zakonchennih deposits. The technical result is the reduction of time and costs by integrating work sites, cut the pillar and the inner blade. For this purpose, the method includes drilling in rocks of the ledge, loading their explosive (BB), borehole charges blasting, cutting work sites benches from top to bottom, forming a non-working Board and transportation of rocks in the inner blade at the bottom of the quarry gravitational shipping. After reaching the inner blade height work platform, cut the pillar, make cuts of a working platform inner blade and combine it with the work area, cut the pillar, run jointly by the pillar and the inner blade, and the overburden is transported downhill internal dump. And calculate the height of the inner blade for each ledge on the mathematical expression. Determine the width of the pad, cut on the inner blade, for each ledge on the mathematical expression. As lowering of mining operations and increase irinaspirina downhill blade, and the second part is left on the bottom of the quarry, on the slope of the remainder of the blade form a system of ramps and berms for the transportation of overburden. The minimum width of working platforms, cut on the inner blade, in terms of the opening of minerals is determined for each of the ledge to the bottom of the quarry on the mathematical expression. Stripping volume remaining at the bottom and does not require additional transportation (handling) is determined by a mathematical expression. 2 Il., 1 PL.

The invention relates to mining, in particular to the development of quarrying, and can be used when developing zakonchennih deposits.

The known method reopen the pit, including the sequential tunneling split palutena when extending the safety berms on the horizons to the size of the work sites, work benches from top to bottom and transportation of rock mass, for example, vehicles in the external and internal piles [1].

The disadvantage of this method are the significant cost of time and money on the cutting horizons and overburden removal in the dumps.

The known method reopen the pit, enabling ESCO work sites benches from top to bottom, the formation outside of the pit, transportation breed in the inner blade at the bottom of the quarry gravitational delivery [2] - prototype].

The disadvantages of the method:

- eliminates cutting a narrow working areas for excavation zakonchennih of material wealth;

- cutting regular work sites is accompanied by the collapse of part of the mineral in the inner blade at the lower levels, i.e. increase deadweight loss;

- internal dump is triggered before lowering the working area of the reactivation of the Board, which complicates the scheme of mining because mining and transport machinery, such as excavators, are on different levels (one above the other).

The invention allows to achieve the technical result in the removal of the pit, expressed in reduction of time and costs by integrating work sites, cut the pillar and the inner blade.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method reopen the pit, including the drilling of wells in the rocks of the ledge, loading their explosive (BB), borehole charges blasting, cutting work sites benches from top to bottom, forming Nera is stijene inner blade height of the working platform, cut the pillar, make cuts of a working platform inner blade and combine it with the work area, cut the pillar, working off the pillar and the inner blade, and the overburden is transported downhill inner blade, while the calculation of the height of the inner blade for each ledge on the dependencies:

Hpis the calculated height of the inner blade breeds;

n is the number of triggered ledges;

k - coefficient of fragmentation;

a - width of the working platform on the pillar, m;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

the size dependent on the Stripping ratio and changing from 0 to 1;

- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, C;

- angle maturity scamming section of the pit, in the daytime.

The width of the pad, cut on the inner blade, determine for each ledge on the dependencies:

where l is the width of the working platform for the dump;

H - height of the slope from the bottom of the quarry to work site, cut the pillar and United with the working space on the internal pile of rocks;

n is the number of triggered ledges;

k - coefficient of fragmentation;

a - width working super is smenauschayasa from 0 to 1;

- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, C;

- angle maturity scamming section of the pit, in the daytime.

As lowering of mining operations and increasing the width of the pads, cut on the inner blade, practicing internal dump is produced in part: one part is transported downhill blade, and the second part is left on the bottom of the quarry; the remaining slope of the blade form a system of ramps and berms to transport overburden, while the minimum width of the work sites, cut on the inner blade, in terms of the opening of minerals is determined for each of the ledge to the bottom of a quarry for dependencies:

where l1- the minimum width of the working platform for the dump;

n1the number of ledges to the bottom of the quarry;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, C;

- angle maturity scamming section of the pit, C;

Tb- transport width of the berm, m;

Pb- the width of the safety berm, m

Stripping volume remaining at the bottom and does not require additional transportation (handling), is determined by the dependence is of ylenia;

a - width of the working platform on the pillar, m;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

the size dependent on the Stripping ratio and changing from 0 to 1;

l1- minimum width of working platforms, cut on the inner blade, in terms of the opening of the mineral;

n2the number rabatyvaemy last benches.

All calculations are conducted in 1 m stretch of the pit.

