A method of obtaining a wear-resistant surface of the steel parts and the engine containing at least one such item
The invention relates to a method for producing a protective coating on the surface of steel. Can be used to produce a protective coating of engine parts. Method for obtaining a protective coating of aluminum bronze. The detail of steel napravlyayut several layers of aluminum bronze to each other. You get a coverage containing intermediate layer is harder than the steel, and the outer layer is harder than the intermediate. Also described engine containing at least one piece of steel with a deposited coating of aluminum bronze. The technical result is an increase in hardness and an increase in the thickness of the wear-resistant zones. 2 N. and 10 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.
The invention relates according to the first inventive idea to a method for producing a wear-resistant surface of the steel parts and according to the second inventive idea to the engine with at least one steel part, provided at least partially abrasion resistant surface.
As you know, the steel parts are subjected to surface hardening to form a solid surface. However, this requires expensive heat treatment and the n deficiency is when surface hardening the latter can be achieved only at a relatively small depth and there is a danger of cracking. Therefore succeed only relatively short periods of service.
The closest technical solution according to the essential features and the achieved result is a method of obtaining a wear-resistant surface of a steel part, is known from international publication WO 98/25017 (11.06.1998).
The known method comprises applying to the steel part two-layer coating of aluminum bronze. However, the known method does not provide a high surface hardness of steel parts.
The closest technical solution according to the essential features and the achieved result is the engine, known patent RU 2091596 (27.09.1997).
Known engine contains at least one steel detail, surface hardness which is not high enough to increase engine life.
In this regard, the present invention is to improve the method and engine of the type specified above by simple and cheap means in such a way as to achieve not only high hardness and large thickness of the wear-resistant Enya wear-resistant surface of the steel parts, including the application on the steel part of the protective coating of aluminum bronze containing intermediate and outer layers, according to the invention the coating on the part consisting of steel, applied by overlaying several layers of aluminum bronze each other with obtaining coatings containing intermediate layer is harder than the steel, and the outer layer is harder than the intermediate.
The problem is solved in that the engine containing at least one part made of steel according to the invention it contains a steel part, which at least partially coated aluminium bronze, consisting of several, mostly two, overlaid on each other layers.
Aluminum bronze, fused, preferably by welding, suddenly appeared in the outer layer is harder than the inner. When testing two overlaid on each other layer in the inner layer was achieved hardness from 300 to 400 Vickers, and in the outer layer is significantly higher: 500 - 600 Vickers. Therefore, the best way is automatically achieved relatively hard outer layer and compared them softer, but still compared to a hundred the ATA is achieved, what is the difference of hardness between the base material and a wear resistant outer layer is overcome not one step, but for a few. This optimally ensures good transfer of current on the surface parallel to it cutting efforts and the normal to the surface shear forces on the core material, resulting in optimally ensured greater reliability from cracking and long service life due to high hardness of the outer layer. Therefore, the measures according to the invention, provide optimal overall efficiency.
The best options and useful improvements in accordance with the indications given in the restrictive part of the claims set forth in the dependent claims. So, especially expedient was to heat the material in the furnace before applying to it a layer of aluminum bronze. As a result of such heating, it becomes possible to increase the hardness of the lower and upper layers. This is why a simple opportunity for the individual bringing the required hardness in accordance with the terms of each specific case.
Particularly preferred heating temperature is about is without changing the structure of the basic material.
Another possibility to bring the achievable hardness in accordance with the terms of the specific case is to change the composition of the used aluminum bronze. It is recommended to weld aluminum bronze containing 8-25% Al, no at least one component selected from the group comprising Sb, Co, Be, CR, Sn, Mn, Si, Cd, Zn, Fe, N, Pb and in amount of 0.2-10% and the rest copper.
In the case when it is necessary to have very high hardness, it is advisable to use aluminum bronze with the content of 13-16% Al, 4-5% of Fe, 0.2 to 0.8% Si, 1-2% Mn, not more than 0.2%, the rest copper. Reduced strength can be achieved when using aluminum bronze with the content of 8-11% Al, 4% to 6% Ni, 3-5% Fe, 1-2% Mn, the remainder copper. Thus, the hardness of the outer layer and/or the lower layer may be aligned with the needs of the particular case.
In most cases it is expedient to perform all of the layers forming the protective coating from the same aluminum bronze. This results in a simpler manufacture and ensures a particularly uniform adhesion between each other layers.
Another optimal measure may be that the outer wear-resistant layer of aluminium for both the break, independently disappearing at the stage of running-in, provides the position at which the outer bearing solid its formed by coating of aluminum bronze is exposed only after a run-in period and becomes a work that has a positive impact on ensuring a long service life.
