The method of drying of plant materials

 

The invention relates to the field drying of plant materials and can be used, for example, for drying of foods, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, herbs, spices and other Method involves several cycles of high-speed vacuum plant material in the drying chamber by means of the receiver, quick-release valves and piping with a constant heating plant materials isolated from the atmosphere of the drying chamber. During heating and cooling of the material under a residual vacuum heating is carried out to a temperature which will not cause denaturation of the material, to obtain the vapor pressure in the closed volume of the drying chamber, is equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature. The receiver volume when connecting it to the drying chamber provides for the creation of a pressure less than the equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature, and the diameter of the pipeline connecting the drying chamber with the receiver calculated by the included in the description of the formula. The drying method should allow large volumes of dried vegetables, fruits, mushrooms and other foods for a short time within 1-2 hours with high quality indicators. 1 Il.

A known method of drying food (see RF patent №2018245, M class 5A 23 L 3/52), including processing of raw material with liquid carbon dioxide at a pressure above atmospheric, the foaming or expansion of the material during the pressure release to atmospheric and the removal of moisture by increasing temperature and/or pressure drops, and the processing of the raw material with liquid carbon dioxide is carried out in the field of mechanical ultrasonic vibrations frequency 18-120 kHz, and the removal of moisture is carried out in the field of electromagnetic waves of high frequency of not less than 850 MHz.

The disadvantages of this method of drying can be attributed to high operating costs due to the irretrievable loss of liquid carbon dioxide, and applying a high-frequency oscillations requires additional protection, maintenance staff, because they are harmful to human health.

Known a more perfect method of drying moisture materials of vegetable and animal origin (see RF patent №2048245, M CL 6 F 26 3/30), carried out by forming a layer and subsequent irradiation of the infrared rays to the desired humidity, and drying are in pulse mode n is2before reaching the temperature of the material is equal to 0.8-0.9 the maximum temperature drying, and cooling is carried out to achieve the temperature of the material equal to 0.4-0.6 the maximum temperature drying.

The disadvantages of this method of drying include high energy costs and the long duration of the drying process.

The closest in technical essence to the proposed method (prototype) is a thermo-vacuum-pulse method of drying of plant materials (see RF application No. 99108225/13, M CL 7A 23 IN 7/02, publ. in BIPM No. 7 from 10.03.2002,), comprising drying the product under vacuum by means of cyclic alternation of heating and soaking in a vacuum, in which the plant material is heated to a temperature which will not cause denaturation their original quality characteristics, the degassing is performed by pulses of 0.1-13,0 kPa for the 0.05-15,0 with aged 5-600m, and reset vacuum to atmospheric pressure is adiabatic evaporation of the dried material in a closed drying chamber. Cycles of heating, pulsed vacuum-treated with the extract under vacuum and discharge of the vacuum adiabatic evaporation repeated to achieve the desired final moisture content of plant materials.

To netlogo material at a temperature below 100With, especially when adiabatic evaporation, without the supply of heat, only due to the change of internal energy. Reaching atmospheric pressure in the insulated tank is possible only at temperatures above 100With that will lead to denaturation of the quality characteristics of the product and will make it unpalatable or unsuitable for food product.

The present invention is to improve the quality of drying of food products, reducing drying time and reducing the capital cost of the production of the necessary special equipment.

Delivered to the invention this object is achieved by the fact that each vacuum cycle plant material in the drying chamber conduct high-speed vacuum with the aid of the receiver, quick-release valves and piping with a constant heating plant materials throughout the drying process in the isolated atmosphere of the drying chamber, and during heating and cooling of the material under a residual vacuum heating is carried out to a temperature which will not cause denaturation of the material and obtain a vapor pressure equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure in the closed volume and in the pores of the plant material at the Institute with a drying chamber, facilitate the creation of a pressure less than the equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature, quick-release valves and piping for connecting the drying chamber with the receiver 0.1-1.0 and relaxation of pressure in the drying chamber and the material, and the diameter of the pipeline connecting the drying chamber with the receiver, is calculated by the formula

where d is the pipe diameter, m;

P is the pressure in the drying chamber, PA;

P0the accumulator pressure, PA;

- kinematic viscosity of the vapor mixture, cSt.;

V0- free volume of the drying chamber, m3;

l is the length of the connecting pipe, m;

t - time set of the set pressure in the drying chamber, C.

