The method of construction of the tunnel beneath the seabed
The invention relates to the field of construction and mining and can be used in the construction of sub-seabed tunnel large extent. The method of construction of the tunnel beneath the seabed includes installation on the seabed at a given distance from each other, at least two vertical shafts, a depression in the seabed, strengthening protruding above the seabed of the vertical shaft, sinking beneath the seafloor vertical section of the tunnel to a predetermined level, the driving of the horizontal part of the tunnel in a given direction and removing the developed soil from the tunnel. What's new is that the vertical trunks that are installed on the seabed, assembled by successively mounting the rings on each other using pnevmostartery, pressure value which is set, providing a predetermined negative buoyancy of re-entry into the water of the mounting rings, strengthening vertical shaft provided by the buildings around it frame buried in the seabed and rigidly connected with each other and with a vertical stem, piles laying around the vertical shaft concrete blocks and bulk soil with subsequent dumping ground around him, Protodyakonov to 4 units, carried out using the giant, while breeds with higher hardness develop hydrostream developed soil into fractions, crushed, mixed with water to obtain a slurry, which is then pumped under pressure in the pulp is removed from the tunnel, spreading it around the vertical shaft and frame with the formation of artificial Islands. The technical result provided by the present invention is to simplify the construction of the tunnel, reduce cost, reduce time and improve safety during operation. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.
The invention relates to the field of construction and mining and can be used in the construction beneath the seabed of the tunnels of the great length of connecting separate continents, Islands and other parts of the land.
A known method of construction of an underwater tunnel , which contains three sections - horizontal and two oblique. Within the horizontal section of the tunnel construct the mine tower. Work area is separated from the finished part of the tunnel by watertight bulkheads, and the finished tunnel is partially filled with water, creating an underground channel for water transport. As udlinyaetsya water transport to the mine-tower courts or mechanical traction. Then the containers lift lift and crane and breed unload the blade. The container is lowered into the tunnel filled with water. He is opposed to the lift. In the tunnel, the containers are released from water, connect to and deliver to the job site for loading.
However, this method is inefficient, technologically inefficient and can only be used in the construction of tunnels with small length and at shallow depths, because there are significant difficulties associated with the installation and fastening of mine-tower and loading of containers produced by breed, staff partially water-filled tunnel, a limited number of containers, which must be downloaded developed the breed, a considerable length of rope, in the case of the use of mechanical traction and, as a consequence, the low reliability of such vehicles. In addition, during the wave or storm chances of full flooding as mine, and the whole of the working section of the tunnel because it does not provide for the protection of vertical shaft from the ingestion of sea water.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is the way the Dogo of two plots of land, and from some places in the sea between these areas of land. In that place the sea, under which it is necessary to construct the tunnel, establish vertical concrete or reinforced concrete pipe (pipe member), which is lowered below sea level to a predetermined level. The specified concrete or reinforced concrete structure is a vertical shaft tunnel and is intended for its operation, providing entry and exit of personnel and passengers in extreme situations, delivery of tunnel equipment required for tunneling, placement, power, ventilation, suction, and other tools necessary for tunneling, maintenance and life support personnel.
The construction of the vertical shaft consists of two tubular parts - the bottom and main. During the construction of the vertical shaft its bottom portion is lowered to the bottom by a floating crane. Under the action of its own weight she is buried in alluvial (soft) soil. Then bury her in a hard soil and strengthen the concrete and the internal cavity is released from the soil. On the bottom part, with a crane, establish the second (main) part of the vertical shaft, representing particularly the vertical shaft, towering above the sea level, set the platform on which further include a hoisting-and-transport mechanisms, tools, power supply, etc., Sealing seams provide concreting of the docking station. After pumping water and gaskets inside the necessary communications are sinking vertical shaft beneath the seabed to the design elevation, where it is assumed the construction of the horizontal part of the tunnel.
