Method of degassing of oil at the end of the separation units and the means of its implementation
The invention relates to field of oil at the concentration of propane more than 2 wt.%. Or if you have any other problems with conventional separation. Improves the efficiency of the invention. The inventive method include the mode vacuum flow with the ability to change performance in a wide range by bypassing through the pressure regulator to himself, gas flow through the pressure regulator after themselves, exposure to ultrasonic vibrations. Proposed means of implementation method: the design of the devices of the local vacuum processing, pengassan, internal adjustable limit divider phases, caprioarele diaphragm and ribs. 3 N. and 8 C.p. f-crystals, 10 ill.
1. The technical FIELD,
In the extraction and processing of oil for transport to reduce losses from evaporation oil before putting in atmospheric tanks subjected to separation in the limit separation installations under pressure close to atmospheric (usually under an absolute pressure 0,105 MPa). To enable gravity drain tanks trailing separators raise above the earth's surface to a height of from 10 to 25 m in Savinov form in complex with shut-off and control valves limit the separation unit (KSU).
The present invention is intended for the separation unit with the rise of the inlet pipeline on significant (>10 m) height, because in this case, as a rule, does not require additional energy source. If the stock of energy necessary for the vacuum-processing or its source, it is also applicable for the degassing other liquids.
2. The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY
Currently, end oil separation is governed RD 39-0004-90 (ATTEN-ISPT oil. Guidance on the design and operation of separation units oil fields, the selection and arrangement of separation equipment. Ufa - 1990. - 68 C.).
In practice, preparation of oil distinguish between raw material and product storage tanks. Accordingly distinguish between “cold” KSU and “hot”. Cold SIC in the technological chain is preceded by the regulators in the separators of the previous stage, hot - pressure regulators in the oil sumps. Since the saturation pressure of oil by gas in the foregoing apparatus is much higher than atmospheric, and the separators SIC is almost equal to him, somewhere on the path from the controller to the separator pressure becomes equal to the saturation pressure of the oil, i.e. the conditions for the beginning of the gassing. If ECA (oil droplets in the gas stream immediately at the output of the regulators. In this case, as a rule, no problems with the quality of oil separation not.
The problems start when the location of the front ebullition on the part of a lifting of the pipeline to the separators (the riser). Since gas-liquid flow lighter liquid, the pressure at the inlet to the riser depends on altitude location front boil and quantity of released gas in the riser. It provokes variability altitude location front boil. At this instant the performance of the separator is variable. The inertia of the fluid increases the build-up. Especially dangerous is the appearance of oscillations in the parallel operation of several separators with the ground location of the collector. It is possible overflow of one of the separators and emptying the other. Naturally, the quality of separation in this rapidly deteriorating. Usually the measures taken to improve the distribution uniformity of fluid between parallel devices, such as repeated division of the inlet pipeline, practically useless, because it does not affect the main cause of the variability altitude location front boil. Does not guarantee the uniform distribution and the rise of the collector to the height they are situated is ity is enhanced inertial phenomena, generating waves in the reservoir, the consequences of which at lower hydrostatic pressure required for admission of oil into the apparatus increase. So the buildup of oil revenues in several parallel machines is almost inevitable.
In 1990, this situation was observed at the largest in the European part of the USSR KSU at headworks pipeline Usinsk-Ukhta (, Usinsk, Komi ASSR). Because the pipeline was intended for pumping of gas-saturated oil, KSU was designed as an emergency. However, the failure of attempts pumping oil in the gas-saturated state was forced to run it in constant operation. Installation including ground collectors, 6 separators of the previous stage and 4 end of the separator at a height of 22 m, the pipeline for the relief of the area and drain into the tanks formed a huge self-excited oscillating circuit with periodic discharges of oil in the pipeline and breakthroughs gas in the tanks. Institute Pechornipineft was developed reconstruction project setup adopted to implement, but does not eliminate the main cause of the buildup.
