The method of feeding ginseng plants

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used for growing ginseng plants. The method involves spraying the aerial parts of plants ginseng solution of biologically active substances in irrigation water. Spraying should be performed during flowering and fruit set twice with an interval of 14 days in a dry, windless weather. As biologically active substances using complex microfertilizer, including the following components, in terms of 100 m2g: zinc nitrate 6-water 4,62-8,62, iron sulfate 7-water 4,90-9,10, boric acid 0,80-1,32, potassium bromide 0,70-1,30, potassium iodide from 0.50 to 0.85, tin chloride-2-water 0,35-0,65, sodium Dubrovskiy 2-water of 0.21 to 0.39, rubidium nitrate 0,07-0,16, manganese sulfate 2,87-5,33, mercury nitrate 2-water 0,02-0,04, lead nitrate 0,06-0,12, cadmium nitrate 4-water 0,02-0,04, silver nitrate 0,042-0,078, gallium nitrate 8-water 0,07-0,13, gallium nitrate 0,014 was 0.026, sodium telerobotically 0,042-0,078, indium nitrate 4,5-water 0,042-0,078, cobalt nitrate 6-water 0,007-0,013, ammonium undeviatingly of 0.014 was 0.026, sodium selenological 10-water 0,028-0,052, sodium of myshyakova the sodium wolframates 2-water 0,014 was 0.026, cesium nitrate 0,0028-0,0052, bismuth nitrate 5-water 0,014 was 0.026, water 4000. The use of the invention provides a weight gain ginseng root while preserving their quality. 3 table.

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used for growing plants ginseng.

It is known that wild ginseng roots reach merchantable quality not earlier than 25-30 years, cultural, usually the fifth or sixth year. On the plantation metabolism in plants is enhanced by agricultural techniques, which consists in loosening the soil, preventing it from crust formation, moving away and cultivation ridges several times per day, watering, fertilizing plants.

The best type of fertilizer is recognized as leaf mold, collected in the forest. Together with wood dust mulch shall be entered in the ridge before seeding at the rate of six pounds per square meter. The same amount of manure compost, where the soil dressed once in three years, increases the yield of roots half. The annual making 60 kg of mineral fertilizers per hectare - one third (Seregin, I. far East, Teberda, then everywhere. Agro-industrial complex of Russia, 1990, No. 7, S. 44).

But the desire to get b is nya large quantities of manure and mineral fertilizers.

Manure humus creates excessive nutrient medium for ginseng, which ultimately leads to disruption of physiological processes in tissues and a sharp weakening of the protective functions of plants. In addition, manure humus - enabling environment for the development of various disease (Poles Century, My hobby is breeding. Owner, 1991, No. 4, S. 40).

Large doses of mineral fertilizers, laying in the bed, ineffective as they reduce the germination of seeds on 6-16% (Seregin, I. far East, Teberda, then everywhere. Agro-industrial complex of Russia, 1990, No. 7, S. 44).

It is known that to increase the mass of roots of ginseng using high doses of nitrogen fertilizers, misuse of pesticides (From the red book is on the field. The Russian agricultural sector, 1990, No. 7, S. 42), which leads to the reduction of biologically active substances in the roots, resulting in reduced therapeutic properties of roots.

It is known that to increase the mass of roots timely care plantation with regard to the biological characteristics of plants, which consists in feeding plants by spraying the above-ground part of the plants several times a day depending on weather conditions, water, and at night - infusion of biologically active totip).

This method of feeding ginseng plants economically impractical on large plantations. The inexpediency of its application because of the scarcity and high cost of the components of the solution for the plants.

The problem solved by this invention, is to find ways of caring for plants ginseng, providing weight gain ginseng root while preserving their quality.