Each operation of each cycle of the high-speed vacuum starts when the pressure in the receiver 1-10 mm RT.article.

The flow of coolant in the process of implementation drying cycles, perform uniformly distributed throughout the volume of an isolated drying chamber by fans and regulated distributing the guides from the continuous, permanent, and counter to the opposite.

Removal of free moisture from the drying chamber of the exercise without soedinitelno created pressure less than the pressure than in the drying chamber.

Signs that each vacuum cycle plant material in the drying chamber conduct high-speed vacuum with the aid of the receiver, quick-release valves and piping with a constant heating plant materials throughout the drying process in the isolated atmosphere of the drying chamber, and during heating and cooling of the material under a residual vacuum heating is carried out to a temperature which will not cause denaturation of the material and obtain a vapor pressure equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure in the closed volume and in the pores of the plant material at a given temperature, are signs unobvious, unexpected, have an inventive step and are aimed at achieving the invention to reduce time and improve quality drying of plant materials.

Indications that the high-speed evacuation is carried out at the AV receiver, the volume of which, when connecting it to the drying chamber, provides for the creation of a pressure less than the equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature, quick-release valves and piping for connecting the drying chamber with the receiver 0.1-1.0 and relaxation is rum, is calculated by the formula

where d is the pipe diameter, m;

P is the pressure in the drying chamber, PA;

P0the accumulator pressure, PA;

- kinematic viscosity of the vapor mixture, cSt.;

V0- free volume of the drying chamber, m3;

l is the length of the connecting pipe, m;

t - time set of the set pressure in the drying chamber, with

are signs, clarifying and enabling the achievement of invention tasks for high-vacuum and, consequently, improving the quality of drying food. It is the sum of the parameters of high-speed vacuum - connection of the drying chamber with a receiver, having a volume sufficient to create the vapor pressure at this temperature for 0.1-1.0 second, the relaxation time of the pressure in the drying chamber defined by the diameter of the pipeline connecting the camera to the receiver and is calculated according to the above formula, until a residual pressure below the equilibrium, exposure to heat under vacuum to provide the removal of free moisture from the food products primarily in the liquid phase to a moisture content of about 30%, i.e. it gives the vacuum starts when the pressure in the receiver 1-10 mm RT.art., it is a sign that clarifies the operations of high-speed vacuum that enables the creation of conditions under which isolated from the atmosphere of the drying chamber briefly creates a pressure below the equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature, which subsequently relaxes to equilibrium. Removal of bound moisture to the desired final moisture content of plant material the drying process after the vacuum at a residual vacuum is carried out with simultaneous heating and curing under vacuum in an isolated drying chamber to the equilibrium vapor pressure, after which it re-connect with the receiver, relax the pressure in the drying chamber to a pressure below the equilibrium at a given temperature, the pressure in the receiver when connected to the drying chamber should be 1-10 mm RT.art., so in the drying chamber was created the effect of superheated water.

Signs that the flow of coolant in the process of implementation drying cycles perform uniformly distributed throughout the volume of an isolated drying chamber, by fans and regulated distributing the guides from the continuous, permanent, and counter to the opposite - are at the Oia high quality drying of plant materials.

Constant and continuous supply of coolant to the plant material throughout the volume of the chamber and used as a coolant existing in the drying chamber the mixture of air and saturated water vapor at a given temperature, provide rapid and uniform heating of the plant material in the drying chamber.

Signs that the removal of free moisture from the drying chamber of the exercise without connecting it with the atmosphere through pipes and mounted on them of the valves in the fluid collector, in which a pre-established pressure less pressure than in the drying chamber, are signs aimed at achieving the invention's objective of reducing the drying time by saving the current in the drying chamber vacuum.

The combination of the above distinguishing features allows sufficiently to improve the quality of drying of food products, thereby to reduce drying time and used for drying food products available equipment, which significantly reduces capital work that would be required for the manufacture of special, expensive, bulky and voluminous equipment, in particular the receiver displacement of, previews the soup which was the experimental verification of the feasibility of the proposed method of drying of plant materials.