The author was unable to find published works on the stabilization front boil in the practice of oil separation N., Stuchin N. G. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in evaporation. - M.: Higher school, 1986, - 448 C.) is to install the throttle washers at the entrance to the lift area. The role of orifice plates can perform a simple latch. The author stopped the reconstruction of the above Usinsk SIC and fully normalize its work without the capital cost of a simple valve cover in front of the entrance of oil in the struts and the stabilization level in the tank drain. But there were problems with the transfer to the new regime of the last (fourth) separator: the pressure in the reservoir when the cover of the input latches on the three separators fell and was insufficient for the flow of oil in the fourth separator. Conclusion on the same end of the separator in Sergeev paragraph of oil in NGDU “Ufanet” at a height of 12 m was only after hitting the shaft with a wrench. This suggests the need for additional measures to ensure output operating mode throttle devices.
There are problems with the quality assurance of oil separation at KSU, causing loss of oil from reservoirs that are not equipped with air trapping, usually 0.2 to 0.8 wt.% (there may be many more). The research Institute is to ofseparate to the required standards of the saturated vapor pressure of 500 mm RT.article only when the content of propane is less than 2 wt.% (there are up to 6 wt.%).
To 1990, the years have developed the concept: the quality of the separation requires a calm entry of oil into the devices. It incorrectly shows the disgusting cases of oil separation in the presence of the oil in the machine for more than an hour: when hit by a sledgehammer on such a noise separator dissolved gas, such Reba run jet engines.
When the formation of bubbles of dissolved gas around them, a zone of depletion. The larger it is, the slower massoperedacha. The size of the zone of depletion depends on the hydrodynamic conditions (in particular, from the Reynolds number). Around a microbubble with a low rate of their growth can be formed booking sheath, preventing their further growth and ascent. All this shows that the emission is better to perform under dynamic conditions, gassing - in mode, providing the greatest speed of ascent of the bubbles.
For the separation of oils with a high content of propane necessary transition beyond thermodynamic equilibrium. Such a method for the separation of liquids is known. This method of degassing liquids and device for its implementation (and.with. No. 1421363-BI No. 19, Prut settled pulsating cavitation cavity with a periodically rocking and demolished flow part of it, what stream narrowing, and then suddenly expand, and the pressure ratios for the narrowing of the flow to the pressure before him stand equal to not more than 0.15. At the same time here patented device degassing liquid type Venturi tubes with a cylindrical neck with a diameter of Dkrlength (0,6... 2)Dkrradius mates with the walls of the confuser R=(0,2... 0,4)Dkrand cone with an angle of more than 15. This invention is used for the first time hysteresis processes outgassing and hazaratganj to go beyond thermodynamic equilibrium under conditions of separation. But direct application of this invention on SIC is practically impossible, because it requires that the pressure at the inlet to the device exceed 0.7 MPa, while most of the oil is maintained under pressure of no more than 0.2 to 0.5 MPa.
Patents with the use of nozzles with confused-diffuser flow channel for degassing liquids a lot. But known to the author attempts to apply such nozzles for degassing oil were unsuccessful due to the instability of the results. So, can cause problems separation foamy oils. It is known that a foam is used, the divider phases with a number of pipes at different heights for sampling gas phase, atomization of the liquid and the impact of the spray with the gas divider that too difficult. Perhaps a simpler solution.
The technical result of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the method and reliability of the means.
Required technical result is achieved in that in the method of oil separation at the end of the separation units, including lifting the oil to the separator along the stack, the separation and removal of oil and gas, according to the invention before entering the riser all the oil or its part is subjected to local processing vacuum mode
where RIand Ro- pressure on the inlet and outlet of the pre-vacuum processing flow;
P - pressure drop across the device when working with output Q;
- the width of the zone of unstable operation of the device.
not subjected to the vacuum-processing portion of the stream before feeding it into the riser is passed through the pressure regulator to itself that is configured to the maximum allowable pressure at the inlet to the device;
in the riser through the bubbler serves the gas through the device processing vacuum;
if the pressure at the outlet of the device processing vacuumm above a certain limit, the area of least pressure or the base of the riser is subjected to vibrohvostami emitter of ultrasonic vibrations.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that the device flow vacuum, consisting of prelimary, adjusting needle with drive, confuser, neck length equal to two diameters and fraught with confuser in an arc with a radius of 0.2 of the diameter of the cap and cone, according to the invention the confuser is made with an angle of taper 80-120, adjusting the needle - variable taper from 0 to 10at the base and 20-30at the top of the needle, cone - variable taper, which varies from 6-10neck and up to 30in the end, the chamber is made from the tee, and adjusting the needle and the interior of the confuser and the neckline is made removable from the viscous austenitic stainless steel.