Other optimal execution and expedient implementation of the main features are given in the remaining dependent claims and are explained in more detail in the following description of examples with reference to the drawings.
In Fig.1 shows a partial view of the guide of the two-stroke crosshead diesel engine of high power;
in Fig.2 is enlarged broken-out section of the protective covering device of Fig.1.
The present invention is applicable wherever required protective coating on the surface of steel parts having a hardness exceeding the hardness of steel, 100 - 200 Vickers. This is the case, for example, in various containing heavily loaded surfaces of the parts, such as piston rings, the crosshead guides and the like. With protective coating, which is more rigid than the material must about the possibility of high hardness loaded surface, and good adhesion to the base material.
On is shown in Fig.1 tear-out from the case of two-stroke diesel engine of high power visible two walls 2 of the housing, located on the sides of the crosshead 1. The crosshead 1 contains a side sliders 3, provided at their ends of the guide plates 4 are turned in different directions work surfaces. The guide plate is moved situated on the side of the guide tires with 5 facing each other work surfaces.
The guide plate 4 and the guide bus 5 is made of normal steel as the main material and provided on the site facing to each other working surfaces with a protective coating 6 having a higher hardness than steel and therefore ensuring a long service life. This protective coating can be applied, of course, and the other exposed to similar loads of steel parts, such as sleeve bearings, piston rings etc.
The protective coating 6 is composed of aluminum bronze and executed, as is most clearly shown in Fig.2, two layers 8, 9, sequentially deposited, mainly welding, the core material is inaway bronze is typically, about 200 Vickers. The bottom layer 8, the deposited first on the steel core material 7, unexpectedly acquires hardness, component 300 - 400 Vickers. In the second, outer layer 9 hardness unexpectedly is increased and ranges from about 500 to 600 Vickers. Therefore, the outer layer 9 is particularly suitable as a wear-resistant bearing surface, that even in conditions of severe exploitation ensures a long service life.
It is often advisable to use a very firm support coverage only after a certain running-in period. In such cases, the outer layer 9 may be coated with the layer break 10 consisting of a relatively high-wear material, such as MoS2and endangered alone on the stage of break-in, resulting then applied outer layer 9 consisting of aluminum bronze and possessing great hardness, as shown in Fig.2 on the right.
The bottom having a lower hardness layer 8 is almost binder layer average hardness between the very hard outer layer 9 and the main material 7, which is compared with the last relatively soft. The result is stupen the I of its lower hardness has greater toughness and impact strength, resulting force parallel to the surface, cutting efforts and acting perpendicular to the surface, shear force, as indicated by the arrows 11 and 12, may well be intercepted and transmitted to the core material 7. In the depicted example, the thickness of the deposited each other layers 8 and 9 is the same. This thickness may be about 1.5 mm, needless to say that other thickness or different thicknesses of the layers 8 and 9. It is also possible to apply at each other more than two layers, although particularly preferred was the construction of two overlaid on each other layers 8 and 9, which formed the basis of the following example.
It is expedient to provide for the manufacture of layers 8, 9 used aluminum bronze containing 8-25% Al, at least one of the following components: Sb, Co, Be, Cr, Sn, Mn, Si, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, and when the contents of 0.2-10%, the rest copper. In the case when high hardness of the same and/or different layer 8, 9, it is advisable to apply aluminum bronze containing 13-16% Al, 4-5 Fe, 0.2 to 0.8 Si, 1-2% Mn, not more than 0.2% and the rest copper. If you want a somewhat lesser hardness of the same and/or different layer 8, 9, there can be used aluminum bronze with soderzhaniya bronze for sdoa 8, 9. As a rule, it is expedient to provide for both layers 8, 9 used the same aluminum bronze.
As mentioned above, the layers 8, 9 are bonded by welding. This can be applied to electric arc or laser beams, or flame.
In order to increase the possible hardness of the coated workpiece before the corresponding application of the aluminum layer, i.e., the core material 7 before applying the lower layer 8 and the resulting intermediate product may be heated prior to application of the second layer 9. It is advisable to carry out the heating in the furnace, and particularly the optimal heating temperature is defined temperature is about 350C.
1. A method of obtaining a wear-resistant surface of the steel parts, including the application on the steel part of the protective coating of aluminum bronze, characterized in that the coating on the part consisting of steel, applied by overlaying several layers of aluminum bronze each other with obtaining coatings containing intermediate layer is harder than the steel, and the outer layer is harder than the intermediate.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that napravlyayut two layers of aluminum bronze.
3. The method according to p. naplavkoy carry out heating of the components, preferably in a furnace.
5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the heating is carried out until a temperature of about 350C.
6. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-5, characterized in that napravlyayut layers of aluminum bronze having the same composition.
7. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-6, characterized in that napravlyayut aluminum bronze containing 8-25% aluminum, at least one component selected from the group comprising antimony, cobalt, beryllium, chromium, tin, manganese, silicon, cadmium, zinc, iron, Nickel, lead, and carbon in an amount of 0.2-10% and the rest is copper.
8. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-6, characterized in that at least one layer napravlyayut aluminum bronze containing components in the following ratio, %:
Carbon Less than 0.2
Copper the Rest
9. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that at least one layer napravlyayut aluminum bronze containing components in the following ratio, %:
Copper the Rest
10. Engine containing at least one item, characterized in that it contains a steel part, which at least partially coated aluminium-bronze, with the of the action scene, it contains a part with a protective coating consisting of two layers, the hardness of the intermediate layer is 300 to 400 HV, while the hardness of the outer layer is 500 to 600 HV.
12. The engine under item 10 or 11, characterized in that it contains an item with a protective coating consisting of two layers, an outer layer to break the coating of the wear material.
FIELD: mechanical engineering, restoration of machine parts.
SUBSTANCE: method is realized by applying at least one coating by means of electric spark alloying. Wear resistance coating is applied with use of electrode of boron alloyed intermetallide Ni3Al containing, mass %: Al, 2 - 15; B, 0.02 - 02; Ni, the balance. In variants of invention electrode contains in addition dispersed particles of Si3 N4. Before applying on part layer of wear resistant coating, nickel layer with thickness 20 - 50 micrometers is applied as intermediate adhesion barrier. Coated parts are subjected to mechanical working. Restoration is realized for parts with wear degree up to 100 micrometers or with wear degree 100 - 300 micrometers.
EFFECT: possibility for restoring parts, improving their wear resistance and increasing adhesion strength of applied coating with base material of part.
6 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: processes and equipment for joining by rolling different type liquid and solid metals, possibly manufacture of clad metallic sheets and articles in different branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of pouring melt metal onto surface of different solid main metal coated with flux for soldering; rolling metals under pressure for rapid cooling of melt metal, crystallizing it and joining with surface of solid main metal due to metallurgical joining between two or more metals. Plant for performing the method includes mounted according to desired order: machine for uncoiling sheet metal from coil; vessel with soldering flux; unit for drying and heating; casting nozzle; rolls with inner cooling and machine for coiling sheet metal. Ladle for melt metal is arranged over casting nozzle. Main frame of plant is arranged under said ladle.
EFFECT: enhanced strength of different metals joints, low cost of products, improved efficiency, high quality of sheet metal, relatively small cost of plant, decreased power consumption.
14 cl, 6 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: many branches of industry; methods of fritting and polymerization in the furnace of the powder coatings.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of heating and fritting of the polymeric powder coatings applied on articles and may be used in many branches of industry for painting articles of the various configurations. The method includes: charging by batches of the articles in the furnace, heating with realization of polymerization of their powdery coatings and refrigeration. Before the heating operation in the working space of the furnace create rarefaction by means of preliminary switching on the ventilation and circulation system. After the heating up to the preset temperature conduct the periodical switching-on / switching-off of the electric heater of the furnace. At that the blowout of the air from the furnace is conducted. For keeping the preset temperature over the whole operational volume of the furnace through at least one pilot hole in the furnace the portions of the cold air are periodically pumped in. Then conduct refrigeration, at which the electric heater is finally switched off, and the air saturated with the products of polymerization is removed from the furnace, create the rarefaction and feed the new batch of the cold air into the furnace. For realization of the heating they use the electric heater made out of the steel sheets and the square-shaped metallic tubes. The tubes have holes used for arrangement in them of the tubular rods supporting the spirals. The tubular rods supporting the spirals of the electric heater are made out of the mullitesiliceous ceramics. The technical result of the invention is improvement of the quality of the articles treated in the furnace with simultaneous improvement of the process of heating of the furnace, the air ventilation and circulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the quality of the articles treated in the furnace at simultaneous improvement of the process of heating of the furnace, the air ventilation and circulation.
8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: foundry, centrifugal casting in particular; manufacture of multi-layer vessels, pipe lines, bottles, connecting parts and other articles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing the thermit mixture in cavities of article, followed by rotation, initiating of exothermic reaction, melting of thermit mixture, cooling of external surface of article and crystallization of molten thermit mixture. Thermit mixture contains additionally fluid material. Cooling of external surface of article is continued till temperature of its internal surface gets equal to melting point of metal of article.
EFFECT: reduced thickness of coat; improved control of heat removal.