The method of drying of plant materials is carried out by means of drying chambers 1 and 2, each of which is equipped with a device 3 for uniform distribution of the heat carrier heating the coolant coils 4 and 5 fans coolant throughout the volume of the drying chamber. The pipes 6 with built-in high-speed valves 7 and 8 connect the drying chamber 1 and 2 with the receiver 9. Each drying chamber 1 and 2 has a valve 10 for connecting the drying chamber with the atmosphere and the valve 11 to drain free of moisture from the drying chamber and receiver in the lock chamber. The drying chamber 1 and 2 are sealed door 12 for loading and unloading trucks with the product, have the coils 4 and 5 fans. The vacuum pump 13 provides a specified vacuum in the receiver 9, and when opening the valves 7 and 8 and in the drying chambers 1 and 2. A fluid collector 14 is designed to collect free moisture from the drying chambers 1, 2 and condensate from the receiver 9 and the heat exchanger 15, which is cooled by the refrigerant from the refrigeration machine 16. To drain the fluid from the collector 14 without depressurization of the entire system using the valve 17. To ensure rapid actuation of pneumatic valves 7 and 8 use the compressor 18.

Offer sporatically material evenly placed on mesh trays, which are then mounted on the carriage 19 and push into the drying chamber 1, and then tightly close the door 12 includes a heating coil 4, a fan 5 and heat the air in the chamber is initially at atmospheric pressure.

While drying chamber 1 is isolated from the receiver 9 and the external environment by means of closing of the quick-acting valves 7 and 8 and the valves 10 and 11. Simultaneously refrigerating machine 16 for cooling the heat exchanger 15 and the vacuum pump 13 to create in the receiver 9 pressure 1-10 mm RT.article Plant material in the drying chamber 1 is heated to a volumetric average temperature not exceeding the temperature of denaturation, which reduces the surface tension of the water in the cells and the intercellular space of the plant material and to increase the vapor pressure of water to values equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature. Using fast-acting valves 7 of the drying chamber 1 during 0.1-1.0, connected to the receiver 9, which previously created the pressure of 1-10 mm RT.art., thereby creating in the drying chamber 1, the vacuum under which the plant material is left within, for example, 5 minutes, then drying chamber 1 are isolated from the vacuum by takekuma to its equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature, for example, for 7 minutes While heating the plant material to the volumetric average temperature which will not cause denaturation, supported constantly. The process is carried out in automatic mode with the remote control 20.

A uniform flow of the fluid in the purge, heating, multiple alternating vacuum and the extract of plant material throughout the volume of an isolated drying chamber is performed with the steam-air mixture flows using the adjustable guide device 3 from the continuous, permanent, and counter to the opposite.

Heating of the plant material, high-speed vacuum with heating, the extract under vacuum with heating of the plant material throughout the volume is one drying cycle. Depending on the properties of plant material: density, thickness and other parameters - the number of cycles can be at least more than two, i.e., increased multiple times to achieve a residual moisture content of 30%. After cooling of the product under a residual vacuum and the pressure of water vapor in the drying chamber pressure equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature, the pressure in the drying chamber 1 to relax the pressure below the equilibrium pressure nasai chamber vacuum. During the exposure of plant material under vacuum through valve 17 to produce the removing - drain formed is released from the plant material and water condensate is captured by the receiver 9 and the heat exchanger 15, without depressurization system. Next, the drying chamber 1 through the overlap of fast-acting valves 7 are isolated from the receiver 9. While continuously produce heating plant material under residual pressure up to volumetric average temperature which will not cause denaturation of the product.

Water in the plant material is in two main structural elements: in the cavities of the cells and capillaries free of moisture, and in the walls of the cell membrane - associated moisture. The cell size of the pores is within 100and 10. The maximum number of bound moisture, which can be located in plant materials is approximately the same for all plant materials and is at 20With about 30 wt.%.

The rest of the moisture is free. When drying products with humidity of about 30% in the first free moisture is removed, and then linked.