The technical result is also achieved by the fact that in the separation plant, including the separator and its harness, according to the invention at the base of the riser is connected and one is a PR pressure to itself, with shutoff valves of the same diameter and a diffuser at the outlet, designed to permit the maximum flow rate supplied to the installation when the maximum allowable pressure drop and fully open valve.
tying the bottom of the riser includes a line for supplying gas to the pressure regulator after itself, or a vibrator mounted on the neck of the processing device of the vacuum or on the basis of the riser;
the installation has an end divider phase to enter the treated compound vacuum inside the separator, partially located in the gas space of the separator from the system tray on exit, excluding the fall of the jets at a free surface of oil in the separator;
at the end of the section lift oil mounted pengassan having a movable valve for speed control of gas-liquid jet;
at the exit end of the divider phases of installation is further provided with a valve for regulating the liquid level therein;
the inner surface of the end divider phases supplied in the gas portion of the gas energizers as part of annular diaphragms located with variable step, eliminating the wave generation of the free surface of the liquid in the divider phases, and naru is the zation mode KSU
For stabilization mode first, you need to before you choke mounted in front of the riser, free gas almost was not, and choke it certainly would have been. The latter requires additional conditions that the pressure behind the throttle would be less than the saturation pressure of oil by gas, and by throttling would reach the speed of the liquid is not less than 6 m/s (see hfis, 1971, T. XX, No. 2, S. 261-267).
But this throttling only stabilizes the elevated location of the front boil, not protecting the supply line from the pressure fluctuations separation. For protection from this source of oscillations, it is necessary to reduce the minimum pressure in the reactor to value due to the dynamic strength of the fluid in the gap. To achieve the necessary local pressure reduction due to the transition of potential energy (pressure) into kinetic, and then revert back to kinetic energy in potential, for example, in the device type Venturi tubes. The Venturi tubes, like any other hydraulic device, a hydraulic characteristic showing the relationship between flow rate and the required pressure drop across the device. But it is limited by the condition of continuity of protset from how does the pressure drop across the device by changing the inlet pressure at a constant pressure or Vice versa. If in the course of the experiments agree that the minimum pressure is atmospheric, the pressure drop across this limit is equal to the excess inlet pressure:
Resulting characteristics of the device shown in Fig.1. Curve OS is bezrazdelno branch of the characteristics of the device. It does not depend on how it is received. Lowercase letters a, b, C,... marked characteristics taken at variable, but a constant inlet pressure equal to RIand RIin, RI... accordingly, when the change in back pressure within RATMPoPI. When thisP0. These characteristics consist of three sections: vertical (above the curve A (D), transitional (between the curves AC and A (D) and bezrassudnoe, coinciding with the curve bezrassudnoi characteristics of the device OS. Vertical part svidetelstvo top points of these sites (pout=P ATM) form a curve AB - the curve of the dependence of the pressure on the inlet flow rate, that is, breaking a branch of the characteristics of the device, independent of the back pressure. It can be obtained and the pressure increase at the inlet of the device after the occurrence of the gap. The combination of the lower points of the vertical sections forms A curve D, the bounding region of unstable modes at the top. The transition area corresponds to the region of unstable boiling liquid with considerable fluctuations of the measured pressure, and the accurate depiction of him is quite difficult.
Shown in Fig.1 convenient feature for its removal (experimental), but you can't answer the main question about the required inlet pressure to the device to enable the mode locking at a given backpressure.
Curve RI barg(Q) sustainability gap is not affected by back pressure. Because berrywell branch characteristicsR=RI-Roas a function of flow rate also does not depend on specific values of the components, entirely defined by their difference, and can it be converted to PI barg=R+Ro gageand lead Fig.1 in other coordinates (see Fig.2). P, we can assume the presence of a weak dependence of the differential(from back pressure. In this region regimes with stable boiling of the liquid, the device is shown by curve a In, and the condition of stable operation of the device in the area of the gap will be
where Rvihmax- the maximum permitted amount of backpressure;
Q - performance.