However, the installation and the strengthening of the underwater part of the vertical shaft tunnel described method is quite complicated, time-consuming, requires special cranes with a very large capacity, a large number of personnel, divers and special equipment. The dock multi-ton upper part of the trunk from the bottom part of a very complex and problematic, especially if to take into account not only the weight is lowered on the bottom of the structure, but the excitement of the sea surface, as well as the excitement of the near-surface layer of water, which is especially important for marine disturbances and storms. In addition, the construction of a vertical shaft, tightly wedged in the bottom section, leads to the fact that attached to the endpoint of the trunk (the mouth of) the energy of storms and storms will be aimed at the destruction of stolichani the height of the trunk above the water level are amplified energy storm to destroy the barrel. And when you consider that the barrel has a big load, because it are handling machinery, tools, power supply and other equipment, the destruction of the vertical shaft, having a height of several tens of meters or more, especially in extreme weather conditions, it is highly likely and could lead to disaster - the complete flooding of the tunnel.
The objective of the invention is to simplify and cheapen the construction of the tunnel a large extent under the seabed, as well as reducing construction time and improving safety in its operation.
The problem is solved due to the fact that the method of construction of the tunnel beneath the seabed includes installation on the seabed, at a given distance from each other, at least two vertical shafts, deepening them in the seabed, the strengthening of the protruding above the seabed parts of vertical shafts, sinking beneath the seafloor vertical section of the tunnel to a predetermined level, the driving of the horizontal part of the tunnel in a given direction, the removal of the developed soil from the tunnel, according to the invention the vertical trunks that are installed on the seabed, assembled by successively mounting the rings on each other using Semih in water mounting rings, strengthening vertical shaft provided by the buildings around it frame buried in the seabed and rigidly connected with each other and with a vertical stem, piles laying around the vertical shaft concrete blocks and bulk soil with subsequent dumping ground around him, choosing when drilling vertical and horizontal parts of the tunnel, and the tunnel excavation, when the hardness of the ground on Protodyakonov to 4 units, carried out using the giant, while breeds with higher hardness develop hydrostream developed soil into fractions, crushed, mixed with water to obtain a slurry, which is then pumped under pressure in the pulp is removed from the tunnel, spreading it around the vertical shaft and frame with the formation of artificial Islands. This rocks with hardness more than 4 units on Protodyakonov develop mechanically. Piles, dug into the seabed, are made of metal pipes with corrosion-resistant coating and set at an acute angle relative to the vertical shaft. Piles, dug into the seabed, made of a core metal with a corrosion-resistant coating.
Technical resulthi time and increase safety during its operation.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:
in Fig.1 shows a General view of the tunnel;
in Fig.2 - coupled mounting ring vertical shaft;
in Fig.3 - section Fig.2 (a-a).
The construction of the tunnel is preceded by the necessary survey work, on the basis of which to choose and pave the road. Special attention when choosing the route turn on the breed and condition of the soil, the availability and size of the depressions on the sea depths, shoals, and the condition of the soil at the base of the shoals. To install vertical shafts choose the shallows.
The tunnel may be conducted simultaneously, as both sides of the land (for short distances), and in both directions from the installed on the bottom of the sea and buried in it, one or several vertical shafts of the tunnel.
The construction of the tunnel beneath the seabed includes the following stages: construction on the seabed 1 (Fig.1.) vertical shaft 2 and, around it, frame 3 artificial Islands; the strengthening of the vertical shaft by stacking, in the interval between the vertical shaft and a frame, artificial Islands, concrete blocks 4 and bulk soil 5; pumping water from the vertical shaft; the driving of the vertical part of the tunnel 6 under the sea doubting soil from the vertical and horizontal parts of the tunnel and its filling 9 around the vertical shaft and the frame of the island to the level of the sea surface 10, further filling selected from the tunnel of the soil around the frame, before the formation of artificial Islands 11, with a given project area.
The tunnel excavation lead in both directions from the vertical shaft at the same time and for long distances. The length of the passable areas are regulated by both the presence on the track shallows, which can be installed with the following vertical trunks, and the optimal conditions for the development and removal of the tunnel depleted soil.
