The way to prevent the development of resistance to the colorado potato beetle to insecticides

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the field of plant protection from pests and diseases, and can be used to prevent the development of resistance of Colorado potato beetle to insecticides. To prevent the development of resistance of Colorado potato beetle to the insecticide or other chemical groups antiresistance treatment is carried out with a mixture of aqueous suspensions of insecticide, microbial drug on the basis of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema and a copper-containing fungicide. The mixture is heated to a temperature of 27-32C and use against the 1-2 instars larvae of Colorado potato beetle in the evening hours maximum humidity of air in the upper layer of potato. The positive effect of the method consists in the reduction of the insecticide load on the pest and protect the plant with a 0.85-1.65 l/ha (kg/ha) 0.01-0.5 l/ha (kg/ha) and the frequency of treatments 3 times, increasing capacity antiresistance activity of insecticides in 3-6 times, the biological effectiveness and environmental safety of their use on potato in the fight against the Colorado potato beetle. table 2.

The invention relates to agricultural Hosein development of resistance to the Colorado potato beetle to insecticides.

It is known that the resistance response is a physiological response of the pest on the impact of insecticides, the susceptibility to which is typical for ecologically plastic species of insects, which include the Colorado potato beetle. An example implementation of the adaptive potential of the Colorado potato beetle to toxicants is progressing in recent years, the development of its resistance to PYRETHROID and organophosphate insecticides, widely used for potato protection against this pest. The adaptation process is accompanied by a decrease toxicity and biological effectiveness of insecticides leads to a forced increase in their dosages and the frequency of treatments that induces the development of resistance and degrades the environment /sharutenko, I., Dolzhenko C. I., Vasiliev, I. I., Ivanov, S., A. Zverev A. the Problem of resistance to the Colorado potato beetle to modern insecticides. - In: “Modern systems and new directions in enhancing the potato resistance to Colorado potato beetle. - M., Centre “bioengineering” RAS, 2000/.

There are several ways to overcome and prevent the development of resistance. The closest of them adopted for the prototype is the way Predosa actions microbiological preparations /sharutenko, I., Dolzhenko C. I., A. Koval, the Efficiency of rotation of insecticides with different mechanism of action in the fight against resistant populations of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. Materials 9 meetings, St. Petersburg, 2000/.

The disadvantages of the prototype is: a large number (at least 3) processing potatoes means of control Colorado potato beetle; high insecticidal load on pest and protected plant and low biological effectiveness of biological products, requiring additional processing potato insecticides; the need to constantly change the chemical groups of insecticides that are limited by the capabilities of their product range comprising more than 90% of PYRETHROID and organophosphate drugs. In addition, the system of alternation of insecticides and biological products, as part of a complex of measures for the protection of potatoes against pests and diseases is not associated with the preventive treatment plant fungicides, despite the fact that at least one of them coincides in timing with antiresistance treatment against larvae of the pest.

The aim of the invention is to develop a method for preventing development of resistance in the Colorado potato beetle to insecticides and rastenii against pathogens, allowing to reduce the chemical load on the protected plant and adaptive reactivity of pests to insecticides, to improve the efficiency and environmental safety of their use on potato.

This goal is achieved by spraying of potato plants with a mixture of aqueous suspensions of insecticide, microbial drug on the basis of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema and a copper-containing fungicide. The mixture is heated to 27-32C to activate nematodes and their withdrawal from the state of torpor in which they are at the low temperatures required for storage uterine suspension. The mixture used against larvae 1-2-th ages of Colorado potato beetle in the evening hours maximum humidity of air in the upper layer of the potato when the cuticle of the pest is most permeable to nematodes, and humidity contributes to the manifestation and spread of infectious diseases early blight and macrospores. The dosage of the insecticide in the mixture (depending on increasing neurotoxicity, table 1) reduce 3 to 6 times the recommended on potatoes to control Colorado potato beetle.

Example 1.

In tank knapsack sprayer volume n is Ino heated to 27-32C (use water, real in the sun during the day), 1 l of water suspension of nematodes of one of the species R. Steinernema at a concentration of 20 million invasive larvae/l (uterine suspension of the nematode species S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae produces a pilot production line of VIZR, specializing in the production of microbiological preparations nembach, anthem) and 42 g of wettable powder fungicide pylon, SP (500 g/kg), stirred until a homogeneous suspension, creating pressure in the tank of the sprayer by means of a pump and sprayed potato plants, inhabited by 1-2 instars larvae of the Colorado potato beetle. The efficiency of the method are presented in table 2.

Example 2.

In tank knapsack sprayer, not less than 6 l consistently make 8 ml of the emulsion concentrate of insecticide actellic, EC (500 g/l), hereinafter in example 1. The efficiency of the method are presented in table 2.

Example 3.