The problem is solved by feeding ginseng plants involving spraying the aerial parts of plants ginseng solution of biologically active substances in irrigation water, and spraying should be performed during flowering and fruit set twice with an interval of 14 days in dry calm weather, and as biologically active substances using complex microfertilizer (CMU), which includes the following components, in terms of 1002, g:

Zinc nitrate 6-water 4,62-8,62

Iron sulfate 7-water 4,90-9,10

Boric acid 0,80-1,32

Potassium bromide 0,70-1,30

Potassium iodide from 0.50 to 0.85

Tin chloride-2-water 0,35-0,65

Sodium Dubrovskiy 2-water of 0.21 to 0.39

Rubidium nitrate 0,07-0,16

Marg is admi nitrate 4-water 0,02-0,04

Silver nitrate 0,042-0,078

Gallium nitrate 8-water 0,07-0,13

Thallium nitrate 0,014-0,026

Sodium telerobotically 0,042-0,078

Indium nitrate

4,5-water 0,042-0,078

Cobalt nitrate

6-water 0,007-0,013

Ammonium undeviatingly 0,014-0,026

Sodium selenological 10-water 0,028-0,052

Sodium myshyakovistuyu 0,014-0,026

Copper nitrate 6-water 0,66-1,22

Ammonium molybdate 0,098-of 0.182

Antimony 3-chloride 0,028-0,052

Sodium wolframates

2-water 0,014-0,026

Cesium nitrate 0,0028-0,0052

Bismuth nitrate 5-water 0,014-0,026

Water 4000

A variety of used items can increase weight gain ginseng root while preserving their quality due to the formation in plants of a wide range of biologically active substances.

An example of a specific implementation.

Experience in cultivation of ginseng laid in 10 km from Tver, 40 m from the forest. Square plots 10 square meters Above the plot set the shading shield (the ratio of light and shadow 50/50%), made of strips of a width of 4 cm with a gap between them 4 see Experience laid on natural ground with a bulk layer andtheir seedlings. The scheme of the experiment included 5 options, repeated three times. Three variants of experience was held foliar complex fertilizers (CMU) in the flowering period (July 10). After 2 weeks of feeding (CMU) conducted again.

In the experience were laid one of the control variant (without fertilization) growing plants ginseng and four options foliar feeding ginseng plants: spraying plants with water by fine irrigation and three spraying plants with an aqueous solution of the CMU also by fine spraying.

3 variants of fertilization (CMU) were used to test the effect of the maximum dose, the minimum and the optimal rate of g per 100 m2(PL.1).

In table.2 shows biometrics ginseng root after the field season.

From table.2 it follows that the dry conditions of the summer is a positive and significant impact on the weight, length and diameter of roots of ginseng has provided irrigation water. So, the mass of roots of ginseng on average increased by 2.25 times the length of the main root 1.75 times the diameter of the root in 1,71 times. However, the biggest positive is the impact of optimal (sroka in 5,14 times, in relation to the mass of roots in the variant with irrigation water - 2,28 times. The length of the main root increased with the use of the CMU (optimal dose) in comparison to the control plants 2 times and of 1.14 times relative to plants with irrigation water. The diameter of the main root at the variant with the CMU (optimal dose) was increased relative to control plants in 2.86 times and 1.66 times relative to plants with irrigation water.

The effect on the growth and development of ginseng roots other options CMU - making maximum concentration of reagents and the minimum contents following the optimal content of 20-30%.

Visually, the treated aqueous solution CMU plants observed increase in leaf compared with the control, the formation and ripening of fruit on these plants was faster (about 10 days) compared with plants of other options, the number and size of the fruit more.

However, it is important, did not change the qualitative indicators of ginseng roots under the action of foliar feeding of plants with an aqueous solution of the CMU. To clarify this question was conducted by x-ray fluorescence analysis of ginseng roots.

The composition of the roots of ginseng plants in different is that macro - and micronutrients, members of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, in the roots of ginseng.

All studied elements can be divided into three groups:

- essential macronutrients - P, S, Cl, K, CA;

- vital trace elements - MP, Fe, Co, cu, Zn, J, Mo;

- heavy metals V, Cr, Ni, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Sn, Sb.