The inlet pressure in the reactor is equal to the pressure in the preceding apparatus minus the pressure losses on the way to the throttle. Inequality can be applied in two ways: either to determine the minimum required inlet pressure for a given maximum pressure, or - to determine the maximum allowable pressure at the output at a given inlet pressure.
3.2. The quality of separation
The quality of the separation is characterized achieved by the vapour pressure of the separated oil, the amount of residual excessive dissolved and free gas in it, and the contents of the dropping liquid in the separated gas.
For degassing first of all you must place citiesa, the fate of the embryos are less critical to disappear, with dimensions greater than the critical - to grow until it reaches equilibrium with the environment or removal of fluid in the ascent. The most reasonable hypothesis of constant formation and disappearance of embryos at a pressure above the saturation pressure as a result of fluctuations. While the size of the bubble does not exceed the volume occupied by the liquid amount of the original dissolved gas, no less than the amount of gas in the bubble, the bubble can grow spontaneously at a speed limited only by the inertia of the parting liquid. Further growth of the bubble is due to the diffusion of gas from the surrounding bubble liquid. Thus, according to the law of mass transfer the total flow of gas in the bubbles is proportional to the square of the mass transfer driving force. The coefficient of proportionality is called the coefficient of mass transfer depends on the hydrodynamic conditions. In the turbulent regime, it can exceed two times the coefficient in laminar regime, and interfacial turbulence can improve it 10 times. Size of the mass transfer of a given amount of gas surrounding the liquid bubbles very much depends on the degree dispergirovannom depending on conditions can change hundreds of times. The driving force of the process of gassing is the degree of supersaturation of the liquid gas. Theoretically, the equilibrium can be achieved only in an infinitely long period of time, since the degassing is constantly decreasing its driving force. The driving force depending on the conditions can also be changed dozens of times.
The vapour pressure of the separated oil depends on its fractional composition, most strongly on the number in it the easiest gas to propane inclusive). In the degassing process in the limit of each component is distributed between the liquid and gas phases in a certain proportion, determined by the equation of equilibrium. However, the greater this component was dissolved in oil, the more it will remain in degassed oil under the same conditions. The proportionality of the different components are different, and at equilibrium usually methane, ethane, non-hydrocarbonaceous gases in oil is low. But when the content of propane more than 2 wt.%, as already mentioned, there is the problem of providing the necessary vapor pressure even at equilibrium degassing.
A solution to the current “unsolvable” situation the following.
The above indicates the potential in what should be sufficiently large, the saturation of the liquid, that is local significant reduction in pressure. If the intensity of mass transfer is that you will be able to get closer for a stay under reduced pressure to balance the pressure recovery will change the direction of mass transfer instead of gassing will occur hazaratganj is a much slower process. Again the full balance is possible only through infinite time, but the liquid remains undersaturated gas, as required.
Local significant reduction in pressure can be made in the above device type Venturi tubes. Under the conditions discussed in 3.1, is automatically implemented by the largest possible under these conditions, the degree of supersaturation of the liquid, which can increase only by changing these conditions. So, the oil saturation pressure of 0.2 MPa is broken when measured under a pressure of 0.05 MPa, that is, the saturation is 0.25 MPa. In principle, the minimum pressure cannot be measured, because inevitably impact on the sensitive element of the device through the liquid under the conditions of long impossibility of its existence. Calculation of the limiting pressure shows that the absolute pressure is the minimum pressure difficult. Numerous experimental studies on different SIC show that the commonly observed gas oil (less than 103/m3the minimum pressure is always less than atmospheric. This gives grounds to call the proposed device type pipe Venturi device preliminary vacuum flow, or abbreviated - OLA.
