Nonwoven laminated composite material and its production method
The invention relates to the production of multi-layer materials and can be applied in the construction field at facing of walls, finish floor coverings, insulation, roll roofing materials. Layered material includes a bonding layer bonded pre-bonded nonwoven fabric of staple fiber, stitched layer of thermally lined nonwoven fabric of synthetic fibers. Some of these fibers pass through the layer of material made of fiberglass and is possible through the underlying layer of synthetic non-woven material. The material is mechanically strong, has dimensional stability, tensile strength and fire resistance. 2 S. and 36 C.p. f-crystals.
1. The technical field to which the invention relates
The present invention relates to a method for producing a multilayer laminated materials made of at least one layer of non-woven material of inorganic staple fibers and at least one layer of non-woven material of synthetic organic fibers, to the product and its use.
2. Description of the prior art
In industry there are various layered materials, at least, non-woven fabric of synthetic fibers and non-woven material made of mineral substances. So, for example, EP 0176847 A2 describes a layered material consisting of a nonwoven fabric of synthetic fibers, particularly polyester fibers, and a layer of non-woven material made of mineral fibers. Non-woven fabric of artificial staple fibers and, in addition, non-woven material made of mineral fibers pre fasten and then brought together by flashing.
European patent 0242524 B1 proposes adding a reinforcing yarn in the longitudinal direction of the non-woven material made from mineral fibers. The example describes that the final bond kω who describes the layered material, made of thread-like non-woven fabric and a nonwoven fabric of glass fiber, where the layered material receive the first pre-bond non-woven materials made of fiberglass and then flashing non-woven material, nonwoven material made of synthetic fibers. Then perform the final curing aqueous solution melamineformaldehyde of precondensed free of polymer, and the specified precondensed has a molar ratio of melamine/formaldehyde equal to from 1:1.0 to 1:3.5-inch, where to the solution was added from about 0.5 to 5% of the mass of conventional accelerator.
A similar two-layer laminates are described in the South African document ZA 94/02763 A. in Addition, the South African document describes, among other things, a three-layer laminate, where the nonwoven staple fiber is placed between two threadlike nonwoven materials of the complex polyester, pre-stabilized flashing, then three layers together additional flashing. The filament nonwoven fabric of the complex polyester threaded through nonwoven staple fiber.
DE 19521838 A1 describes platelet a fabric of organic fiber reinforcing layer on each side. Preferably two reinforcing layer is made of inorganic fibers. Further, there is proposed to increase the non-woven fabric by flashing and/or thermal bonding or chemical binders.
EP 0603633 B1 describes a flame-retardant laminate at least one layer bonded non-woven material, deposited by molding from a melt layer of the canvas, fiberglass, and metal foil. The layered material may also consist of glass fiber canvas, which is like a sandwich between two layers of non-woven fabric of polyester fibres and further includes pre-marked metal foil. The fiber layer of the canvas is a glass filament, that is, bundles of glass fibers. The glass filaments may be twisted in the making, but similarly they may be present in the form of a non-twisted bundles of filaments. Layers can be mechanically fastened (e.g., flashing) or by means of chemical binders (e.g. polyvinyl alcohol or copolymerizing of butadienestyrene). Can also be used thermoplastic adhesives, in particular in the form of fibers.
Additional m is, a layer of textile fibers laid out in a certain way organic fibers. Laminates treated with binders based dispersions of fluoropolymer.
European patent EP 0403403 describes a multilayer structure, where the non-woven fabrics of polyester staple fibers are used in addition to non-woven materials made of fiberglass. You need to staple fiber in this case was very precisely oriented parallel to the surface.
European patent EP 0572891 A1 describes laminates of nonwoven and canvas, which except for the metallic foil shows a similar design as the materials described in EP 0603633 B1. These layered materials are similarly treated with the binder.
European patent EP 0806509 describes the substrate layer, which, among other things, contains the fabric and reinforcing material, where the reinforcement serves to neutralize forces, in particular, where the elongation is in the range between 0 and elongation of 1%. In this case, it is also proposed to use a binder.
