Shell-and-tube heat exchanger and method of assembly

 

The invention is intended for use in heat, and it can be used for the manufacture of heat exchangers, mainly for internal combustion engines of vehicles. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger includes a casing, which houses a bundle of heat exchange tubes with cooling fins, fixed ends of the tubes through the holes in tube sheets, and the ends of the tubes protrude from the lattice, and the annular space is divided by transverse partitions forming a cooling circuit with fittings inlet and outlet tube of the environment, and the collector supply and discharge line environment, attached to the flanges of the casing on both sides of the heat exchanger, and one of the tube sheets clamped between the flange of the casing and the manifold, and the other placed tightly within the casing with the possibility of longitudinal movement with temperature changes, the length of the bundle of heat exchange tubes, built end parts of the tubes through holes in tube sheets by donovania, through holes in tube sheets perform step at least by the end of the heat exchanger tube, in addition, the length of the heat exchanger connection t is the exchange tubes and tube sheets, drespthe diameter of the through hole tube. Way to build shell-and-tube heat exchanger includes a sealing end parts of the heat exchanger tubes through the holes in tube sheets, to which the ends of the tubes is carried out through tubular lattice through the through holes in the walls and buried in the through-holes donovania, after which the elastic material of the wall of the through hole compresses the outer and inner diameters of the heat exchange tubes on the length of contact with the tube sheet by the value of the elastic extending through holes caused by donovania plastic end part of the heat exchange tube for longitudinal movement of the cylindrical mandrel relative to the tube, and through holes in the tube sheets treated with the roughness of the walls in the range from 6.3 to 25.0 μm, and the burnishing end parts of the heat exchanger tubes through the holes in tube sheets are produced to increase the outer diameter of the end portion of the tube to a size at least greater than the diameter of the through hole to a depth of roughness, for longitudinal movement with the largest diameter of the mandrel on the length equal to the thickness of the tube. The invention of especialmente. 11 Il.

The invention relates to the field of heat transfer and can be used in the manufacture of heat exchangers mainly for internal combustion engines of vehicles.

A known heat exchanger containing casing which contains fixed in the tube plate heat pipe with expansion joints thermal expansion. Heat pipe made of composite mounted with clearance Autonomous segments of pipe having at the free end of the inner cylindrical grooves, and the compensator is made in the form of a pair is inserted into each other springy rings with diametrically opposed longitudinal slits. (Ed. St. USSR №1562656 A1. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger. - MCI 5: F 28 D 7/16, bull. No. 17, 07.05.1990 year). A disadvantage of the known heat exchanger is low reliability and manufacturability of the design.

The known heat exchanger, containing a casing, which houses a bundle of heat exchange tubes with cooling fins, fixed ends of the tubes through the holes in tube plates, and the ends of the tubes protrude from the boards. Annular space is divided by transverse partitions forming a cooling circuit with PA who ectory inlet and outlet pipe of the environment (Ed. St. USSR №1632729 A1. A method of manufacturing shell & tube heat exchangers - MCI 5: 23 P 15/26, bull. No. 9, 07.03.1991 year). This heat exchanger is adopted for the prototype.

A disadvantage of the known heat exchanger, taken as a prototype, is the complexity of its Assembly, since the outer contour of the transverse partitions formed by sintering on the tubes ferromagnetic particles together, forming a monolithic wall between the tubes, the outer contour of which requires additional processing in the size of the casing directly on the beam pipe, having a low rigidity, and lack of longitudinal fixation tube plates in the exchanger casing.

There is a method of Assembly of shell and tube heat exchanger, comprising a sealing end parts of the heat exchanger tubes through the holes in tube sheets. For this purpose the ends of the tubes are inserted into the through hole tube with high strength walls. Then close up the ends of the tubes through the holes donovania, in which the elastic material of the wall of the hole compresses the outer and inner diameters of the tube on the length of contact with the tube sheet due to elastic expansion of the through-hole caused by donovania plastic end part of the heat exchange TRU the first heat exchanger and method for its Assembly. MCI 5: F 28 F 9/04, bull. No. 415.029, 26.06.1984 year). This method is adopted for the prototype.

The disadvantages of the method adopted for the prototype, are the technological complexity of Assembly, requiring great effort of burnishing, and the lack of tightness of the tube with the tube sheet due to suboptimal correlation of parameters of the mating parts and modes of burnishing.

