The way to create the broadening piles
The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used when creating the broadening of piles, mainly constructed in soft ground. The way to create the broadening piles is to develop well for the pile shaft, making ground in the areas of the Bay with the formation at the borehole wall recesses, the shape of which conforms to the shape of the broadening and subsequent concreting well and created Bay. What is new is the fact that additionally carry out the hardening of the surfaces of each of the recesses in the process of its creation through the initial penetration into the soil around the perimeter of the bore of the support elements, having them in the plane corresponding to the upper surface of the broadening, at a distance, preventing the collapse of the soil in the space between adjacent support elements, and subsequent production of soil placement between the bottom surface of the recess and the support elements of the spacers with spacers on their grounds. The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality of new Bay while increasing their reliability. 6 C.p. f-crystals.
The invention relates to o preimushestvenno in the manufacture of piles, constructed in soft ground, and having large diameters of the broadening, for example, with a diameter amounting to a few meters.
There is a method of creation of the broadening of the piles used in the operation device to create the broadening of the borehole by drilling wells, lowering into the well tubular tip with holes in its walls, injection into the hole of drilling fluid and soil erosion between the planes formed by the jets emerging from the opening tip as it rotates, with subsequent injection into the well and broadening concrete solution (see ed. St. USSR №1758163, CL E 02 D 5/30, 1992). In the known method after the formation of the broadening, remove the tubular tip and pump concreted solution. Lowered into the well bore and after compaction of concrete is the connection of the broadening with the walls of the wellbore and concrete with walls of the borehole. The disadvantage of this method is the low quality of the broadening of the piles due to the partial destruction of the material recesses, because there are no enclosing the wall elements, created the broadening and the soil surrounding the broadening penetrates into the recess, forming the Noah reliability.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved result to the claimed method is creatures of the broadening piles by developing wells for post piles, making ground in the areas of the Bay with the formation at the borehole wall recesses, the shape of which conforms to the shape of the broadening and subsequent concreting well and created the broadening (see international application WO No. 02/48466, CL E 02 D 5/44, op. 2002). In the known method after developing well in her lower mechanical expander, the links of which are connected pivotally interconnected and provided with knives for excavation. After rotation of the mechanical expander around the axis of the bore is formed by a recess having a cross-sectional plane passing through the axis of the pile, the shape of an equilateral triangle.
The disadvantage of this method is the low quality of the broadening of the well, particularly the broadening of piles constructed in weak, such as sandy soils. The collapse of the walls of the broadening in the design and excavation of broadening leads to the formation of cracks in the volume of the broadening after concreting and a corresponding reduction of operational reliability. In addition, when creating a Bay known for the TV ground which is created by the widening.
Objectives of the invention is to improve the quality of new Bay piles in the soil while increasing operational reliability of these Bay.