Some of the disadvantages associated with the above-described layered materials include lack of mechanical strength (for example, RAS is the requirements for roofing, sealing, hastiludes and insulating materials and to overcome the drawbacks of the prior art the present invention is to offer non-woven sheets or laminates made of at least one layer of nonwoven material of the organic synthetic fibers and a layer of non-woven material of inorganic staple fibers, which produce a quick and easy way.
Another object of the present invention is a layered material, which is subjected to final bonding through the use of a binder and which has improved mechanical strength.
Another object of the present invention is the use of layered materials as materials of the substrate and in particular roofing material that has minimized the effect of bending banana".
Another object of the present invention to provide a layered materials that can saturate the bitumen or other synthetic materials and which can serve as roll roofing materials, insulating coatings and similar.
Another object of the present invention is a method for slo fire.
Another object of the invention is a layered materials, such as roofing material or roofing carpet, in which the share of non-woven synthetic materials as a share of the non-woven fabric of glass fiber can be reduced without the presence of the noted shortcomings of nonwoven fabric and which have improved fire resistance.
Other objects and aspects of the invention will become apparent to the person skilled in the art upon consideration of the description and the attached claims.
Summary of invention
In accordance with the invent of laminated material and method of its production it was discovered that it is possible to produce a laminate of two or more layers, where the laminate is subjected to final bonding through the use of a binder.
In accordance with one aspect of the invention features a laminated material. Layered material includes at least one layer of pre-bonded non-woven material containing staple fiber, stitched, at least one layer is subjected to thermal shrinkage of non-woven material of synthetic fibers. Part of the fibers of the top layer synthetic is the seer in the base layer of synthetic non-woven material. Layered material contains a binder for binding.
In accordance with another aspect of the invention features a method of obtaining a laminate of two or more layers. One or more Mat of non-woven material containing staple fiber, pre-bond resin, then offer below or between layers of non-woven material of synthetic fibers, where the layers of non-woven material of synthetic fibers and pre-bonded Mat of non-woven material containing glass fiber, together with the flashing so that a part of the fibers of the top layer of synthetic non-woven material passes through the layer of non-woven fabric, heat-set synthetic fibers and subjected to laminate the final bonding through the use of a binder.
Detailed description of the preferred implementation variant of the invention
Now the invention will be described with reference to illustrative options for its implementation. In the first aspect of the invention connects the at least one Mat of non-woven material containing staple fiber, and at least one layer of non-woven material of synthetic fibers in a window or synthetic fibers) or one or more layers of threadlike fibers. Two or more layers together, be bound in such a way that part of the fibers of the layer of non-woven synthetic material passes through the non-woven material made of fiberglass. Two or more layers together, be bound method, where the synthetic fiber may extend through the Mat of non-woven material made of fiberglass.
Non-woven synthetic material can be a staple fiber, but preferably threadlike fibers. Data threadlike fibers are also known to specialists in this field as "infinite" or continuous fibers. Staple fibers or filaments may be present in the form of a multi-component fibers, in particular in the form of two-component fibers, which are well known in the prior art. Suitable fibrous materials can be chosen from the group of polymers or copolymers, such as complex polyester, poly(ethyleneterephthalate), polypropylene, polyamides or polyolefins. Preferably used polypropylene, and more preferably poly(ethyleneterephthalate). As illustrative of a variant implementation of synthetic non-woven materials can be pre-bonded mechanically and hydrodynamically, thermally or kaland the material can be shrunk before connecting with a layer of non-woven material made of fiberglass before or after pre-bonding, but preferably before joining non-woven material made of fiberglass.
Naturally, the layered material may include a third layer of synthetic fibers, thus forming a sandwich structure with a non-woven Mat of glass between them. Where there are two or more non-woven synthetic material and, in particular, two layers of thread-like nonwoven material from a complex polyester, it is preferable that the ratio of the substance in g/m2(gsm) (i.e., mass per square, preferably measured in grams per square meter) of nonwoven materials was in the range of from about 1:1 to 1:5. Preferably the ratio of the substance in g/m2data nonwoven material is between 1:1 and 1:2 and preferably non-woven materials do not fasten before flashing.