Experimental studies on pilot stand 1990-1991 and the results of the acceptance test technology of deep degassing of oil with the use of the OLA hot KSU CPF No. 1 NGDU “Ufanet in 1995 gave the same result: pre-vacuum processing allows you to go across the border thermodynamic equilibrium under conditions of separation. The number of selected gas is approximately doubled, and gas, mainly at the expense of deeper extraction of propane, has a density that is 10% greater than the density of gas in the normal separation. Three experimental studies with an automated control system of the saturated vapor pressure of the separated oil design Ufa oil Institute on pilot stand showed that this pressure varies 220-440 mm RT.article Therefore, obesity, hermetically selected screw sampler with pressure gauge, with the usual separation in the delivery of oil to the chromatographic analysis was under pressure, after the preliminary vacuum processing under vacuum.
Studies using the instrument WADS design Vniisptneft in the process of putting technology acceptance Commission showed that the number of the selected gas normal and test technology will be the same, if the separation from the preliminary vacuum spraying under pressure 0.04-0.06 MPa big. Obtained indirect evidence about the removal of hydrogen sulfide from oil.
The pressure at the entrance to the OLA was varied in the range of 0.21-0.25 MPA instead of 0.7 that of the prototype. So the need for high inlet pressure is not, and need another limitation of the allowable mode, discussed in paragraph 3.1. Due to the insufficient preparation of the oil mentioned CPF No. 1 was carried out periodically, with stops for the accumulation of oil in the raw material tanks. In this case, thanks to the upper input of oil into the separator unit automatically tamosauskas and go to the desired mode. However, in the late autumn of 1995 failed operation of the dewatering systems, vitavska the pressure in the riser rose and OLA mode is exited. Had the OLA to stop. Again, this requires the development of special measures to ensure the health facility and at these conditions.
3.3. Modes OLA and interventions
To calculate the mode OLA necessary, first of all, the ability to determine:
a) bezrazdelno branch characteristics in a viscous gas-saturated liquid;
b) the magnitude of the transition zone (the zone of unstable boiling);
C) breaking the branch characteristics.
To date, methods have been developed theoretical (using boundary layer theory) and experimental (using rules modeling) determining the characteristics of any device in any liquid provided bezrassudnoi stream.
The initial part of the transition zone studied well enough in connection with the problem of determining the conditions for cavitation free operation of hydraulic devices. In particular, it is shown that in this task on the gas-saturated oils are of great importance, in particular, the rate of change of pressure and the residence time of the liquid under reduced pressure. Since the pressure decrease occurs due to the transition of potential energy into kinetic, critical speed if and depends on the size of the device, the SLA is critical due not only to the acceleration of the fluid in the constriction channel. The appearance of the gas phase leads to a narrowing of the orifice of the channel, the local increase in velocity and decrease in pressure. Since the intensity of nucleation very much (in the exponent) depends on the degree of supersaturation, the process of forming the front locking is a chain reaction: the emergence of the gas phase dramatically increases the intensity of nucleation, and it, in turn, leads to increased outgassing. Any experimenter known cases of spontaneous exit to the cavitation mode with a drastic change of all parameters without any outside interference with sufficient approximation to the critical mode. This process takes place in time and space, but does not depend on the size of the device, and therefore can be modeled without complex criteria-based processing.
Instant performance KSU is rarely stable. Its fluctuations are fluctuations in the instantaneous performance of the upstream links, not compensated by the amount of previous devices. Even with the constant performance at the entrance to previous devices they provoked uneven discharge of distilled water in these machines. the corresponding apparatus), reduced - risk disrupting effect lefterova oil in the riser with a further output unit of the operating mode. Because the required supply pressure at the entrance there is a relatively rare, the question arises about the need for automatic control unit of the conditions of maintaining the necessary pressure at the inlet. But in this direction there are three drawbacks:
1) introduction adjusting needle associated with the increase of the hydraulic resistance of the device, i.e. the reduction of the working area due to the increaseP(Q) (see Fig.2);
2) adjustable drive translational movement of the needle in the cost exceeds the value of OLA;
3) the area of effective regulation is limited since, starting from a certain limit, it starts the tear fluid movement, leading to the increase of the zone of unstable boiling.