The main task, which is aimed claimed shell-and-tube heat exchanger and method of Assembly is to improve the reliability of connection of the tubes and tube sheets and effort reduction of burnishing in the Assembly of the heat exchanger.

A single technical result achieved in the implementation of the claimed group of inventions is to reduce the cost and improving the reliability of shell and tube heat exchanger.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known heat exchanger, containing a casing, which houses a bundle of heat exchange tubes with cooling fins, fixed ends of the tubes through the holes in tube sheets, and the ends of the tubes protrude from the lattice, and the annular space is divided by transverse partitions forming a cooling circuit with fittings inlet and on both sides of the heat exchanger, according to the proposed technical solution:

one of the tube sheets clamped between the flange of the casing and the manifold, and the other placed tightly within the casing with the possibility of longitudinal movement with temperature changes, the length of the bundle of heat exchanger tubes, built end parts of the tubes through holes in tube sheets by donovania;

connection length of heat exchanger tubes and tube sheets is at least more than half, but less than two diameters of the through-hole tube;

through holes in the tube sheets perform with a chamfer, at least by the end of the heat exchanger tube size in the range of 0.1...0.2 diameter of the through holes;

through holes in the tube sheets perform step at least by the end of the heat-exchange tubes;

tube made of steel, and heat-exchanger tubes - brass;

tube and heat exchanger tube is made of aluminum alloy, while the tube is subjected to tempering, and heat exchanger tube - vacation, at least the ends of their length, more thickness tube.

This technical result is achieved by the known method of Assembly to steh pipe arrays to which the ends of the tubes is carried out through tubular lattice through the through holes with high strength walls and buried in the through holes of the pipe lattices donovania, after which the elastic material of the wall of the through hole compresses the outer and inner diameters of the heat exchange tubes on the length of contact with the tube sheet by the value of the elastic extending through holes caused by donovania plastic end part of the heat exchange tube for longitudinal movement of the cylindrical mandrel relative to the tube, in accordance with the proposed technical solution:

through holes in the tube sheets treated with the roughness of the walls within Rz=6,3...25,0 µm, and the burnishing end parts of the heat exchanger tubes through the holes in tube sheets are produced to increase the outer diameter of the end portion of the tube to a size at least greater than the diameter of the through hole to a depth of roughness, for longitudinal movement with the largest diameter of the mandrel on the length equal to the thickness of the tube;

through holes in the tube sheets perform in diameter, the large outer diameter of the heat exchange tubes on the amount of the total tolerance, sostoyatie in the tube lattice;

the burnishing end parts of the heat exchanger tubes through the holes in tube sheets are made for several consecutive transitions, the diameter of the mandrel, the first transition take a large inner diameter of the heat exchange tube by an amount equal to the total tolerance, and the diameters of the mandrels to perform other transitions increase with each subsequent transition by an amount at least not more than half the wall thickness of heat-exchange tubes;

the winding portion of the mandrel perform with taper within 3...;

through holes in the tube sheets perform conical with the difference between the diameters at the levels of the surfaces of the tube no more than a total of tolerance, and with a smaller diameter on the surface of the tube with the end of the heat-exchange tubes;

in the through-holes pipe grates perform the annular or spiral grooves in the form of, for example, fine-grained threads.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the level of technology has allowed to establish that the analogs are characterized by the sets of characteristics is identical for all features of the declared shell-and-tube heat exchanger and method of its Assembly, no. Therefore, each of davleniyeni in the art to identify signs, match the distinctive features of prototypes signs of each of the proposed technical solution, showed that they do not follow explicitly from the prior art. Of certain of applicant's prior art there have been no known impact provided the essential features of each of the proposed technical solutions transformations on the achievement of the technical result. Therefore, each of the claimed technical solution meets the condition of patentability “inventive step”.

In the present application for patent complied with the requirement of unity of invention, since the shell-and-tube heat exchanger and method of Assembly have one goal - ensuring reliable connection of tubes and tube sheets at low cost to the Assembly of the heat exchanger.

In Fig.1 depicts a heat exchanger, a General view of Fig.2 - section a-a in Fig.1; Fig.3 - scheme of installation of the tube into the hole with chamfer on the pipe grate; Fig.4 - speed execution holes in the tube sheet holes; Fig.5 is a diagram of installation of the tube into the tapered hole of the tube; Fig.6 - Dorn, General view; Fig.7 - the first transition of burnishing; Fig.8 - second transition of burnishing; Fig.9 connection truby.11 - the third transition of burnishing.