In the preferred implementation of the invention pre-made non-woven Mat pre-fasten the connecting before connecting with a synthetic non-woven material by flashing. The diameter of the fiber is approximately from 8 to 16 μm, and preferably from about 10 to 13 μm. The length of the fibers is approximately from 8 to 32 mm and preferably from 8 to 18 mm Suitable binder, which can isolatie, PVC resins, resins based on vinyl alcohol, acrylic and other thermoplastic and thermosetting resins. The amount of binder is from about 5 to 45 weight percent and preferably from 10 to 30 mass percent of the non-woven material made of fiberglass.
The person skilled in the art will easily see that up to 40 percent glass fiber can be replaced by other fibers, in particular fibers based on cellulose, polyacrylonitrile, complex, polyester, polyamide, etc.
Mat can be manufactured using a dry process, but preferably produced using the wet process. Thus, g/m2substances Mat is in the range of from about 30 to 150 g/m2. Even more preferably g/m2the substance is in the range of from about 50 to 90 g/m2.
Then, the formed laminate is subjected to final bonding by the application of binder. Suitable binders for final bonding include carbamidoformaldegid, melamineformaldehyde. Commercially available acrylic and styrene binder is preferably used in amounts in the range of from about 3 to 35 mass pretense binder, it is also possible to use copolymers of styrene, butadiene, acrylates and mixtures of binders from duroplastics, such as urea and melamineformaldehyde resin.
The layer of nonwoven material of the optical fiber may include a reinforcing material in the form of yarn staple fiber, multifilament yarns, the individual yarns or threads of glass or other synthetic materials such as high strength polyethylene, aramid, complex polyester, available in the longitudinal direction, and other reinforcing materials in the form of canvases. Canvases, as used here, include location in a certain way layers of yarns and woven threads. Reinforcing filament, yarn or canvases can also be positioned at any angle to the longitudinal or transverse direction, for example from 10 to 30 degrees. In addition, the reinforcing materials can be placed between or on other layers. Reinforcing materials are placed at a distance of about 1 to 35 mm from each other. The linear density of the filaments is approximately from 200 to 1500 decitex (dtex) and preferably from about 300 to 700 dtex. The person skilled in the art will easily see that decitex or Tex (tex) is a unit of measurement g/10000 m or g/1000 m, respectively.
Layered mater the shM illustrative embodiment in practice of the invention in the process offline layered material made from two sheets or two layers. Layered material includes pre-bonded non-woven fabric of yarns of complex polyester and pre-bonded nonwoven staple fiber. Nonwoven complex polyester pre-fasten flashing.
Organic synthetic non-woven material is preferably made of a polyester fiber obtained by the method of melt moulding, described in DE-OS 2460755, which is fully included here as a reference. Preferably used synthetic material is a poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or complex soporific. Then perform the preliminary binding flashing, where a is from 10 to 40 stitches on cm2. Pre-bonded thread-like non-woven material shows g/m2substances in the range of from about 30 to 350 g/m2and preferably from 100 to 230 g/m2. Shrinkage of the fibers can take place before or optionally after pre-bonding. Put temperature in the range from 140 to 220C or temperature corresponding to the containing bitumen bath used for impregnation of the layered material with bitumen. Other ways prior screename and do not go beyond the scope of the claims.
Nonwoven glass fiber made in accordance with the so-called wet process, where the fiber E, or class, or mixtures thereof, or other commercially available glass such as ECR glass, pre-fasten karbamidoformaldegidnye, melamineformaldehyde and other binder resins, as discussed above. The person skilled in the art will easily see that up to 40 percent glass fiber can be replaced by other fibers. In particular, fibers based on cellulose, polyacrylonitrile, complex, polyester, polyamide, etc.
Perform wet curing and apply the coating in the range of from about 5 to 45 percent and preferably about 10 to 30 percent. Thus, g/m2the substance is in the range of from about 30 to 120 g/m2and preferably from about 50 to 90 g/cm2. In addition, the layer of non-woven material made of fiberglass, you can add a reinforcing agent and yarn, additives such as discussed with reference to the previous variant embodiment of the invention. Pre-bonded non-woven glass fibre materials are particularly favorable. As found in the diagram of stress - strain measured in the longitudinal direction <3%, preferably <2.5 per cent.