These tasks provides a new way of creation of the broadening of the piles, which develop well for the pile shaft, produce soil in areas of the Bay with the formation at the borehole wall recesses, the shape of which conforms to the shape of the broadening and subsequent concreting well and created the broadening in addition carry out the hardening of the surfaces of each of the recesses in the process of its creation through the initial penetration into the soil around the perimeter of the bore of the support elements, having them in the plane corresponding to the upper surface of the broadening, at a distance, preventing the collapse of the soil in the space between adjacent support elements, and subsequent placement after running out of soil between the bottom surface of the recess and the support elements of the spacers with spacers on their grounds. This preferably before burying in the ground support elements into the well to lower tiered popularnych elements; the supporting elements to perform telescopic; each supporting element to perform in the form of a plate with guides; support elements to perform with pointed ends, bury in the ground; the location of the recesses to define on the basis of layer-by-layer measurement characteristics of soil layers and subsequent calculations based on the obtained measurement results. In the proposed method can significantly improve the quality of the broadening of the piles due to the hardening of their walls. In accordance with the claimed process after the development wells for post piles in an area where any broadening in the ground pressed against the supporting elements, for example, having the form of tubes or plates with pointed tips. The supporting elements have on the well perimeter fan-shaped or parallel to each other and place them in the plane corresponding to the upper surface of the broadening. Thereby, the arch broadening, preventing penetration of the soil located above the support elements to the broadening. The distance between adjacent support elements are selected from conditions obstacles collapse of soil into the space between the support elements. This distance is chosen either experimentally, the. the usual this distance is 5-50 mm Immersion supporting elements in the soil is carried out to a depth corresponding to the departure broadening, and can be several meters. After running out of the soil in any area ening between the support elements and the bottom surface is designed to deepen place the spacer. At each end of the spacers come with the gasket, the surface of each of which considerably exceeds the cross-sectional area of the spacer. For example, the strip may be made in the form of a rectangle the size of 100120 mm, made of boards of a thickness of 30 mm Spacers preferably be placed evenly on the upper surface of the broadening when the distance between adjacent struts within 400-500 mm This allows to distribute the load per spacer, on a large surface. Strip made of a rigid material, for example, in the form of a sheet of stainless steel with a thickness of 2-3 mm, or from pieces of boards of a thickness of 20-40 mm On the upper strip usually relies several supporting elements, and the lower gasket prevents the penetration of spacers in the ground. For a more reliable support spacers on the lower surface of broadening it is preferable to place ardle more reliable fixation of the spacers relative to the strip in the Central zone of the latter can be made hollow, the diameter of which slightly exceeds the diameter of the spacer. A set of spacers with support elements prevents the penetration of soil into the cavity grooves, which increases the operational reliability of the generated broadening piles. In addition, the supporting elements and spacers, after the cavities are filled with concrete and it hardens, serve as reinforcing elements in the broadening and thereby further increase the operational reliability of the generated broadening piles. Preferably before burying in the ground support elements are lowered into the borehole post piles stacked formwork, each tier which consists of panels with doors and grooves. The door panels are used for extraction of soil generated from the grooves, and the grooves when a sufficient thickness of the shield can serve as guides for the supporting elements. This shields prevent collapse of the borehole wall. The reference implementation of the telescopic elements is particularly advantageous when large diameters broadening (from 2 to 5 meters). When using formwork simplifies the manufacturing process guides for the supporting elements, which are mounted under the grooves. To facilitate the penetration of supporting elements in Grun the W is produced in the form of a cone. Accelerate the penetration of supporting elements in soil can be achieved with the implementation of supporting elements in the form of plates with sharp edges buried in the ground. This guide plates, for example, protrusions on the side surfaces of the plate, provides a straightforward arrangement of consecutive plates. The location of the Bay at the height of the pile is preferably calculated based on the results of the layer measuring characteristics of the soil in which the erect pile. To improve the performance of the process of creation of the broadening piles promotes the use of devices of small-scale mechanization. For example, the depth of the support elements in the soil can be carried out using vibromatic brand EAP or runway or vibrators. Notch developed ground of broadening is accelerated through the use of a percussion drill bit connected to a source of compressed air, or use a screw auger. Concreting Bay and trunk piles are usually using bitonality pipe, you should use concrete grade not lower than 200.
An example of implementing the inventive method of creating the broadening of the piles. The construction of the piles with the broadening was conducted at the intersection of the endurance of 40 m from each other and had a depth of barrels of 10.5 m After the development of the trunk of any piles with a diameter of 2.2 m was carried out layer-by-layer measurement characteristics of the soil, where the pile shaft, and carried out the determination of the locations of the broadening along the pile shaft using appropriate calculations.