The heat exchanger consists of a casing 1 in which is placed the bundle of heat exchange tubes 2 with cooling ribs 3, the fixed ends of the tube 2 in tube sheets 4 and 5 (Fig.1). Annular space is divided by transverse partitions 6, forming with the nozzle inlet 7 and outlet 8 shell environment cooling circuit. Tubular bars 4 clamped between the flange 9 and the collector 10 supply-line environment with the pads 11 and tubular bars 5 are placed tightly within the casing 1, by means of rubber rings 12. The collector 13 of the exhaust pipe environment attached to the flange 14 of the casing 1. End part of the heat transfer tubes 2 is mounted in the through hole 15 of the tube sheets 4 and 5 donovania (Fig.2). Holes 15 in tube plates 4 and 5 are made with chamfers 16, the height h of which is chosen from the condition of 0.1 dresp<h<0,2 dresp(Fig.3). Holes 15 can be performed stepwise (Fig.4). The length T of the connection of the heat transfer tubes 2 tube sheets 4 and 5 is selected from the condition of 0.5 dresp<T<2,0 d.

The Assembly of the heat exchanger by the present method is as follows.

In tube sheets 4 and 5 holes 15 are filled with a diameter of dresp=dTr+- total access:=Tr+resp+tconsisting of the sum of the tolerances on the outside diameter dTrtube -Tron the hole diameter drespin the tube lattice -respand the thickness t of the wall of the tube -tHole 15 is implemented with a roughness in the range Rz=6,3...25,0 µm, allowing donovani plastic metal tubes 2 to fill the micro-relief 17 roughnesses of the surfaces of the holes 15 in the tube sheets 4 and 5. Holes 15 in the tube sheets is supposed to be tapered within thewith a smaller bore diameter dATVequal to dTron the surface of the tube with the end of the heat exchanger tube 2 (Fig.5). The package of the cooling fins 3 and the transverse partitions 6 are assembled with the tubes 2, which beam set into the holes 15 of the tube sheets 4 and 5. The mounting end parts of the tube 2 in tube 4 and 5 is carried out by donovania three transition through the mandrel 17 (Fig.6). When you first �/chr/948.gif">)-2t,

where t is the wall thickness of the tube. In this case the anglewinding cone 18 of the mandrel 17 on the length made within 3-9that creates a greater radial force and requires a small effort along the axis of its movement when donovani. The first transition Dornava-of select clearance between the diameters of the tubes 2 and the holes 15 and press the outer surface of the end portion of the tube 2 to the surface of the hole 15 in the tube sheet holes. For the second transition of burnishing diameter d2mandrel 17 is chosen equal (Fig.8):

d2=(dTr+)-0,5 t.

Anglethe winding cone of the mandrel 17 also perform within 3-9. If the second transition surface of the end portion of the tube 2 is finally pushed into the surface of the hole 15 of the tube at the height of macro and finish obtained due to the surface roughness in the hole 15 (Fig.9). The same effect is obtained by performing surface of the holes 15 with annular or helical grooves, for example, in the form of fine-grained thread (Fig.10). Third, the final transition of burnishing is performed by the mandrel 17, the diameter dOKwhich of eti transition creates an additional seal between the surface of the end portion of the tube 2 and the surface of the hole 15 in the tube sheets with the emergence of diffusion connections between them (Fig.11). In this case, the elastic material tube through hole 15 compresses the outer and inner diameters of the heat exchange tube 2 by the value of the elastic extension of the through hole 15, caused by the force from the burnishing plastic end part of the heat exchange tubes 2, which is pressed into the roughness of the solid surface of the hole 15 of the tube, providing a reliable connection between them. When this tube 2 is expanded in the area of the chamfer 16 or steps of the holes 15 due to permanent deformation of the tube 2 after the final burnishing, in which the ends of the tubes can act on the value of L or sink to the level of the surface of the tube, which creates a reliable connection between the tubes and tube sheets. The reliability of connection is improved in the manufacture of tube steel, and heat-exchange tubes of brass, or in the manufacture of tube and pipes of aluminium alloys, with the tube before Assembly is subjected to high holiday, and tubular grille - quenching. After burnishing the beam tubes 2 connected to tube sheets, are inserted into the tubular bars 5 with rubber rings 12 in the casing 1 of the heat exchanger. Tubular bars 4 secured between the flange 9 and the collector 10 supply nutridata the design of the heat exchanger allows operation to disassemble the heat exchanger and clean it, for example, the cooling fins 3 of the heat transfer tubes 2.