In yet another preferred embodiment of the invention is made of three or more layers of the layered materials. For example, a layer of fiberglass is placed on the outer layer of polyester, then it should overlay the second polyester layer, resulting in obtaining a laminated material having at least one outer polyester layer.
The process in the Autonomous mode is characterized by the fact that non-woven synthetic material and nonwoven fiberglass produce individually. Synthetic fiber is thermally treated, for example, passing the non-woven material through the furnace at temperatures of from about 140 to about 220C so that subsequent processing will not cause shrinkage of the fibers and/or nonwoven material. Received the responsible use of a binder is necessary to bond the layers regardless of the method used.
In the centralized mode nonwoven fiberglass injected into the laminate during manufacture of non-woven material of synthetic layers. In particular, one or more canvases polyester yarn is first placed on moving the conveyor line. Non-woven material made of fiberglass are laid one or more layers of polyester and following this, it is not necessary to place additional layers of polyester. Layers of non-woven material of polyester heat shrink before connecting different layers or optional after that.
In accordance with the preferred practice of the invention a non-woven fabric of glass fiber by the so-called process in a centralized mode is injected between the layers of synthetic non-woven fabric made of polyester fibers caused by molding from a melt. The device forming the threads corresponding to the obtained fibrous cloth (i.e., synthetic non-woven material), spun or pulled through the pipe by moving the surface of the deposition, such as a conveyor. After this pre-fabricated layer of nonwoven material of the staple Steklovolokno and Vice versa. If desired, add additional layers. In the preferred embodiment, is made of the upper and lower layers of polyester having equal or different g/m2substances, and make energy in the form of heat shrinkage of the fibers.
In a similar manner, when they produce a two-layer laminated material, use appropriate devices forming fibres for nonwoven, non-woven synthetic material placed on pre-made Mat. In a preferred embodiment, in practice, synthetic thread-like non-woven material seated before binding. After flashing consistently applied binder for final bonding of the substrate/laminate.
Final bond layers perform the processing of layered material binder, such as a binder discussed above. In particular, a binder is injected into a laminate on both sides (i.e., immersing the layered material in a bath with a binder to the stabilizing effect of binding could occur in the outer and inner layers). Synthetic filaments that penetrate through glass, fixed swazoo is neither firmly fixed.
Synthetic fibers can be subjected to shrinkage separately and before are made of non-woven material, using the data subjected to the shrinkage of the fibers. Preferably the organic fiber seat when they are in the form of a nonwoven material or in the form of the respective layers. Shrinkage can take place before mechanical or hydrodynamic preliminary bond. Optional, non-woven material seated after appropriate preliminary bonding. Shrinkage is preferably carried out by heating in an oven at a temperature of from about 140 to 220C.
In order to obtain the desired final thickness of the layered material, stitched laminate/composite can be compressed by processing a commercially available calender, the calender for fabric/belt calender or calender for the layered material.
In the case of synthetic non-woven materials pre-fasten flashing, do 10 to 40 stitches on cm2. Then layers were combined, be bound in such a way that part of the polyester yarn is issued through the bottom surface of the composite/laminate. When the flashing is preferably from 20 to 50 stitches on cm2. Of course, pre which can be performed in one stage, thus, avoiding a separate preliminary fastening the flashing.
The applied method is a process in a centralized mode or process in standalone mode, as discussed above. Used here, the needles have a length between the tip and the tooth of approximately 2 to 4 mm in Order to avoid rupture or simply damage to the optical fibers, the flashing laminate perform at the speed feed forward is preferably less than 14 mm/step. An additional benefit is a significant reduction in the formation of glass dust.
The layer of nonwoven material fiberglass remains largely intact and represents a significant improvement relative to the fire. In addition, because of the integrity of the obtained glass fiber nonwoven fabric is a high stability.