Broadening began to create, starting from the bottom, acting as thrust bearing. The widening was carried out with the departure of the size of 1.5 m, the upper surface of which is perpendicular to the axis of the trunk, and the lower surface of the broadening was placed under an angle of 45 degrees to the axis of the barrel, which exceeds the angle of internal friction of the soil. The depth in the soil fan-shaped disposable anchor rods was performed using vapormate brand EAP. After penetration of supporting elements carried out the development of the soil under them using a bit of a shock. Rise produced by the soil surface was performed using buckets attached to the rope spooled on the reel. After placing on the bottom surface of the broadening of reinforcing rods with a diameter of 25 mm in the zone broadening, from which developed the ground, placed the spacer with gaskets at the ends in the form of plots of the Board 30 mm thick, having the form of rectangles, Kagami and was placed spacers evenly under the entire top surface of the broadening with appropriate gaskets, completed the first stage of creating the bottom of the broadening. Creating upstream of the broadening was conducted on technology similar to that used for the implementation of the first stage of creating the bottom of the broadening. After creating all of the broadening conducted concreting of the pile shaft and established Bay using bitonality pipe, was used concrete grade 200.
Testing the claimed method of manufacturing the broadening piles showed that created broadening placed along the pile shaft, are of high quality. On surfaces created Bay, there were no cracks that simultaneously helped to improve the operational reliability of the established Bay. In addition, the presence in the Bay of supporting elements and spacers also contributes to improving the reliability, as these parts of the broadening in the operation of the piles perform the function of reinforcing elements. Another advantage of the claimed process of the creation of the broadening of the pile is a wide range of shapes and diameters of the broadening of the piles.
1. The way to create the broadening piles by developing wells for pile shaft, making ground in the areas of the Bay with formiae well and created the broadening characterized in that it further carry out the hardening of the surfaces of each of the recesses in the process of its creation through the initial penetration into the soil around the perimeter of the bore of the support elements, having them in the plane corresponding to the upper surface of the broadening, at a distance, preventing the collapse of the soil in the space between adjacent support elements, and subsequent production of soil placement between the bottom surface of the recess and the support elements of the spacers with spacers on their grounds.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that before burying in the ground support elements are lowered into the well stacked formwork, each tier which consists of panels with doors and grooves.
3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the boards under the grooves of the fixed guides for the supporting elements.
4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the supporting elements are telescopic.
5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that each supporting element are in the form of a plate with guides.
6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the supporting elements made with pointed ends, bury in the ground.
7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the further calculations of areas based on the obtained measurement results.
FIELD: building, particularly for constructing foundations of various building structures.
SUBSTANCE: bearing pile comprises head, rod and tip fixed to embedded rod part by embedded member. The tip is formed of thermoplastic concrete and has electric heater located inside the tip. Electric heater heats the tip after driving thereof into ground as far as it will go to obtain softening temperature of 80-150°C. Then the pile is fully driven in ground. Electric heater wires are placed in tube in longitudinal rod direction and brought outside under pile head for connection thereof with electric power source.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing pile capacity due to provision of widened pile tip support area.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering, particularly concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position with enlarged footing or enlargements at the bottom of the pile.
SUBSTANCE: reinforcement device is used to erect pile foundation with the use of foundation pile having at least one longitudinal cavity. Reinforcing device comprises a number of joined reinforcement members hingedly connected with central annular member located so that reinforcement device may be collapsed during installation and erected during device usage. Reinforcement device is connected to pile by at least one member working in tension. Foundation pile reinforced with the use of said device and method for foundation pile driving and pile bottom reinforcement are also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of reinforcement distribution over pile bottom, improved compression and stretching force damping, decreased labor inputs and material consumption.
36 cl, 25 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly bored piles with enlarged footing or enlargements at the bottom of the pile.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling well; filling the well with concrete mix and non-detonating composition including fuel and oxidizer; igniting non-detonating composition by applying low-voltage pulse to electric igniter and combusting non-detonating composition in deflagration regime to create camouflet void with following concrete mix hardening. The fuel is solid hydrocarbon selected from polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. The oxidizer is sodium or potassium chlorate. Non-detonating composition is supplied in well before well filling with concrete mix.