The production of rock in the tunnel exercise combined method: when the hardness of the soil up to 4 units on Protodyakonov, the driving of the lead method getrootpane using monitors high pressure, and the rocks with higher hardness develop hydrostream. It should be noted that the method of getrootpane was previously used to develop soil with natural treewidget, namely the extraction of coal in the coal mines. For the production of works on tunnels used other methods, such as pneumatic, mechanical, plasma, explosive, etc. they All involve the laying roads, temporary shoring slaughter, nabalco smitten rock, export, placing it in the dump, airing slaughter. All this slows down the work, torotoro and Gidropribor breed is turned into pulp. With the help of pumps, pump her under pressure in the pulp is removed from the tunnel through the vertical shaft, distributing the pulp around the vertical shaft and the frame of the island. In the vertical shaft tunnel strengthen at no additional cost. The soil dumping continues until the level of the sea surface and forth. Increasing the length of the tunnel, around the vertical stem form an artificial island. The island area is defined as the technical project and the volume of excavated material from the tunnel excavation. Carcass island, built around a vertical shaft, creates a basis for preventing leaching of the solid component of the slurry, and provides the critical angle of the slope, which reduces the need for soil and creates a skeletal basis of the island. The island is not only strengthens the vertical shaft of the tunnel, but is it natural “shirt” and thus be an integral part of the tunnel. It protects the tunnel, during storms, flooding with water, thereby increasing the security of tunnel construction and its operation.
The vertical shaft is mounted from being installed at each other reinforced concrete, concrete or metal thick-walled structures, violnece for delivery to the tunnel equipment and machinery, as for the construction of the tunnel, and for further use. The height of the mounting ring h is governed by the capacity of the crane.
Each mounting ring is made of at least one annular groove 13 in its upper part and, symmetrically, one circular cleat 14 in the lower part, allowing installing the mounting rings on each other to ensure their reliable docking and anchoring. In addition, the outer side of the mounting ring is provided by fasteners 15, made for example in the form of hooks or eyelets that are used to hold the inflatable pnevmostartery placed around the mounting ring. On the mounting ring, before his descent to the water, wear a pneumatic chamber in which the set pressure, providing negative buoyancy mounting ring (10-20 kg). This allows a smooth immersion, to maintain the correct position in the water and facilitates the installation of the mounting ring (coupling). If necessary, with increasing depth, the pressure in pneumacare regulate by a valve located on its outer side.
Installation of a vertical shaft on the seabed carry out the following, who dressed up and mounting ring. At a given point on the seabed, in alluvial, sedimentary soil 19, with divers prepare the site in the form of a cylindrical recess for mounting the first mounting ring. On the mounting ring wear pneumatic chamber, for example rubber or plastic cylinder, in which the set pressure, providing negative buoyancy of the mounting ring when it is immersed.
Under its own weight mounting ring is lowered into the water environment and by divers is delivered to the bottom and installed on the specified place. Similarly lowered and mounted the second and all subsequent mounting ring. Under the influence of increasing severity, increasing the number of mounting rings, they cut through alluvial soil and deeper to bedrock. When installing the mounting rings on each other to provide sealing seams, for example, by sealing, inflatable, double-layer, kumarapalayam and fitting joint waterproof gasket 16. To give them a working condition of the compressed air from them released, and the water pressure strip accurately and closely pressed against the connecting seams between the mounting Assembly has been created rings of adhesive substance, lead caulking of joints, concrete hermetics, etc.
Capacity vertical shaft is accompanied by his strengthening. The original lower mounting ring strengthen the dumping imported from the land of concrete blocks of 4 (Fig.1), soil, construction waste, etc., so that this part of vertical shaft is firmly fixed. To strengthen the entire vertical shaft to the level of the sea surface, in the future use the soil that you choose when drilling vertical (pan) and the horizontal parts of the tunnel.
Simultaneously with the installation of a vertical shaft around him construct the frame 3 of the artificial island. The skeleton is the basis of artificial Islands and at the same time increases the reliability of strengthening vertical shaft, preventing erosion around him solid fractions tsepelovo and alluvial soil. The skeleton of the island may have various shapes such as a truncated cone, a truncated pyramid, or cylinder, etc. and is constructed of reinforced concrete or steel, with corrosion-resistant coating, pile, which deepened in the seabed and rigidly connected among themselves, for example, on a circle or spiral, metal pipes with corrosion-resistant coating. Footprint Karka is from a given project, square artificial Islands.