Used in these embodiments, the implementation in practice of the needle in communication with the speed feed forward stitch support a small hood. Hood, as defined here, is when the needle pierces the non-woven material, whereby it is reported the movement of non-woven material in the direction of the layers. Hood in igloprobivnye. Thus, maintaining a small hood, is a layered material with improved mechanical properties and fire resistance.
Flashing is preferably carried out at 20-90 Steinach/cm2. If the preliminary flashing (e.g., 10-40 stitches/cm2), the density of the stitches during the final flashing correspondingly reduced. Therefore, through the above described methods are easy and economical way available nonwoven fabrics or laminates, at least one non-woven material containing a synthetic organic fiber, and from non-woven material containing inorganic staple fibers.
Layered materials show good mechanical strength and, in particular good quality regarding separation. Thus, they can serve as a layer of the substrate roll roofing materials, roofing insulation and water covering, PVC floor coverings and similar. In particular, they show increased stability of size and improved fire resistance.
Moreover, the product manufactured outlined method, provides dimensional stability and FA production.
In particular, nonwoven laminates (for example, impregnated with bitumen) are obtained, inter alia, with good strength, favorable flexibility and good properties regarding the separation. Data layered materials can be handled with ease when using as roll roofing materials in the processes of welding and casting. In addition, the roof can be walked on without damage to the roofing material. Thus, the substrate of the layered materials do not show the effect of the curvature of the banana and have a very favorable properties, such as tensile strength when fastening material roofing nails, breaking load tensile and tensile strength.
The invention will be further explained using the following examples, where the layered material was fixed in the final state without binding.
Polypropylene non-woven material is prepared, having a filament poly(ethyleneterephthalate) on the conveyor. After this thread previously fasten, be bound 35 stitches/cm2. Then, the nonwoven material is thermally set.
Weight non-woven material is equal to about 150 g/m2. This non-woven material combined with haritalika fasten melamine polymer and non-woven material is placed on a non-woven material made of fiberglass. Then nonwovens connect flash with 41 stitch/cm2using the hood in needle punched machine, equal to 12 mm/step. After this, the laminate is subjected to final bond styrene binder. Maximum load tensile laminate is 563 N/5 cm when the elongation of 35.1% in the longitudinal direction and 482 N/5 cm when the elongation to 38.8% in the transverse direction.
Nonwoven staple fiber, pre-fasten melamineformaldehyde binder, continuously impose for receipt of non-woven material of polyester yarns on the equipment for forming from the melt, using six spinning places. After applying the first three nonwoven layer in the conveying direction is laid nonwoven staple fiber. After that, the obtained layer impose three additional paintings. Then spend the infrared processing to produce shrinkage of the laminate. After conducting a preliminary bond 10 stitches/cm2and the final bond 41 stitch/cm2. Then execute the final bond laminates styrene binder.
1. A laminated material comprising at least one layer of pre-bonded non-woven material containing staple fiber, stitched with at least one layer of thermally lined nonwoven fabric of synthetic fibers, where part of the fibers of the top layer of synthetic non-woven material passes through the layer of non-woven material made of fiberglass, possibly through the underlying layer of synthetic non-woven material and where the layered material contains a binder for final fastening.
2. Layered material under item 1, where the resin is used for pre-bonding selected from the group consisting of urea, acrylate and melamineformaldehyde resins.
3. Layered material under item 1, where g/m2matter (mass) of these layers of non-woven synthetic material is the same or different.
4. Layered material under item 1, where the synthetic fibers are selected from the group consisting of a complex of the polyester, poly(ethyleneterephthalate) and polypropylene.
5. Layered material under item 1, where the synthetic fiber non-woven fabric are a staple.
7. Layered material under item 1, where the layered material includes two layers threadlike synthetic non-woven fabric and non-woven material containing glass fiber, in the form of a sandwich structure, where the ratio g/m2the substance of the two thread-like nonwoven material is from 1:1 to 1:5.
8. Layered material under item 7, where the ratio g/m2the substance of these two threadlike synthetic non-woven materials is from 1:1 to 1:2.
9. Layered material under item 1, where the synthetic non-woven materials pre-fasten mechanically, thermally or hydrodynamically.