EFFECT: decreased pile production time due to accelerated concrete mix hardening and improved produced pile quality.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to building, in particular, to strengthening of the bases under the basements. The way of strengthening of the basement erected on waterlogged priming coats and near to the located constructions includes supply of early strength concrete in the metal tubing established in driven wells, drilled through a basic part of the basement and a ground. Pipes are made with the welded boots, in pipes lower explosive charges and fill with early strength concrete, then the explosive charges are detonated, remaining hollownesses of driven wells and pipes are filled with early strength concrete.
EFFECT: provision of reliable strengthening of the basements erected in waterlogged priming coats and near to located constructions; increase of load-carrying capacity.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to methods for arrangement of pile foundations for structures, to pile foundations and shell structure for creation of widened foot for pile foundations. Method for creation of pile foundation for structures, according to which the following stages are executed on site to arrange the mentioned foundation - well for installation of foundation pipe is drilled with the help of the first auger drill. The following section is drilled under lower end of installed foundation pipe. Cavity is arranged in the specified section by means of scraper and pressure of water jet. Loose soil is removed from specified cavity by mentioned first drill. Pipe for set of tools and accessories with the second auger drill and flexible shell that envelopes the lower part of the second specified drill is lowered through foundation pipe into lower part of specified section. Excess pressure is built up in specified shell, and moulding material is injected into specified cavity, surplus of which is then removed by the second auger drill. After mentioned material hardens, the specified shell is blown off and removed via specified foundation pipe. Reinforcing device is lowered into foundation pipe. Concrete material is poured into foundation pipe, at that specified cavity is filled, and specified reinforcing device is embedded into concrete, thus creating widened foot for foundation pipe. Versions of method and pile foundation are also stated.
EFFECT: higher stability and resistance to compressing and stretching forces, lower material intensity.
5 cl, 26 dwg
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry and namely to construction of bearing piles in ground rock. Device for making multi-layer sealed pile in ground rock includes, in the combination, elongated hollow tube having longitudinal axis, upper inlet end for material, open lower discharge end for material and diametre of the first external surface and common formed lower head element at open discharge end, which has diametre of the second external surface, which is more than diametre of the first external surface and made with the possibility of transmitting combination from axial and transverse stress components when hollow tube is lowered. Head element consists of common attachment to hollow tube; at that, head element includes lower driving end which in general has configuration of flattened cone between head element of external surface and lower discharge hole made in the lower driving end, and back end having in general the configuration of flattened cone, and cap of the head element covering lower discharge hole. Lower head element with the cap and hollow tube are formed for being introduced into ground rock and for displacing the earth when hollow tube with lower head element and the above cap is lowered into ground rock so that a cavity is formed in ground rock. The cap is at least partially removed from lower discharge hole when hollow tube is then lifted from the formed cavity in order to perform passage of material through lower discharge hole to the cavity section released with hollow tube and lower head element. The latter has the form of cross section and the sizes which are more than the shape of cross section and sizes of hollow tube in order to decrease friction forces on hollow tube when penetrating into ground rock and being removed from it.
EFFECT: improving reliability of the pile and capacity and production effectiveness of piles.
34 cl, 26 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention related to construction, particularly can be used for bored piles with enlarged base arrangement. The method includes hole boring, hole opening with mechanical clampshell enlarger, reinforced cage installation and filling in the hole with concrete mixture. Developing enlargement with ration of enlargement diametre to hole diametre, equal de/dh≥2 with rotation velocity equal n=20-100 revolution per minute, dependant on ground conditions. After covering distance 0.8 h, where h - height of enlargement, stop axial supply of boring media and at that level, during 3-5 revolutions execute enlargement base cleaning, and ground collector and voids between enlarger blades complete filling. Turn on axial supply and execute boring till enlargement total height and enlargement blades closure. Take away enlarger, then concrete enlarged base, install reinforced cage and complete bored piles arrangement with concreting its core.