New features in the proposed method:

- depletion of internal dump is produced together with training being the pit (pillar);

- the width of the work platform on the pillar increases by the addition thereto of a working platform internal dump;

- depletion of the lower horizons of the inner blade produce partially, one part of the ship under the slope of the blade, the second part is left on the bottom of the quarry, and on the slope of the remainder of the blade form a system of ramps and berms;

- the height of the inner blade, the width of the work sites in the drawdown of the inner blade and Stripping volume remaining at the bottom that does not require additional transportation (handling) determine on the proposed dependency.

The advantages of the proposed method:

- development of internal dump together with the cutting Rabochiy working platform, cut on the inner blade allows you to work out a narrow ribbon of rock during excavation zakomornogo mineral;

- no loss of minerals when cutting the next work site, as minerals is outside the internal space of the blade, and blasting operations are conducted in sandwiched environment;

- formation of a system of conventions when developing the lower horizons of the land Board and the inner blade allows part of the overburden to leave filled in the inner blade at the bottom of the quarry;

the factor of resistance carried by the section of the pit is enhanced by prigruzki slope of the inner blade.

The proposed method differs from the prototype above sequence of operations. Outlined in this population features are absent in the known solutions and provide a positive effect.

The proposed method has properties that do not match the properties of the distinctive features of the known solutions.

Analysis of the known solutions shows that the essence of the claimed solutions are not disclosed, it is not obvious, is characterized by a new set of features that allows you to read it meet the criteria of "novelty" Ezek a-a in Fig.1.

The method is as follows.

The opening section of the pit 1 is layers (ledges) 0 from top to bottom 2, after blasting the preparation of the rock mass produced meats work sites 3, 4 and form a transport safety 5 berm. New outside Board 6 are formed depending on the location of contact 7 between minerals and barren rocks.

The overburden is transported downhill side inner blade 8 on the bottom of the quarry 9. Increasing the height of the inner blade, which is determined by the dependence:

Hpis the calculated height of the inner blade breeds;

n is the number of triggered ledges;

k - coefficient of fragmentation;

a - width of the working platform on the pillar, m;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

the size dependent on the Stripping ratio and changing from 0 to 1;

- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, C;

- angle maturity scamming section of the pit, in the daytime.

After reaching a height of the inner blade height of cut on the rear work platform 3, produce cutting work platform 10 on the inner blade and combine it with working ploshadka the slope of the inner blade 8.

The width of the platform 10, a cut on the inner blade, determine for each ledge on the dependencies:

where l is the width of the working platform for the dump;

H - height of the slope from the bottom of the quarry to work site, cut the pillar and United with the working space on the internal pile of rocks;

n is the number of triggered ledges;

k - coefficient of fragmentation;

a - width of the working platform on the pillar, m;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

the size dependent on the Stripping ratio and changing from 0 to 1;

- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, C;

- angle maturity scamming section of the pit, in the daytime.

As lowering of mining operations and increasing the width of the pads, cut on the inner blade, practicing internal dump is produced in part: one part of the fire and transported downhill blade, and the second part 11 - left at the bottom; on the slope of the 12 remaining part of the blade form the system exits 13 and berms to transport overburden, while the minimum width of the work sites, cut on the inner blade 14, in terms of the opening of minerals determine for each the mouth is loshadki the dump;

n1the number of ledges to the bottom of the quarry;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, C;

- angle maturity scamming section of the pit, C;

Tb- transport width of the berm, m;

Pb- the width of the safety berm, m

Stripping volume remaining at the bottom and does not require additional transportation (handling), is determined by the dependencies:

where n is the number of triggered ledges;

k - coefficient of fragmentation;

a - width of the working platform on the pillar, m;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

the size dependent on the Stripping ratio and changing from 0 to 1;

l1- minimum width of working platforms, cut on the inner blade, in terms of the opening of the mineral;

n2the number rabatyvaemy last benches.

All calculations are conducted in 1 m stretch of the pit.

Order full disclosure of technical nature and advantages of the present invention shows an example where the initial data is taken as follows:

- depth plot reactivate career 100 m;

angle of the repayment of the circuit Board 40 careerthe posted area Board 100 m;

- coefficient: for the first and second ledges 1,0; for the other ledges 0,8;

- cliff height 10 m;

- the width of the working platform on the pillar 30 PM

All calculations are conducted in 1 m stretch of the pit.

Calculate the height of the pile of rocks from the first two barren ledges:

Hpis the calculated height of the inner blade breeds;

n is the number of triggered ledges;

k - coefficient of fragmentation;

a - width of the working platform on the pillar, m;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

the size dependent on the Stripping ratio and changing from 0 to 1;

- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, C;

- angle maturity scamming section of the pit, in the daytime.

