Hydromechanical transmission

 

The invention relates to a transport machine building. Hydromechanical transmission contains the input and output shafts and two hydraulically connected adjustable hydraulic machines. Four planetary mechanism includes drove with satellites, two Central wheel with external teeth and a Central wheel with internal teeth, a driven clutch and gears. The first hydraulic machines kinematically connected through a gear transmission with the first Central wheel with external teeth, and the second hydraulic machines are connected through first gear and driven clutch with Central wheel with internal teeth. The planetary mechanism contains paired siteplease satellites. The second hydraulic machines connected through the second gear and the driven coupling with the second Central wheel with external teeth. The input shaft is connected with the planet carrier of the planetary gear and the output shaft is kinematically connected to the Central wheel with internal teeth. The transmission provides two ranges of a forward stroke and one range reverse with stepless gear ratio and a two-line transmission capacity, while hydraulic power does not exceed 25% of the table 1.

The invention relates to transport machinery and can be used in transmissions of automobiles and tractors.

CVT transmissions provide the best way to accommodate characteristics of the engine with the ever-changing road resistance, allowing accurate adjustment of speed and maximum load of the engine. Among the different types of continuously variable transmissions are the most widely hydrostatic transmission, capable of transmitting heavy loads at relatively high efficiency.

Known continuously variable transmission of a vehicle (see and.with. The USSR 691318, publ. BI N 38, 1979), containing hydraulically connected to hydraulic machines, planetary gear, one link of which is connected with the input shaft, another link with the output shaft and adjustable hydraulic machines, and the third link is connected through a gear transmission with fixed hydraulic machines. The transmission is built on the twin principle of power transmission. The mechanical part of the power is transmitted through the planetary gear mechanism, a hydraulic power flow is directed through the hydrostatic transmission. Thanks to the separation of power into two flow is reduced agrogeneration range continuously variable gear ratio, which in dual stream transmission is reduced in proportion to the decline in the share of hydraulic power.

The closest analogue to the present invention is a hydro-mechanical transmission (U.S. patent N 5766107, the date of publication of the original document 16.06.1998 g) containing input and output shafts, two hydraulically connected adjustable hydraulic machines, four planetary gear mechanism that includes drove with satellites, two Central wheel with external teeth and a Central wheel with internal teeth, a driven clutch and gears, while the first hydraulic machines kinematically connected through a gear transmission with the first Central wheel with external teeth, a second hydraulic machines are connected through a first controlled clutch and gear with a Central wheel with internal teeth. In this podcast, the second hydraulic machines kinematically connected through a second controllable clutch and gear with a Central wheel with internal teeth, the first hydraulic machines are connected via a controllable clutch and gear with the output shaft and the planet carrier of the planetary mechanism. By switching couplings provide two modes of a forward stroke and one mode back Hom of this design is the fact that that uses a planetary gear with dvuhventsovye satellites, kinematics which provides optimal and uniform distribution ratio and hydraulic power between the first and second ranges. Whenever selecting the numbers of teeth of the planetary mechanism, the control range of gear ratio and hydraulic power in the first range will be significantly less range and power on the second range, which eventually leads to an increase in the load of the hydraulic machine, increase the size, weight and decrease the efficiency of the transmission in the second range in the area of the most commonly used speeds. This transmission has to go back circulation power, high load hydraulic machines and low efficiency, which does not allow you to use back up for transferring large capacity and loads.

The objective of the invention is the reduction of size, weight, and increase efficiency hydro-mechanical transmission.

The problem is solved in a hydromechanical transmission that contains the input and output shafts, two hydraulically connected adjustable hydraulic machines. Four planetary mechanism includes drove with satellites, two Central wheel with external teeth and cinematically connected through the transmission gear with the first Central wheel with external teeth, and the second hydraulic machines are connected through first gear and driven clutch with Central wheel with internal teeth. The planetary mechanism contains paired siteplease satellites. The second hydraulic machines connected through the second gear and the driven coupling with the second Central wheel with external teeth. The input shaft is connected with the planet carrier of the planetary gear and the output shaft is kinematically connected to the Central wheel with internal teeth.

New for this design is that the planetary mechanism contains paired siteplease satellites. The second hydraulic machines connected through the second gear and the driven coupling with the second Central wheel with external teeth. The input shaft is connected with the planet carrier of the planetary gear and the output shaft is kinematically connected to the Central wheel with internal teeth.