Along the way, we determined the number of elements, the physiological role of which is not relevant, - Ti, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba.

However, this division is rather conditional. Thus, Zn, cu, Mo although often used as micronutrients, in the conditions of admission into the environment in high quantities, such as overdose or regional conditions of non-ferrous metallurgy, are toxic. Moreover, at low doses there are many examples of the positive effect on the yield of agricultural crops such As As, Se, Cd, Pb, etc.

From table.3 it follows that for essential micronutrient is quite certain regularity. The micronutrient content in the roots of ginseng plants fueled CMU, somewhat larger than plants in the control (S, Sa), or coincides with it (P, Cl). In the roots of ginseng on the variant with irrigation, on the contrary, the content of all elements is almost 2 times lower than for a version with the CMU, although also conducted irrigation, dilution items not occurred.

As for the essential trace elements, the roots of ginseng on average, the variant with the CMU 14% more than in the control samples, i.e., for them dilution of the elements does not occur. In the variant with irrigation the average content of essential micronutrients by 3.5% more than in the roots in the control version, i.e. for them dilution does not occur.

The studied heavy metals can be divided into biologically active, which were introduced as part of the CMU, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Sn, Sb and refractory - V, Cr, Ni, not possessing high biological activity. Despite the fact that the elements of the first group were made as part of the CMU, in the roots of ginseng content on average 2% lower than the control, which is insignificant. In the variant with irrigation water contents of these elements in average lower than the control at 3%, which is also insignificant. In the variant with application of the CMU in the roots of ginseng increased by 8%, the V content, decreased the content of Cr 6%, increased the content of Ni, a similar situation is observed in the variant with irrigation water, only the increase in the content of V and Ni more than 1.4-3.1 times.

Thus, despite h is m solution of CMU, the content of biologically active elements is practically not reduced, suggesting a preservation of the pharmacological properties of ginseng roots - healing, stimulating and restorative qualities.

The method of feeding ginseng plants involving spraying the aerial parts of plants ginseng solution of biologically active substances in irrigation water, characterized in that the spray produced during flowering and fruit set twice with an interval of 14 days in dry calm weather, and as biologically active substances using complex microfertilizer, comprising the following components in terms of 100 m2, g:

Zinc nitrate 6-water 4,62-8,62

Iron sulfate 7-water 4,90-9,10

Boric acid 0,80-1,32

Potassium bromide 0,70-1,30

Potassium iodide from 0.50 to 0.85

Tin chloride-2-water 0,35-0,65

Sodium Dubrovskiy 2-water of 0.21 to 0.39

Rubidium nitrate 0,07-0,16

Manganese sulfate 2,87-5,33

Mercury nitrate 2-water 0,02-0,04

Lead nitrate 0,06-0,12

Cadmium nitrate 4-water 0,02-0,04

Silver nitrate 0,042-0,078

Gallium nitrate 8-water 0,07-0,13

Cobalt nitrate 6-water 0,007-0,013

Ammonium undeviatingly 0,014-0,026

Sodium selenological 10-water 0,028-0,052

Sodium myshyakovistuyu 0,014-0,026

Copper nitrate 6-water 0,66-1,22

Ammonium molybdate 0,098-of 0.182

Antimony 3-chloride 0,028-0,052

Sodium wolframates 2-water 0,014-0,026

Cesium nitrate 0,0028-0,0052

Bismuth nitrate 5-water 0,014-0,026

Water 4000

 

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FIELD: soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants in oil recovery and transportation regions.

SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %): chemical ameliorant 3.5-5.7; organic fertilizer 15.7-29.0; adsorbent 67.5-78.6. Method for sectioning soil treatment includes application of composition onto soil layer with 30 cm of depth. Then treated layer is shifted out of spot boundary. Opened surface is covered with composition of present invention. Then mole drainage of 60-65 cm in depth is made in soil by using mole plow or chisel plow, followed by plowing of 58-51 cm in depth and returning of sheared soil into spot.

EFFECT: effective soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

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