Upon reaching the vertical trunk of a given level elevation above the sea surface, pump water and carry out the driving of the vertical part of the tunnel 6 to the desired depth. For this purpose, on a vessel or barge, install the necessary equipment, namely, power equipment, high pressure pumps (200-250 bar), hydro for washing out soil and turning it into pulp, hydraulic pumps for feeding the pulp to the surface, etc. Inside the vertical shaft pave the slurry pipeline. The sinking are using jetting and the ground, in the form of a slurry, is removed by means of hydraulic pumps for slurry pipeline through the vertical tube (2) and allocate it outside around the vertical shaft and frame 3 artificial Islands, thereby strengthening them and, in addition, the gradual namwanje artificial Islands.
Upon reaching the desired depth, around the base of the vertical section of the tunnel, arrange about mine yard where PureBasic all necessary for sinking the horizontal part of the mechanisms and materials: hydro, high pressure pumps and pulmonary, pipe slurry pipelines and water pipelines, machinery and materials, it is s and feeding into the pipeline and so on). Upon completion of the preparatory works commence drilling the horizontal section of the tunnel.
Horizontal tunnel may be bunk, built at different depths. In this case, additional deepen, as described above, the vertical portion to a specified point around which to arrange another colosanti yard and are sinking two tunnels, in two given directions. The tunnel of the second tier can be used in the future, not only for transport but also as a store, for example, for the disposal of nuclear waste.
Choose from a tunnel the soil used for the creation of artificial Islands larger area. This technology also allows us to reduce the construction time.
The tunnel excavation lead in both directions from the vertical shaft. Tunneling work, when the hardness of the soil up to 4 units on Protodyakonov is the work of hydro which a jet of water under pressure 120-400 atmospheres, in cracks in the soil, in the soft layer and the strip is advanced. When the separation of large rocks (boulders), the dimensions of which cannot be transported as a slurry to the surface, crushed by mechanical means, for example, the crusher. The floor is mi pumps, depleted soil, in the form of a slurry, through a vertical shaft, is given to the surface, where the pulp is independently divided into two parts. Water, however, flows into the sea, and solids enter the body created artificial Islands, forming, thereby, a protective zone around the vertical shaft, protecting it from storms.
If, when tunneling, occurs in rocks with hardness of the soil more than 4 units on Protodyakonov, it is destroyed by hydrostream, turned into pulp and, as described above, the pulp is removed from the tunnel. Thus, the tunnel construction of the proposed method ensures the continuity of the process, does not violate the structure surrounding the tunnel rocks, eliminates the need to install temporary shoring, temporary paths for removal of soil, temporary supply, reduces the need for ventilation, eliminates treewidget in the surrounding tunnel space, reduces manufacturing time work.
An example implementation of the method
To place of installation in the sea of the vertical shaft, the floating means for transferring the mounting ring, and crane, materials and equipment necessary for carrying out underwater works.
Before m is to be placed, to install it the first mounting ring.
Mounting ring 12 (Fig.2) has the form of a cylinder made annular groove 13 in the upper part and symmetrically located circular cleat 14 in its lower part. The annular tongue and groove are intended for the tight coupling of the mounting rings when installing them on each other. In the upper part of the mounting ring, symmetrically, there are at least four fixing element 15 made, for example, in the form of hooks or eyelets for fastening around the mounting ring, the pneumatic chamber.
Before lowering the mounting ring on the water, he put the pneumatic chamber, and fix it by means of fixing elements, air inside the chamber set pressure, providing negative buoyancy mounting ring, for example, 20 kg, and, with the help of a crane, placed on a floating vehicle launchable. Under their own weight mounting ring, maintaining an upright position, gently and slowly lowered to the seabed and, with the help of divers, is installed in the prepared seabed, circular niche. When the shutter mounting ring, with increasing depth and increasing the density of water, the pressure in pneumat is avocette mounting ring, before installing on a specified place. Similarly, take the second and subsequent mounting ring.
The technology of construction of a vertical shaft is a serial installation mounting the rings on each other's ring thorn in the annular groove, the sealing seams and the simultaneous strengthening of the bottom of the vertical shaft concrete blocks and soil delivered from the land. Further strengthening of the vertical shaft, ensure the soil removed from the vertical and horizontal sections of the tunnel, when they are sinking, and also by creating around the vertical stem of the artificial island.