In most cases, the preliminary vacuum processing provides a deeper degassing than necessary (except for cases of refining oil from sulfide). Then it is proposed to expose the vacuum-processing is not the entire flow of oil directed to the SIC, but only partially, as a rule, equal to the minimum instantaneous capacity KSU. The rest of the guide in the stand-by banterous the greatest efficiency OLA, and created many bubbles as a means of intensification of outgassing from bypasing flow in the turbulent rise of oil to the separator (see item 2 claims).
Limited inlet pressure in SIC by means of the output unit to the operating mode can serve as an artificial reduction of the back pressure by strengthening effect lefterova by supplying gas into the base of the riser. Widely known means of deepening separation, called “Stripping” of gases, here used for a new purpose. To reduce consumption of gas supply pipeline is equipped with a pressure regulator after itself. When the gas supply is automatically enabled when the increase of pressure above preassigned value and is turned off by reducing the pressure below it (see item 3 claims).
Means for outputting unit to the operating mode when the riser is busy gas-saturated oil in a metastable state can serve as a pulse processing content of the riser by ultrasound, for example, by attaching devices used to prevent scale formation in boilers (see, for example, Horbenko I., Sound, ultrasound, infrasound. - M.: Knowledge, 1986. - 192 S., S. 90) (see the bottom of the unit.
Unfortunate name of the prototype - in device intensifies the emission, and not gas. The main disadvantage of the prototype is too large impedance:P5,67 Poat that time, as on the water pipe Venturi able to cavitation mode already when the pressure at the entrance to 2-4 m, which corresponds toP=(0,2-0,4)Po(see Bastate T. M., Rudnev, S. S. and other Hydraulics, hydraulic machines and hydraulic drives. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1982. - 423 S.; C. 116). This mode was necessary to create a pulsating caverns in the field. In our case, the cavitation is eliminated: in most cases the pressure at the outlet of the OLA is less than the saturation pressure of oil gas, and if it is more, then released in large quantities of gas phase quickly can not disappear. There will be no effects associated with the collapse of the bubbles, that is cavitation.
The main reason for the increased losses of the prototype is inflated, the opening angle of the cone (>15causing at least a threefold increase in loss compared to the optimal angle 6-8So what terms and conditions to minimize losses in the diffuser serves the initial angle to perform within 6-10followed either smooth or stepped his change up to 15-30.
The exception is the full-scale experiment in the process of putting technology with adjustable OLA. In this experiment, the attempt to enter the adjusting needles in the neck of the UPV (until pronounced adjustment effect) was accompanied by a slight decrease in pressure at the output of the OLA, which testified to the strengthening effect of lefterova, i.e. the increase in outgassing. At the further input of the adjusting needles this effect quickly disappeared. Apparently, the effect has the same nature as the introduction of steam-generating grids - improving the uniformity of the velocity field. More on these questions will be answered by research sopstva changes in the characteristics of the OLA, but as a means of improving the uniformity of the velocity field at the entrance to the diffuser.
To adjust the nozzles are commonly used adjustment peaks with a constant taper. But with the introduction of such peaks in a cylindrical channel (in the neck) is formed an annular diffuser with an effective opening angle depending on the relative position of the surfaces, i.e. turn the adjusting needle. Under the effective angle of expansion is understood to be the angle of expansion axisymmetric linear diffuser with the pace of change in cross-sectional area, with the same ring. The study showed that when the recommended angles of taper peaks at 15-20soon after the introduction of the peaks in the neck of the effective angle cannot guarantee irrevocable course. The reduction of this angle dramatically increases the size of the peaks, its mass and speed, which is highly undesirable due to the placement of the peaks on the console and the threat of vibration peaks at the slightest misalignment.
The current level of theory and technology of computing allow you to build a profile of the needle corresponding to the requirement of constancy of the pressure gradient and provides greater resistance to separation of the flow. Here, in the hope of adequacy, at the top of the peaks to 0-10at the base of the conical part.
The device is pre-vacuum processing flow generally shown in Fig.3. It consists of a nozzle 1, prelimary 2, the adjusting peaks 3 and move the last node 4.