In the inventive transmission uses a four-stage planetary gear with a pair of acepsimas satellites and formed new relationships between the hydraulic machine, links to the planetary mechanism, gears and couplings. The limits of change of gear ratio and hydraulic power is evenly distributed between the ranges on all mode in order to increase transmission efficiency.

The drawing shows a variant of the kinematic scheme of the hydro-mechanical transmission.

Hydromechanical transmission includes an input shaft 1, the intermediate shaft 2 and output shaft 3, two hydraulically connected adjustable hydraulic machines 4 and 5, four planetary gear mechanism 6 includes drove 7 with paired acepsimas satellites 8 and 9, the Central wheel with external teeth 10 and 11, the Central wheel with internal teeth 12. Driven clutch 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 are designed for interconnection of the shafts 2 and 3 with other parts of the transmission. The first hydraulic machines 4 is rigidly connected with the shaft 18, which is connected through siteplease gears 19, 20 with the first Central wheel with external teeth 10. The second hydraulic machines 5 is rigidly connected with the shaft 21, through which siteplease gears 22, 23 and the first driven clutch 13 is connected with the Central wheel with internal teeth 12. The second hydraulic machines 5 through the shaft 21, siteplease gears 24, 25 and the second driven clutch 14 is connected with the second Central wheel with external teeth 11. Input shaft 1 is connected with the planet carrier 7 four-stage planetary gear 6. The output shaft 3 is connected by three kinematic relations with the Central wheel with internal teeth 12 through the tooth is the first communication is performed via a toothed wheel 28, 29 and the clutch 16.

The third connection is performed through the gears 30, 31 and 32 and the clutch 17.

In General hydromechanical transmission is divided into two-stream transmission and a manual range gearbox.

Part two-stream transmission includes four planetary gear, gear wheels 19, 20, 22-25, couplings 13, 14 and hydraulic machines 4, 5. In the composition range of the gearbox includes shafts 2, 3, gears 26-32 and clutch 15-17.

Hydromechanical transmission works as follows. By incorporating couplings 15-17 provide two ranges of a forward stroke and one range reverse with stepless gear ratio. Each range has two modes dual stream transmission power, switchable couplings 13, 14. In the table are included in the ranges of the coupling, the control parameters of hydraulic machines and the limits of the continuously variable gear ratio when the following ratios of the numbers of teeth: z12/z10=2,557; z12/z11=1,917; z19/z20=1,237; z25/z24=1,0; z23/z22=3,0; z26/z27=0,828; z28/z29=1,666; z32/z30=1,636.

Under gear ratio considered turnover hydraulic machine to its maximum working volume; z12the number of teeth of the wheel 12.

At the lowest range I included the clutch 16, which connects the shafts 2 and 3 through gears 28 and 29. The transmission has two modes of operation: mode A1, when the clutch 13, and the mode, when the clutch 14. Consider a transmit operation in mode A1. In the neutral position the shafts 2, 3, the Central wheel with internal teeth 12, the gears 22, 23, the shaft 21 and the hydraulic machines 5 are stationary and hydraulic machines 4 and 5 are respectively zero and the maximum working volume. Input shaft 1 drives the carrier 7, which with a stationary Central wheel 12 rotates satellites 8, 9 and the Central wheels 10, 11 no load. Central wheel 10 drives the hydraulic machines 4 through gears 20, 19 and shaft 18. When starting the machine control system gradually increases the working volume of the hydraulic machine 4 from zero to the maximum value, and the hydraulic machines 4 drives over hydraulic machines 5 and links 22, 23, 13, 29, 28, 16 the output shaft 3. The speed of the output shaft 3 and gear ratio of the transmission increases proportionally to the change in the working volume of the hydraulic machine 4. Power is transmitted from the input shaft 1 on the carrier 7, which is divided into mechanical is draulically power transmitted through the links 7, 10, 20, 19, 18 hydraulic machines 4, 5, the links 22, 23, 13. The shaft 2 drives the output shaft 3 through gears 29, 28 and the clutch 16. With the increase of gear ratio increases the proportion transmitted through hydraulic hydraulic power. In mode A1, the hydraulic machines 4 kinematically connected with the Central wheel 10 of the planetary mechanism and mode of the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic machines 5 working mode of the motor and is connected with the output shaft 3. After reaching the maximum displacement of the hydraulic machine 4 to regulate hydraulic machines 5 by reducing its displacement from maximum to zero, which reduces the rotation speed of the hydraulic machine 4 and the associated Central wheel 10 and to increase the speed of the Central wheel 12 and its associated output shaft 3. In this mode, hydraulic power decreases from maximum to zero. At zero working volume of hydraulic machines 5 stops hydraulic machines 4 and associated Central wheel 10, and the power flow is transmitted mechanically.