Calculate the width of the pad, cut on the inner blade, for the height of the inner blade 80 m according to (2):

where l is the width of the working platform for the dump;

H - height of the slope from the bottom of the quarry to work site, cut the pillar and United with the working space on the internal pile of rocks;

n is the number of triggered ledges;

k - coefficient of fragmentation;

a - width of the working platform on the pillar, m;

h - height rc="https://img.russianpatents.com/chr/945.gif">- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, C;

- angle maturity scamming section of the pit, C;

For the remaining height of blade width of the work platform on the blade defined by the same formula. The results of the calculations are shown in the table.

Form the outside of the wall of the open pit, which cut work sites, form the outside ledges and safety berm. The overburden is transported downhill into the internal dump, a new circuit Board career place depending on the location of contact of minerals with barren rocks and the refinement of the lower horizons of the inner blade produce partially, in this example, since the slicing of the working site of the eighth of the ledge, as the width of cut of a working platform under the terms of the opening of the mineral from the mining of the bottom of the quarry should amount to not less than:

where l1- the minimum width of the working platform for the dump;

n1the number of ledges to the bottom of the quarry;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, C;

- the angle of redemption carried by the section Board is m (table).

Just Stripping volume when assembled 1 m stretch Board will be:

V=nhak=1010301,40,8=3360 m3

Stripping volume remaining at the bottom and does not require additional transportation (handling), is determined by the dependencies:

where n is the number of triggered ledges;

k - coefficient of fragmentation;

a - width of the working platform on the pillar, m;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

the size dependent on the Stripping ratio and changing from 0 to 1;

l1- minimum width of working platforms, cut on the inner blade, in terms of the opening of the mineral;

n2the number rabatyvaemy last ledges,

what is the third part of the total volume of overburden.

Thus, the information presented evidence that the claimed method can be used in the mining industry, in particular in the development of mineral deposits exposed by mining operations.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the criterion of "industrial applicability".

The application of the proposed method allowed the vectors quarries when developing zakonchennih reserves of minerals, by simplifying schemes of mining operations, increasing the width of the work sites, which will allow to develop a narrow ribbon of rock mass, excluding loss of minerals; partial depletion of the inner blade.

Sources of information

1. Khokhryakov C. C. Design standards. M.: Nedra, 1980.

2. USSR author's certificate No. 1744254 A1, IPC E 21 41/26, publ. 1992, BI. No. 24 /Method reopen the pit.

Claims

Way to reopen the pit, including the drilling of wells in the rocks of the ledge, loading their explosive (BB), borehole charges blasting, cutting work sites benches from top to bottom, forming a non-working Board and transportation of rocks in the inner blade at the bottom of the quarry gravitational shipping, characterized in that after reaching the inner blade height work platform, cut the pillar, make cuts of a working platform inner blade and combine it with the work area, cut the pillar, run jointly by the pillar and the inner blade, and the overburden is transported downhill inner blade, thus calculate the height of the inner blade for each ledge on the dependencies:

a - width of the working platform on the pillar, m;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

the size dependent on the Stripping ratio and changing from 0 to 1;

- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, degree,

- the angle of redemption carried by the section Board career, degree,

the width of the pad, cut on the inner blade, determine for each ledge on the dependencies:

where l is the width of the working platform for the dump;

H - height of the slope from the bottom of the quarry to work site, cut the pillar and United with the working space on the internal pile of rocks;

n is the number of triggered ledges;

k - coefficient of fragmentation;

a - width of the working platform on the pillar, m;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

the size dependent on the Stripping ratio and changing from 0 to 1;

- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, C;

- angle maturity scamming section of the pit, C;

as lowering of mining operations and increasing the width of the pads, cut on the inner blade, practicing internal dump is produced in part: one part of the tra is a system of ramps and berms for the transportation of overburden, the minimum width of working platforms, cut on the inner blade, in terms of the opening of minerals is determined for each of the ledge to the bottom of a quarry for dependencies:

where l1- the minimum width of the working platform for the dump;

n1the number of ledges to the bottom of the quarry;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

- the angle of slope of the inner pile of rocks, C;

- angle maturity scamming section of the pit, C;

Tb- transport width of the berm, m;

Pb- the width of the safety berm, m;

and the volume of overburden remaining at the bottom and does not require additional transportation (handling) is determined by the dependencies:

where n is the number of triggered ledges;

k - coefficient of fragmentation;

a - width of the working platform on the pillar, m;

h - the height of the ledge, m;

the size dependent on the Stripping ratio and changing from 0 to 1;

l1- minimum width of working platforms, cut on the inner blade, in terms of the opening of minerals,

n2the number rabatyvaemy last ledges;

all calculations are conducted in 1 m p is

 

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FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60 and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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