Sealing seams, in the process of mounting the rings on each other to provide, for example, using an inflatable, double-layer, kumarapalayam waterproof strip 16 (Fig.2) which is situated above the annular groove of the lower mounting ring. In the process of joining with the top mounting ring when the tenon of the upper ring is in the groove bottom of the strip let the air out and it is under the pressure of the water closely and firmly pressed against the connecting seams, reliably ensuring their integrity.
To create artificial Islands 11, which together with the inside of the tunnel through the vertical barrel of sea water, especially when the storm around the vertical shaft 2 construct the frame 3 of the artificial Islands, for example, of concrete or steel, with corrosion-resistant coating, piles. The bury piles into the seabed at an acute, direct, or obtuse angle relative to the base of the vertical shaft. The angle of inclination of the pile is defined as the square of the spin-off island, and technical capabilities of penetration of the piles with a bias. The choice of distance between the piles and a vertical stem, depends on the height of the constructed vertical shaft and the area of alluvial Islands. Buried in the seabed piles, girdle, in circles or in a spiral, metal pipes 18 and, by welding or clamps, piles and pipes are rigidly connected to each other. The construction of skeleton island, the strengthening of the bottom of the vertical shaft and its extension, if necessary, can be conducted in parallel.
As increasing vertical shaft, under the action of its own weight presses alluvial, sedimentary soil 19 and gradually buried to the solid bedrock 20. After burial, to enhance the bottom part of the vertical shaft 2 by stacking concrete blocks around it 4, large Strano, and their installation may be carried out in the same way as the delivery and installation of rings, i.e., using inflatable pneumacare.
Upon reaching the vertical trunk area Maritime excitement last 5-7 mounting rings wear in hard, metallic corset 21, which fasten to the frame of the island, for example, around the circumference of the cables 22 in order to protect the vertical stem from exposure to fluctuations in water layers, while the vertical barrel is not strengthened bulk soil. Mounting vertical shaft finish after displaying it above the level of the sea surface, after which produce pumping water from the vertical shaft, and inside it lay the pipeline and start heading to work.
Remove soil from the vertical shaft 2, the driving of the bedrock 20 in vertical section of the tunnel, and the driving of the horizontal part of the tunnel, carried out using the giant, with the removal of soil in the plow provide the pipeline with high pressure hydraulic pumps installed on Board the vessel.
Formed in a vertical hole, in the process of its growth and penetration, soft alluvial soil, with giant, dilute with water jet Pius, remove the outside and distributed around the vertical shaft. In the same way carry out the destruction and excavation the excavation of bedrock in the vertical part of the tunnel. But, as indigenous breeds have greater hardness, pressure jet of water formed in the giant, increased to 200 to 400 atmospheres. If the hardness of the soil exceeds four units on Protodyakonov, breed destroy hydrostream way. In that case, if the destruction of rocks formed boulders greater than the diameter of the pipes of the pipeline, they are crushed, for example, by means of a crusher, then the soil is mixed with water to obtain a slurry and the slurry pipeline is removed to the outside.
Upon reaching the vertical part of the tunnel 6 projected depths around him arrange colosanti yard 7, where PureBasic required for drilling the horizontal section of the tunnel machinery, equipment and materials, namely the giant, high-pressure pumps and pulmonary, pipe slurry pipelines and water pipelines, crusher, capacity for making pulp and feeding into the pipeline and other devices.
The driving of the horizontal part of the tunnel leading to both sides to blend with the counter parts of the tunnel that lay oenia vertical shaft, arrange the sump 23, designed to collect water from the tunnel during its construction and operation.
Use, when tunneling methods getrootpane together with hydrostream, with subsequent splitting of large fractions of the soil, mixing it with water, turning the smitten rock in the pulp and delivery of its transport to the surface, allows the laying of the tunnel and create around the vertical stem of the artificial island completed parts. When this water jet generated by hydro, makes destruction only required for sinking zone, and ground transportation can be carried out at long distances.