When heated vegetable materials of gyros the proposed method consists of two stages. The first stage produces the removal of free moisture when the moisture in the capillaries and michaelango space is removed due to the rapid establishment of a saturated vapor pressure of water in the volume of the drying chamber and into the plant material at a given temperature and is pushed out the moisture in the capillaries due to the expansion of dissolved and trapped in the plant material gas and partially taking place in the material process of vaporization.

In the second stage is the removal of bound moisture only due to intensive evaporation and then remove it from the pore volume of plant material. This is achieved by pre-heated plant material at a pressure equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature, is subjected to a rapid connection to the vacuum receiver and mnogokratnom short-term establishment in the drying chamber pressure below the equilibrium vapor pressure.

Creating in the drying chamber 1 pressure below the equilibrium vapor pressure leads them in unsaturated condition, similar superheated steam and sharp turning moisture into steam, located on the surface of the material. This leads to Oh the pressure. Due to the low thermal conductivity of vegetable materials, of the pairs in the whole volume of the material does not have time to cool down to a temperature below the boiling point, and the steam inside the capillary squeezes the moisture out of the capillary. Creating in the drying chamber 1 pressure below the equilibrium leads to a sharp increase of the remaining trapped and dissolved in capillary liquid gases. The sharp increase in gas pushes the liquid out of the capillary into the volume of the drying chamber in the form of a finely dispersed phase.

The beginning of the removal of bound moisture is determined by the reducing temperature changes of plant materials during high-speed vacuum. With the decrease of moisture content increases the porosity of plant material and decreases thermal conductivity, which reduces the extracts under vacuum after high-speed vacuum and increase the time of heating of the plant material under a residual vacuum to achieve equilibrium pressure.

Removal of bound moisture is in the process of conducting the following operations: high-speed vacuum with exposure and heating under vacuum during, for example, 5 min and heating plant product in isolation is I given product temperature, for example, within 7 min for carrot.

A specific example of implementation of the proposed method of drying plant material.

The process of drying of plant materials experimentally implemented in an industrial setting, technological scheme which presents a drawing.

In two drying chambers 1 and 2 with the volume of 4 m3each is equipped with a device 3 for directions and uniform distribution of air flow, fan heaters 4 for heating and fans 5 coolant is placed on mesh trays movable trolley 19 is evenly distributed plant material. Each chamber is connected by pipes 6 with built-in high-speed valves 7 and 8 to a receiver 9. In the drying chamber 1 and 2 was downloaded 1 m3pre-washed and chopped foods.

Example 1.

Drying was subjected carrots dining area with initial mass moisture content of 83%. Pre-washed and peeled, cut in the form of cubes with size from 5 to 10 mm carrots were placed on mesh trays with a layer of 30 mm thick. The required final moisture according to GOST 12326-66 “Carrot dining dried for export should be no more than 8%.

In the drying chamber 1 introduction the drying process of carrot were installed finned electric heating Elements with power of 1 kW in quantity of 25 PCs and two axial fan No. 4 performance 3000 m3/h of air, under normal conditions, providing a pressure not less than 50 mm of a water column at 3000 rpm

To create a vacuum in the receiver 9 used a vacuum pump AP-20, which ensured the creation of a working vacuum in the receiver 9 and the suction ballast gases from him. High-speed evacuation was carried out using the receiver with the volume of 4 m3and air valves DN 80-mm - type 65233. The cooling heat exchanger 15 conducted refrigerating machine 16, 03-2 type,8-20 cooling cent to 8.85 kW.

Drying chambers 1 and 2 is hermetically closed and turned on the heaters 4 and 5 fans for air heating and carrots in the drying chamber 1. The air from the heater went out at a temperature of 80C at atmospheric pressure in the drying chambers 1 and 2, which were isolated from the receiver 9 and from the external environment by overlapping of fast-acting valves 7, 8 and valves 10 and 11. Simultaneously with turning on the heating started the vacuum pump 13 to create in the receiver 9 pressure 1-10 mm RT.article After reaching the volumetric average temperature carrots 60(Heating time was 12 min) included quick-acting valves 7 connecting the drying chamber 1 with a receiver 9, and made the extract under vacuum in the reduction chamber 1 from the receiver 9, did the extract of carrot under a residual vacuum for 5 minutes While heating carrots worked without disabling the temperature in the drying chamber and the temperature of carrots during the time when the residual vacuum is again reached 60C. Quick-acting valves 8 second drying chamber 2 at this time was in the Closed position. These operations over carrots in the drying chamber 1 was repeated two times and the total time it took to remove free moisture, amounted to 36 minutes

During the first extracts of carrot under vacuum in the first drying chamber launched the heating in the second drying chamber 2 by holding it with the same sequence in all further operations of drying.