In tank knapsack sprayer, not less than 6 l consistently add 2 ml of the emulsion concentrate insecticide Regent, EC (25 g/l), hereinafter in example 1. The efficiency of the method are presented in table 2.

Example 4.

In tank knapsack sprayer, not less than 6 l consistently make 170 mg of the insecticide aktar is Skye work and testing method were carried out on sensitive to insecticides populations of the Colorado potato beetle: Leningrad, the formation of which began in the late 90-ies of the last century and is not subjected to massive chemical media, and Nizhny Novgorod (Kstovo district), preserved natural susceptibility to insecticides and developing production and elite seed-potato, located in OPH “Central”, nipte Nizhny Novgorod APK with high culture of farming and rational use of pesticides.

The studies were used standard methods of field investigation and laboratory testing of plant protection products, environmental and Toxicological monitoring elements phytosanitary and biological control /“Methodological guidelines for the testing of insecticides, acaricides and molluscicides in the plant.” - M., 1986, “Overcoming resistance of agricultural pests to pesticides. Guidelines”), 1991/. The sensitivity of the larvae of the 2nd instar (L2) Colorado potato beetle to insecticides and their toxicity was determined by the concentrations causing 50% (IC-50, % D. C.) and 95% (SC-95, % D. C.) mortality of the pest. In relation SC-95 insecticide to its production concentration (PC) was determined potential Usto is. A measure of the biological effectiveness of insecticides was the reduction of the pest population relative to the source through 5 days after drug use. The number of Colorado potato beetle was determined on 10 account of the plants of each of the second option; the number of replicates in one version - 4. Testing method were carried out under high pest exceeding 2-3 times the value of its economic threshold. In the experiments used the most common and widely used potato insecticides the following chemical groups: pyrethroids - decis, EC (25 g/l), Sumi-alpha, EC (50 g/l), phosphorus - actellic, EC (500 g/l), neonicotinoids - aktar, EDC (250 mg/kg), phenylpyrazoles - Regent, EC (25 g/l), microbial drug methoxylation P (BTB). As a copper-containing fungicide used the drug pylon, JV, containing chlorates copper + having cymoxanil (460+40 g/kg), recommended for prophylactic spraying of potatoes against late blight and macrospores. Processing plants held backpack sprayer Solo-456” pump type with a reservoir volume of 6 L. Biological efficacy of insecticides was determined by the formula

E=100-(a)100,

g is - the pest after processing.

Table 1 presents the results of the evaluation of the sensitivity of larvae (L2) Colorado potato beetle to insecticides from different chemical groups and the heterogeneous mechanism of action. It is shown that the toxicity and mechanism of action of drugs you can judge the potential for pest resistance to insecticides and predisposition to development of resistance, as the process of determining the orientation of the natural selection of resistant individuals in the population. So, neonicotinoids have 74,6-fold potential antiresistance activity, phenylpyrazoles - 59,5xthat is significantly higher than that of the pyrethroids, resource toxicity which, as evidenced by the results of environmental monitoring conducted in the Nizhny Novgorod region, confined within 3-4 years of permanent use on potatoes, then begins to develop pest resistance and to decrease the biological effectiveness of insecticides. Consequently, it is possible to determine the duration of this process and for insecticides other chemical groups: organophosphorus compounds having 26,9xpotential antiresistance activity, it will be shorter than 1.4 times, feneley the items of Colorado potato beetle on the basis of sensitivity to different chemical groups of insecticides and indicates the limited resources of their antiresistance activity.

To enhance the capacity antiresistance activity of the insecticide or other chemical groups may be used in mixture with water suspensions of microbial drug based on entomopathogenic nematodes and a copper-containing fungicide. Each such formula has a combined mechanism of action on larvae of the pest. Nematodes as endoparasites and infecting larva symbiotic bacteria contribute to the inhibition of insecticide target its neurotoxic effect, which leads to irreversible physiological changes in intoxicating the body and to reduce the activity of microsomal oxygenase and other enzymes responsible for the degradation of one or another insecticide and implementation of the adaptive potential of the pest. The sensitivity of a pest such mixtures and their neurotoxicity increased 3.2-6.1 times, aided also potentiating the action of a copper-containing fungicide, reinforcing the processes of inhibition in the body of the pest that allows to adequately reduce the dosage of insecticides without compromising their biological effectiveness (tables 1, 2).