When the excavation of the tunnel length, for example, 7 km in both directions, when the height of the vertical shaft (sea depth) 80 meters, taking into account the angle of the slope is 0.7, the diameter of alluvial Islands will be more than 200 m, and its area is more than 4000 m2. This island will provide reliable protection of a vertical shaft from damage, prevent flooding of the tunnel during storms. In addition, the island can be used as an object of economic value both during construction and after completion of all construction works.
So what I to reduce construction time and reduce construction costs.
Sources of information
1. Copyright certificate №889859, E 21 D 10/00, publ. 18.12.1981.
2. Patent of great Britain No. 2358417, E 21 D 9/00, publ. 18.01.2000, (prototype).
1. The method of construction of the tunnel beneath the seabed, including installation on the seabed at a given distance from each other, at least two vertical shafts, a depression in the seabed, strengthening protruding above the seabed of the vertical shaft, sinking beneath the seafloor vertical section of the tunnel to a predetermined level, the driving of the horizontal part of the tunnel in a given direction and removing the developed soil from the tunnel, characterized in that the vertical trunks that are installed on the seabed, assembled by successively mounting the rings on each other using pnevmostartery, pressure value which is set, providing a predetermined negative buoyancy of re-entry into the water of the mounting rings, strengthening vertical shaft provided by the buildings around it frame buried in the seabed and rigidly connected with each other and with a vertical stem, piles laying around wow when drilling vertical and horizontal parts of the tunnel, and sinking, when the hardness of the ground on Protodyakonov to 4 units, carried out using the giant, while breeds with higher hardness develop hydrostream developed soil into fractions, crushed, mixed with water to obtain a slurry, which is then pumped under pressure in the pulp is removed from the tunnel, spreading it around the vertical shaft and frame, with the formation of the artificial island.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the rocks with a hardness of more than 4 units on Protodyakonov develop mechanically.
3. The method according to p. 2 different there that pile, bury in the sea bottom, are made of metal pipes with corrosion-resistant coating.
4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the piles are set at an acute angle relative to the vertical shaft.
5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that pile, bury in the bottom of the sea, made of a core metal with a corrosion-resistant coating.
SUBSTANCE: underwater garage comprises a tight body, descents for entry and exit of transport from the garage, floors arranged within the body. The body is arranged in the form of a module representing a tight solid reinforced concrete box. At the end sections of the body there are ramps arranged, which are made curvilinear and rise above water. Entry and exit are carried out along a piled bridge that connects the quay and the curvilinear ramps. The method to construct the underwater garage includes construction of a coastal pit separated from the river with a soil dam. The pit is arranged by providing vertical walls reinforced with the help of a metal rabbet. Then assembly is carried out in the module pit, and it is hydraulically insulated. The pit is filled with water, the dam is dismantled, and the module is transported to the place of installation. The module is installed into a previously prepared underwater pit by means of partial filling of the module with water, the module is surcharged in order to prevent floating and, and works are performed to reinforce the bottom with subsequent water pumping. Descents are arranged in the form of the piled bridge that connects the quay and the ramps of the underwater garage.
EFFECT: improved conditions for operation due to considerable reduction of space for entering a garage using curvilinear ramps.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to perform underwater technical works during installation of bulk items includes delivery of an item in the form of a box caisson to the place of installation, its flooding and assembly with the help of a cargo barge and a floating lifting facility. Delivery is carried out using a double-hulled watercraft made as capable of placement of the loaded barge in the space between pontoons that form the double hull and are connected to each other with metal frame structures with weight-lifting facilities for lifting and lowering of the box caisson, and also equipped with structures having extended elements, providing for retention of the box caisson as it is delivered to the place of installation. The barge with the box caisson of full availability is driven in the water area in the space between pontoons of the double-hulled watercraft, the box caisson is lifted with the help of its weight-lifting facilities, the unloaded barge is driven from the space between the pontoons into the water area, the box caisson is lowered for its installation onto extended elements, the specified elements are extended with the help of a drive, and the box caisson is rested onto them. The watercraft with the box caisson by self-motion or towing is delivered to the place of works production, the watercraft is moored, and the box caisson is flooded and installed by release from extended elements that retain it using weight-lifting facilities, which are installed on the watercraft.