Removal of bound moisture to a residual moisture content of 8% was produced by operations of the high-speed vacuum with heating and carrot extract under vacuum for 5 min, heating carrots in a drying chamber under a residual vacuum to the equilibrium pressure at the temperature of 60C for 5 min. Number of the above cycles when this turned out to be three.

The total time of drying of carrots was:

- 36 min - removal of free moisture,

- 36 min - adult 12326-66.

Example 2.

Drying was subjected onions with an initial humidity of 86%.

Pre-washed, peeled and cut in the form of circles, rings, plates with a thickness of 1-3 mm onions laid on mesh trays with a layer thickness up to 30 mm and spent drying as described in example 1 with the difference that the removal of free moisture during the operation of high-speed vacuum and extracts under vacuum was 5 min, and the time when the residual vacuum of 3 min, the number of cycles is three. Removal of bound moisture held by speed vacuum and extract under vacuum for 3 min, the number of cycles is three.

The total drying time Luke wrote:

- 36 min - removal of free moisture,

- 24 min - removal of bound moisture.

Just 60 minutes the product based on its features correspond to GOST 12325-6 “Onion dried for export.

Example 3.

Drying was subjected potatoes with an initial humidity of 79%.

Pre-washed, peeled and sliced potatoes in the form of cubes ranging in size from 5-10 mm was loaded into the drying chamber 1 and 2 and subjected to drying as described in example 1. After drying, the mass fraction of moisture in the potatoes was not more than 8% and dried potatoes matched by its performance GOST 28432-90 “Cartie the first degassing under vacuum and under a residual vacuum is determined by the practical way to achieve the finished product the desired humidity.

The proposed method for the drying of plant materials, particularly food products, has successfully passed the experimental tests in the conditions of industrial plants for drying vegetables, Barnaul and gave a good, stable quality of drying.

Application of the proposed method of drying vegetables allows you to use existing equipment and prevents the possible cost of production of expensive and bulky equipment.

Currently, the authors work on the wider use of the proposed method.

Claims

1. The method of drying of plant materials, including repeated at least twice, the sequence of operations in a confined space of the drying chamber for heating the plant material to a temperature which will not cause denaturation their original quality characteristics of vacuum delay after degassing, the reset vacuum to atmospheric pressure, characterized in that each vacuum cycle plant material in the drying chamber conduct high-speed vacuum with the aid of the receiver, quick-release valves and piping with constant podogrevom is eaten during heating and cooling of the material under a residual vacuum heating is carried out until the temperature not cause denaturation of the material and obtain the vapor pressure in the closed volume of the drying chamber, is equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature.

2. The method of drying of plant materials under item 1, characterized in that the high-speed evacuation is carried out with the aid of the receiver, quick-release valves and piping for connecting the drying chamber with the receiver 0.1-1.0 and relaxation of pressure in the drying chamber and the material, and the diameter of the pipeline connecting the drying chamber with the receiver, is calculated by the formula

d=

where d is the pipe diameter, m;

P is the pressure in the drying chamber, PA;

P0the accumulator pressure, PA;

- kinematic viscosity of the vapor mixture, cSt;

V0- free volume of the drying chamber, m3;

lthe length of the connecting pipe, m;

t - time set of the set pressure in the drying chamber, C.

3. The method of drying of plant materials under item 1, characterized in that each operation of each cycle of the high-speed vacuum starts when the pressure in the receiver 1-10 mm RT.article.

4. The method of drying of plant materials under item 1, characterized in that the destruction of its the data on them valves in a fluid collector, in which pre-established pressure less pressure than in the drying chamber.

 

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