In table 2 the comparative effectiveness of two methods of preduprezhdeny is adopted by the division of chemical agents biological and consistent impact on pest insecticides of different mechanism of action. The average biological efficiency of 3 treatments against the pest is 81.8-84.4 per cent in the total consumption of insecticides of 0.85-1.65 l/ha

Examples 1, 2, 3 and 4 also show that it is possible to prevent the development of resistance to the Colorado potato beetle to insecticides. However, this is achieved through simultaneous effects on larvae of the pest drug mechanism of action in the form of a mixture of one or another insecticide with entomopathogenic nematodes and copper-containing fungicide. Spraying potatoes such mixtures can reduce the frequency of treatments 3 times and the consumption of insecticides in 3-6 times proportionally increasing their toxicity for the pest. The simultaneous use of different mechanism of action reduces the potential sustainability of the Colorado potato beetle to insecticides and predisposition to development of resistance, increases efficiency and environmental safety protections potatoes from this pest.

In example 1 it is shown that spraying the potato mixture decis with nematodes and copper-containing fungicide reduces the number of larvae of the Colorado potato beetle by 95.7%. This 11.3-13.9% higher than the average biological efficiency FR the insecticide load on the pest and protect the plant from 1,65 to 0.03 l/ha, which is 55 times lower than in the comparable version of the prototype. Therefore, the potential antiresistance activity of pyrethroids for example, decis, as a typical representative of this group of insecticides is increased, and the capacity of resistance of pests is reduced.

When used to control Colorado potato beetle mixture Anjelica with nematodes and fungicide reduced in 3 times the dosage of the insecticide (example 2) biological efficiency is to 92.1%, which is 7.7 and 10.3% higher than the average of its values in the prototype. Overall insecticidal press on the pest in this case is reduced 1.7-3.3 times that in the same way as in example 1, demonstrates the advantage of the proposed method to prevent the development of resistance to the Colorado potato beetle as to PYRETHROID and organophosphorus insecticides.

To prevent the development of resistance of Colorado potato beetle to the phenylpyrazoles (example 3) potatoes treated with a mixture of Regent with nematodes and fungicide that provides a reduction in the number of larvae of the pest from 96.5% at reduced 5 times the dosage of insecticide. Total insecticide load on pest decreases 7.1-13.7 times, and biological effectiveness is increased by 12.1-14,t antiresistance events (98,7%) with a minimum of insecticidal impact on the pest (0.01 kg/ha) is achieved when processing potatoes mixture of aqueous suspensions of the insecticide aktar with nematodes and fungicide (example 4).

Shown in tables 1 and 2 materials testify to the advantage of the proposed method to prevent the development of resistance to the Colorado potato beetle to insecticides from different chemical groups, raising their biological effectiveness and antiresistance potential. The possibility of reducing the adaptive reactivity of pests to insecticides due to the decrease in 3-6 times the load on the specific target of their neurotoxic action and inclusion in the process of intoxication pest entomopathogenic nematodes and organic ligands molecules of copper-based fungicide that increase the susceptibility of Colorado potato beetle larvae to insecticides and reduce the activity of enzymes responsible for the development of resistance. This method does not require to change the chemical groups of insecticides to impact on different target their neurotoxic action in order to prevent the development of pest group and cross-resistance.

Thus, the proposed method allows to solve the following tasks: to prevent the development of resistance to the Colorado potato beetle to insecticides from different chemical groups and combine antiresistance activity against the pest with profilactic the third press on protected plant and to reduce the consumption of insecticides against the pest of 0.85-1.65 l/ha (kg/ha) 0.01-0.5 l/ha (kg/ha), to improve the efficiency and environmental safety used on potato plant protection products.

Sources of information

1. Sharutenko, I., Dolzhenko C. I., Vasiliev, I. I., Ivanov, S., A. Zverev A. the Problem of resistance to the Colorado potato beetle to modern insecticides. In collection: “Modern systems and new directions in enhancing the potato resistance to Colorado potato beetle. A series of “Genetic engineering and ecology, volume 1. - M., Centre “bioengineering” RAS, 2000, S. 93-99.

2. Sharutenko, I., Dolzhenko C. I., A. Koval, the Efficiency of rotation of insecticides with different mechanism of action in the fight against resistant populations of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. In Proc.: “current status of the problem of resistance of pests, pathogens and weeds to pesticides in Russia and adjacent countries at the turn of the century.”. Materials 9 meetings (20, 22 December 2000, St. Petersburg). - SPb, VIZR, 2000, S. 37.

3. Methodological guidelines for the testing of insecticides, acaricides and molluscicides of plant. Edited by K. Novozhilov V. and others - M., 1986, 275 S.

4. The overcoming of resistance of agricultural pests to pesticides. Methodical is istinnosti Colorado potato beetle to insecticides, including alternate treatment of potato plants with insecticides of different mechanism of action and biological preparations, characterized in that antiresistance treatment is carried out with a mixture of aqueous suspensions of insecticide, microbial drug on the basis of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema and a copper-containing fungicide, the mixture is heated to a temperature of 27-32C and use against the 1-2 instars larvae of Colorado potato beetle in the evening hours maximum humidity of air in the upper layer of potato.

 

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