10. Layered material under item 1, where the synthetic non-woven materials do not fasten before flashing.
11. Layered material under item 1, where the synthetic non-woven material is subjected to heat shrinkage.
12. Layered material under item 1, where the non-woven fabric of glass fiber contains from 5 to 45 wt.% binder resin.
13. Layered material under item 1, where the non-woven fabric of glass fiber contains from 10 to 30 wt.% binder resin.
14. Layered material under item 1, where the layered material made off minimal is 0 to 13 mm/step.
16. Layered material under item 1, where the non-woven fabric of glass fiber includes a reinforcing fiber or yarn running in the longitudinal direction, or canvases.
17. Layered material under item 1, where the non-woven material containing glass fiber, contains fiberglass E, C, a mixture of glass or ECR.
18. Layered material under item 1, where the layer of synthetic non-woven material includes threadlike nonwoven polyesters and where part of the polyester yarn passes through the nonwoven material containing glass fiber, and in the opposite direction to that in which is located a layer of synthetic non-woven material, and thread-like nonwoven polyesters are subjected to thermal shrinkage.
19. A method of obtaining a laminate of two or more layers, where one or more Mat of non-woven material containing staple fiber, pre-bond resin, and then have the layer below, or between layers of non-woven material of synthetic fibers, where the layers of non-woven material of synthetic fibers and a layer of pre-bonded non-woven fabric containing the fiber, together with the flashing so that a portion seated in synthetic fibers and subjected to the specified layered material definitive bond through the use of a binder.
20. The method according to p. 19, where the specified resin for pre-bonding selected from the group consisting of urea, acrylate and melamineformaldehyde resins.
21. The method according to p. 19, where these layers of non-woven material of synthetic fibers are the same or different in thickness.
22. The method according to p. 19, where part of the specified synthetic fibres synthetic layer penetrates into the specified Mat of non-woven material made of fiberglass.
23. The method according to p. 22, where part of the specified synthetic fibres synthetic layer penetrates into the layer of non-woven material made of fiberglass and underlying synthetic layer.
24. The method according to p. 19, where the synthetic fibers in the layer of nonwoven material seated before connecting with a layer of non-woven material made of fiberglass.
25. The method according to p. 19, where these synthetic fibers selected from the group consisting of a complex of the polyester, poly(ethyleneterephthalate) and polypropylene.
26. The method according to p. 19, where the specified synthetic fiber non-woven fabric are threadlike.
27. The method according to p. 19, where the synthetic fiber non-woven fabric are a staple.
28. The method according to p. 19, l is fiber, and layers of non-woven material of synthetic fiber with needles, which have a distance between the needle and the first prong, approximately 2 to 4 mm
29. The method according to p. 19, where the specified flashing do with the speed feed forward step, equal to less than 14 mm/step.
30. The method according to p. 19, where the layer of nonwoven material of staple fiber reinforced longitudinal fibres, yarn or canvases.
31. The method according to p. 19, where the specified synthetic non-woven material is seated at temperatures from 140 to 220C.
32. The method according to p. 19, additionally including shrinkage of the specified layered material at temperatures which correspond to at least the temperature of the bath containing the bitumen used for bituminaria layered material.
33. The method according to p. 32, where the specified shrinkage temperature of 30 higher than the temperature of the bitumen bath.
34. The method according to p. 19, where the layer of nonwoven material of the optical fiber includes a fiber F or their mixtures and ECR glass.
35. The method according to p. 19, further comprising compressing the layered material calender.
36. The method according to p. 35, where the specified calender is a calender for fabric/belt calender or calender for Tumor roll roofing material, waterproof coating, bituminous roofing tile or finishing layer of flooring.
38. Layered material under item 16, where the reinforcing material is located within or between layers of the layered material.
30.07.1999 on PP.1-8;
18.11.1999 on p. 9;
30.07.1999 on p. 10;
18.11.1999 on p. 11;
30.07.1999 on PP.12-17;
18.11.1999 on PP.18-29;
30.07.1999 on p. 30;
30.07.1999 and 18.11.1999 on p. 37;
30.07.1999 on p. 38.