EFFECT: optimised technology and reduced costs for production of underwater technical works during assembly of bulk items and structures.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to erect underwater tunnels, including tunnelling of slopes and drifts, creation of a mine of arched shape, fixation of its walls and fixation of its walls and vault by monolithic reinforced concrete, backlining external hydraulic insulation from bitumen putty, a ramp and a water impermeable lock, water drainage by means of drainage trays, differing by the fact that in order to ensure efficiency of tunnelling works and higher reliability of tunnel hydraulic insulation, its length is divided into sections with open and underground methods of tunnelling. An inclined entry trench is built on an open area with minimum water level in a river by means of open works, in the end of the trench a protective horseshoe-shaped border is erected from reinforced concrete, walls are erected, the arched vault of the tunnel with rigging, on top of which they lay a hydraulic insulation jacket from Typar material and filled with removed soil, the tunnelling of the underwater section of the tunnel is carried out in a regimen of moderation by tunnelling combines in counter headways until they are joined at the design elevation, and water breakthrough in the tunnel is collected in a sump with subsequent pumping by pumps via wells to a surface interception ditch, connected with a water reservoir.
EFFECT: higher reliability of tunnel hydraulic insulation, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity in construction.
1 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: underwater structure (US) operates at depth in the range from 100 to 120 m from sea level. At the same time the US comprises a support-bearing underwater complex and a drilling complex or a production complex. The support-bearing underwater complex includes a support-bearing plate and a wellhead complex. The support-bearing plate, in its turn, comprises a wellhead block, an energy block, a residential block, and also a life support block, internal and external circular corridors, radial transitions, sectioned ballast pontoons of circular shape and propelling agents. Retention of the underwater structure in the vertical position at the specified point for the whole period of stay is provided by control of filling of ballast pontoon sections, at the same time retention in the horizontal plane is done due to operation of the propelling agents. The inner surface of the body of the drilling complex and the production complex is congruent to the external surface of the wellhead complex, and the lower surface of the body of the drilling complex and the production complex is congruent to the upper surface of the support-bearing plate.
EFFECT: increased safety, reliability and quality of performed works.
13 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pier is a linear gravitational hydraulic structure located on the coast of the Arctic seas, mainly in lower reaches of navigable rivers. The pier is designed in the form of an ice platform 1 of a rectangular section, placed on the sea bottom. The pier is equipped with wind-capture electric power plants 10 of a tower type located on the shore, liquid cooling and air cooling systems in the form of pass channels 2. The pier is additionally equipped with a thermo-fluid insulating screen 7, placed on the platform surface 1, and a solid floor covering 8 in the form of flat elements of a rectangular shape in plan, arranged at an angle of 45°C to the longitudinal axis of the platform. The platform 1 is designed with slopes at side edges, located at the level of calved ice. The liquid cooling system is designed of interconnected atmospheric cold storage batteries 3, 4 of cooling pipelines 5, 6 and consumers of a coolant 9. The cooling pipelines are arranged along the slopes and under the thermo-fluid insulating screen 7.
EFFECT: increased strength, stability, reliability and durability of the ice structure.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, particularly, to underwater structures built below bed surface level. Method for construction of tunnel bridge in underwater channel for overcoming shallow crossings involves construction of underwater channel and building underwater structure on its bottom, which is covered with protective casing. Underwater structure is made in form of tunnel bridge, which is built along underwater channel with arrangement of entries and exits into/from tunnel bridge on banks of crossing; tunnel walls are made as retaining walls, which are attached to steel-concrete pillars, fixed in bottom of underwater channel, and coated with plastic sheets. Protective casing is made of steel concrete, tightly placed on retaining walls above tunnel bridge, and also covered with plastic sheets.
EFFECT: technical result consists in providing security and favourable operation conditions in tunnel bridge, reduction of material and labour expenditures for tunnel bridge construction.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely to erection of underground structures. Erection method of multilayer walls of underwater structures includes installation of frame from three and more panels and their separation with air layers. All three and more panels of multilayer walls are made of fibre-glass. They are bound together by adhesion to separating mounting frames with additional reinforcement using screws. Air layers between panels are connected to sources of compressed air or liquid nitrogen, which is connected to pressure sensors and (or) water detection sensors installed in air layers.