Switching the transmission mode A1 mode is by turning on the clutch 14. The gear ratio subchaser enable synchronized without load clutch 14 on and off the clutch 13, resulting hydraulic machines 5 is connected to the Central wheel 11 through the links 24, 25, 14. Continuously variable transmission according to the scheme In characterized by the fact that hydraulic machines 4, 5 kinematically connected with the intermediate links of the planetary gear 10 and 11, respectively, and the input shaft 1 and output shaft 3 are associated with the links of the planetary gear 7 and 12. However, none of the hydraulic machines is not associated with the input or output shafts. The first stage is regulated by the hydraulic machines 5 by increasing its displacement from zero to the maximum value in the opposite direction when compared with A1. There is an increase in the rotation speed of the hydraulic machine 4 and the shafts 2, 3, respectively is increased gear ratio. The hydraulic machines 4 rotates in the opposite direction when compared with A1 and enters the operation mode of the motor, and the hydraulic machines 5 passes in a mode of operation of the hydraulic pump. The mechanical power flow is transmitted through the links 7, 9, 12, hydraulic power directed through links 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, 25, 24, 21 hydraulic machines 5, 4, the links 19, 20, 10. With increasing displacement hydraulic machines 5 increases hydraulic flow capacity and the decrease in mechanical stream. After the hydraulic machines 5 the maximum amount of proizvodid slows down the rotation of the hydraulic machines 5 and link 11 and to increase the speed of rotation of the Central wheel 12 and kinematically associated with the output shaft 3. There is a further increase in the reduction ratio. When the maximum transmission ratio, when the working volume of the hydraulic machine 4 is equal to zero, the Central wheel 11 and the associated hydraulic machines 5 are stationary, and all power is transmitted mechanically through the planetary mechanism.

On the second range II included the clutch 15 and the connection of the shafts 2 and 3 occurs through gears 26, 27, and range reverse III included the clutch 17 and the connection of the shafts 2 and 3 occurs through siteplease gears 30, 31, 32. Work continuously variable transmission and switching of the clutches 13 and 14 is the same as in the first range. The use of two or more ranges allows the use zone for stepless with optimal performance in a wide range of operating speeds, thus reducing the load of the hydraulic machine and increases the overall efficiency.

The division of power on the mechanical and hydraulic flows and the lack of circulation of power in all modes reduces the load on the hydraulic machines 4, 5 3-4 times, decreases the pressure in the hydrostatic transmission and increases efficiency that approaches the efficiency of a mechanical transmission. At zero hydraulic mo is th transmission can exceed the cap is similar to a manual transmission. The kinematics of the four-stage planetary gear with paired acepsimas satellites 8 and 9 are arranged in such a way that results in an even distribution of the hydraulic power between the modes A1 and, in addition, installed new rational connection between the hydraulic machine and the parts of the planetary mechanism. All this provides a reduction in hydraulic capacity up to 20-25% of the transmitted power, resulting in reduced weight, size and increases efficiency of the proposed transfer.

Claims

Hydromechanical transmission containing the input and output shafts, two hydraulically connected adjustable hydraulic machines, four planetary gear mechanism that includes drove with satellites, two Central wheel with external teeth and a Central wheel with internal teeth, a driven clutch and gears, while the first hydraulic machines kinematically connected through a gear transmission with the first Central wheel with external teeth, a second hydraulic machines are connected through first gear and driven clutch with Central wheel with internal teeth, characterized in that the planetary mechanism contains paired siteplease satellites, VTOS external teeth, the input shaft is connected with the planet carrier of the planetary mechanism output shaft kinematically connected to the Central wheel with internal teeth.

 

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