The heat exchanger works as follows.

Environment-line space is fed into a manifold 10, flows through the heat exchange tubes 2, exchanging in this warm environment annulus and then through the collector 13 is removed from the heat exchanger. Wednesday annulus flows through the pipe 7, and then, skirting the transverse partitions 6, flows through the cooling circuit between the tubes 2, enters the pipe 8. Thermal expansion of the tubes 2 are compensated by the displacement of the tube 5 in the casing 1 with ensuring the tightness of the rubber rings 12. When the heat exchanger in the design of the internal combustion engine is selected length T of the connection of the heat transfer tubes 2 tube sheets 4 and 5 in combination with donovania allows us to perceive heat, vibration and shock loads both axial and radial, while maintaining the strength of their connection.

The proposed method of Assembly of the heat exchanger allows for the optimization of parameters of elements of the mating parts before Assembly and modes of burnishing to get a reliable connection of the heat exchanger tubes and tube sheets, when the handset for a few PE the finish of the hole and the joining of materials at the molecular level. A small axial force does not push the tube from the holes in tube sheets and allows the burnishing the whole bundle of heat exchange tubes at the same time. Such a connection tube to tube sheet can withstand long exposure to radial and axial forces, has a high vibration impact strength and perceives thermal load.

The proposed shell-and-tube heat exchanger and method of Assembly developed technical documentation, manufactured and tested prototypes.

Claims

1. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger containing casing, which houses a bundle of heat exchange tubes with cooling fins, fixed ends of the tubes through the holes in tube sheets, and the ends of the tubes protrude from the lattice, and the annular space is divided by transverse partitions forming a cooling circuit with fittings inlet and outlet tube of the environment, and the collector supply and discharge line environment, attached to the flanges of the casing on both sides of the heat exchanger, wherein one of the tube sheets clamped between the flange of the casing and a collector, and the other placed tightly within the casing with the possibility of food and parts of the tubes through holes in tube sheets by donovania, moreover, through holes in tube sheets perform step at least by the end of the heat exchanger tube, in addition, the length of the connection of heat exchanger tubes and tube sheets is selected as 0.5 dresp<T<2,0 dwhere T is the length of the connection of heat exchanger tubes and tube sheets, drespthe diameter of the through hole tube.

2. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that the through holes in the tube sheets perform with chamfers, and the height of the chamfer is selected from the condition of 0.1 dresp<h<0,2 dwhere h is the height of the chamfer, drespthe diameter of the through hole.

3. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that the tube is made of steel, and heat-exchange tube is made of brass.

4. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that the tube and heat exchanger tube is made of aluminum alloy, and the tube is subjected to tempering, and heat exchanger tubes exposed to leave, at least on longer than the thickness of the tube.

5. The method of Assembly of shell and tube heat exchanger, comprising a sealing end parts of the heat exchanger tubes through the holes in tube sheets, which Each donovania, after which the elastic material of the wall of the through hole compresses the outer and inner diameters of the heat exchange tubes on the length of contact with the tube sheet by the value of the elastic extending through holes caused by donovania plastic end part of the heat exchange tube for longitudinal movement of the cylindrical mandrel relative to the tube, wherein the through holes in the tube sheets treated with the roughness of the walls in the range from 6.3 to 25.0 μm, and the burnishing end parts of the heat exchanger tubes through the holes in tube sheets are produced to increase the outer diameter of the end portion of the tube to a size at least greater than the diameter of the through hole to a depth of roughness, for longitudinal movement with the largest diameter of the mandrel on the length equal to the thickness of the tube.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the through holes in the tube sheets perform in diameter, the large outer diameter of the heat exchange tubes on the amount of the total tolerance, consisting of the sum of the tolerances on outside diameter and wall thickness of the heat exchange tube and the diameter of the through holes in the tube sheet holes.

7. The method according to any of the p. 5 or 6, otlist for several consecutive transitions, the diameter of the mandrel, the first transition take a large inner diameter of the heat exchange tube by an amount equal to the total tolerance, and the diameters of the mandrels to perform other transitions increase with each subsequent transition by an amount at least not more than half the wall thickness of heat-exchange tubes.

8. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the through holes in the tube sheets perform conical with the difference between the diameters at the levels of the surfaces of the tube no more than a total of tolerance.

9. The method according to any of paragraphs.5, 6 and 8, characterized in that the through-holes pipe grates perform the annular or spiral grooves in the form of, for example, fine-grained threads.

 

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