EFFECT: high strength of frame structure, safer operation of destruction of panels, lower material consumption.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to underwater structures and can be used in construction of automobile and railway tunnels under reservoirs. Transport passage contains an underwater tunnel placed in water under the navigable channel of a water reservoir or strait made of interconnected reinforced concrete monolith sections positioned relative to the surface of the reservoir or strait bottom and provided with transport infrastructure, consisting of two transport purpose trackways with a rail track between, while the latter is separated by arch colonnades from auto transport carriageways; adjoining the opposite banks of a water reservoir or strait spanned bridges of reinforced concrete structures to ensure water exchange directly along the shores made with transport infrastructure, consisting of two auto transport carriageways with a rail track between, and inclined access ways connecting the underwater tunnel with the spanned bridges having transport infrastructure, consisting of two auto transport with a rail track between. Reinforced-concrete monolith sections of the underwater tunnel, having a two-layer covering, are laid on a base in the form of a reinforced concrete plate, serving as a balance weight for implementation of the injection strengthening of soil under the tunnel base and enlargement of the area of the tunnel supporting on the reservoir or strait bottom with a specific pressure of not more than the pressure of from soil retracted during preparation of a pit for accommodating of the two-layer base. Throughout the whole length of the tunnel along its whole perimeter and between the layers of the bottom and the base there is stretched an anti-filtration coating of geo-membrane, protected by backfilling of the tunnel side walls supported by inclined outer faces of the tunnel walls from heavy loam. Inclined accesses connecting the underwater tunnel with spanned bridges, at least on a part of their length, are made in the embankment with arrangement of the remaining part of length in the groove, relative to the bottom of a water reservoir or strait, separated from its water area on both sides by earth dams and supporting walls and by strengthened on the external slopes rock mass. Above the reinforced concrete monolith sections of the underwater tunnel in the navigable channel there is a protective reinforced concrete plate resting on backfills of side walls of the tunnel and being a bottom of the navigable channel going from which are vertically oriented conjugated abutments, which are the walls of the navigable channel.
EFFECT: higher operational reliability and longer service life of the structure, simplification of construction technology and structure design.
7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to underwater structures and is intended for underwater development of gas deposits and liquefaction of natural gas in water areas of Arctic Ocean, which for a long time or permanently are covered with ice fields that are hard to navigate for Arctic ice breakers prevent production and transport of borehole fluid by conventional method. Underwater system for underwater development of gas deposits and natural gas liquefaction is designed for year-round operation at depth within range of 100-120 m from sea level. Said system comprises drilling-extraction underwater structure, underwater accommodations with control center, underwater nuclear power plant, underwater plant to liquefy natural gas, underwater tank for receiving/storage of liquid nitrogen, underwater tank for receiving/storage/shipment of liquefied natural gas and underwater liquefied gas tanker. Drilling-extraction underwater structure has capacity for year-round underwater well drilling and operation with well fluid purification from mechanical impurities. Drilling-extraction underwater structure is connected to plant for natural gas liquefaction by binding flexible tube with length, providing cooling of natural gas in Arctic environment of sea to a specified value. Underwater plant to liquefy natural gas is configured for its liquefaction by cascade stepped successive cooling to condensation temperature in counterflow with liquid nitrogen and providing output of spent liquid nitrogen in exhaust flexible pipe into atmosphere and/or under ice. Underwater nuclear power plant is configured to provide electric energy via flexible floating cables to all underwater structures.
EFFECT: higher safety and quality of work in underwater development of gas deposits and underwater liquefaction of natural gas.
7 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to hydrotechnical construction and can be used for creation and operation of offshore pile-gravity platforms for exploration of continental shelf hydrocarbon resources. Platform comprises superstructure, body with foundation, equipped with slots in form of direct correct cylinder, through which piles are installed. At that, piles are equipped with heads in form of inverted truncated regular cones with base diameters, smaller than diameter of slots in foundation, mounted on piles buried into slots with head cone base gradient above slot top.
EFFECT: technical result consists in improvement of platform stability and reduction of materials consumption.
10 cl, 5 dwg