EFFECT: method of bored pile arrangement efficiency increase and hole enlarger design improvement, hole enlarger reliability increase, easing of ground withdrawal out form ground collector and better quality of constructed bore pile.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction, in particular to pile foundations. Driven pile consists of shaft with axial hole, sharpened tip with circular base and conusoidal shell with spike, cavities inside shell filled with hardening solution. There is a threaded hole in tip base, which is closed with threaded plug with stem. Tip shell is rumpled with submergence force after removal of threaded plug and additional submersion of pile. For additional increase of bearing capacity there is an elastic shell on lower part of shaft with facilities for fixation of its upper and lower ends; cavity between elastic shell and shaft surface; protective jacket with facilities of its fixation of shaft, which slides in radial direction and embraces elastic shell. There is a radial hole in shaft, which connects longitudinal hole with specified cavity transformed into support belt after the pile has been submerged at the specified depth, the cavity has been filled with hardening solution via holes in shaft and the solution has hardened.
EFFECT: improved bearing capacity of hollow piles.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of drilled pile manufacturing includes well arrangement in soil. Supply of material into it. Compaction of soil under lower end of formed pile. In process of soil compaction, in the base of formed drilled pile with parametres equivalent to driven pile, its conventional camouflet cavity is arranged with diametre Dkp equal to diametre of dzs equivalent to driven pile, where: dzs - diametre (m) of equivalent driven pile. DkP - diametre (m) of conventional camouflet cavity produced in soil as it is displaced under lower end of formed drilled pile, by means of supply of controlled material volume to fill conventional camouflet cavity according to the following dependence : where V is controlled volume (m3) of material spent for filling of conventional camouflet cavity produced in soil due to its displacement into pile foundation. As well is filled with material in the form of hardening mix, preferably plastic concrete mix, diametre of equivalent driven pile is identified according to dependence , where dzs - diametre (m) of equivalent driven pile. Dskw - diametre (m) of well; Δh - measured value of subsidence (m) of plastic concrete mix in well as conventional camouflet cavity produced due to displacement of soil under lower end of formed pile is being filled. And in order to produce drilled pile with parametres of driven one of the same diametre, soil is treated in the lower end of pile till material subsides, preferably concrete mix, in well by value, which is compared with the one defined from the following ratio: Δh/Dskw=0.4. Besides in the lower end of well soil is exposed to forces, and their sufficiency is controlled (assessed) by flow of material additionally supplied to well in process of soil treatment, and its volume is identified according to formula , where Dskw - diametre (m) of formed pile. Besides in well reinforced with casing pipe, dynamic actions at soil are carried out until material subsidence value in casing pipe makes at least the following: , where Δhtr is subsidence (m) of material in casing pipe. Dskw - diametre (m) of well. Dfr - inner diametre (m) of casing pipe. Dynamic actions at soil in lower end of formed pile are carried out to achieve conventional failure, which is represented by material subsidence of not more than 2 mm in process of the last action, and when soils are compacted by electric explosions in pile foundation with application of electrode system, dynamic treatment is interrupted provided that electrode system freely installed on bottomhole in process of electric explosion sinks by not more than 1-2 cm, and in process of soil dynamic treatment at least one additional camouflet expansion is created along pile length, preferably, in zones of well opening of soils that are most pliant to compaction, which is detected by reaction of soil to test dynamic actions performed along pile length.
EFFECT: development of drilled piles with bearing capacity by soil, same as for driven piles, with minimum possible usage of resources and maximum possible usage of properties inherent in massif of soil that contains pile.
SUBSTANCE: device for compaction of soil in drilled pile well bottomhole includes casing pipe, bushing fixed on it with working element pulled through it. Working element is arranged in the form of hollow pipe, at the lower end of which there is a thrust journal and sealing attachment, and at the upper end there are upper and lower supports and inertial mass, placed on hollow pipe between upper and lower supports with sliding fit.
EFFECT: improved bearing capacity of drilled piles erected in watered and soft soils.