The nozzle contains a confuser, throat and diffuser. The confuser, depending on the available pressure, may be performed in different ways: by the excess oxygen in the form of a truncated cone with an angle at the apex 90and a smooth transition to the diameter of prelimary, with a lack - in the form of an arc of a circle, as shown in Fig.3. In the first case, the coupling neck can be performed with radius, excluding the formation of the vortex zone at the entrance, for example R=0,2 Dr, as the prototype. The mouth becomes a means of limiting the opening angle of the effective cone. The great temptation to turn into the neck of slashtastic cone is hardly justified, since it involves risk of loss attainable supersaturation due to the reduction of the rate of change of pressure in front of the gap. As the elongation of the neck is associated with increased hydraulic losses, taking it as long as the prototype is approximately equal to 2 Dr. At the end of regulation the pressure.
The heaviest burden falls on the confuser, neck and adjusting the peak. Here is formed by high-speed flow and rupture of liquid. In 1996 he was commissioned degasser water Cenomanian horizon, with the original gas content of 3-4 m3/m3(almost the same as the oil on SIC). The nozzle was made of structural carbon steel. The degree of degassing was assessed by the coefficient of the feed piston pumps, which were determined with the accuracy up to the third significant digit. After a year-work the effectiveness of the preliminary vacuum processing decreased. Disassembled unit. It turned out that the entire area of the entrance in the neck in place of the smallest cross-sectional dimension when entering adjustment peaks wounded deep caverns, i.e observed typical cavitation wear (shiny confirmation of other previously proposed hypothesis that the cause of the cavitation destruction of materials is a gap in the continuity of the liquid and not the collapse of the bubbles). On the same needle, made of viscous austenitic stainless steel, wear was not. Since then, began manufacturing confuser and neck removable (see Fig.3) from resilient stainless the Century Its performance is fully preserved.
The prechamber OLA best produce from the standard tee welded to the adapter on the smaller diameter side of the supply fluid. This design optimizes the input fluid in the OLA and avoid significant pressure losses at the inlet (see item 5 claims).
3.5. Separation system
During the vacuum-processing are 2-4 million bubbles in a 1 cm3oil. If the oil is not foamy, then the bubbles quickly coagulated and no problems with separation does not occur. Separation of such oils may be produced in conventional cages (see item 6 of the claims).
If the oil has a tendency to pricing, there is a threat of overflow separator foam with a sharp deterioration in the quality of separation, in particular with a large ash dropping liquid gas. On the part of a lifting oil to the separator gravitational force is the basis of the effect of foam destruction is not working, and micro-bubbles absorb the turbulence of the flow. The experience shows that after a preliminary vacuum-processing the rise of liquid to the separator is completely quiet, without any pressure fluctuations at the inlet to the riser. When this is implemented emulsionable, if there is an excess of free gas. But, if the shear stress exceeds the strength of the foam on the slice (see Zagoskina N. In., Kokovkin, M. determination of the conditions of flow and fracture of flotation foam. - TOHT, 2001, T. 35 No. 1. - S. 99-102). If this condition is violated, then you need the foam to break.
To destroy the foam is better in dynamic conditions, prior to its entry into the machine. At a superficial destruction of the foam due to the rupture of membranes planted droplets of oil, which constitute the main source of contamination of the gas. The most pure gas (cleaner than after the most perfect drip pans) is obtained after passing a properly functioning device pre-selection of gas or, as they now often referred to as end phase dividers (KDF). When the gas is passing over the free liquid surface in the turbulent regime, cleans due to trapping of aerosol surfaces of the flow. The size of the device to achieve the specified degree of cleaning and the pressure loss can be significantly reduced artificial turbulization of the flow (see, for example, Yurchenko Century. And. About optimizing conditions for the trapping of aerosol on the surface of pipes and channels with turbulence in the gas flow orifice. - TOHT, 1992. s, formed on the surface of the oil, but the waves can become a source of dripping, Kaplunova. In terms of the variability of the instantaneous capacity of the separators SIC gas and liquid to calculate pengassan quite difficult. It is much easier to make it configurable.
The necessary hydrodynamic conditions in the KDF is determined by the degree of initial destruction of the foam and the velocity of the gas. The latter depends on the degree of filling KDF. Therefore, the most appropriate adjustable impact on these values. The first can be done, if at the end part of the lifting set, for example, corner pengassan with a height-adjustable entrance slit, the second is set to the end of the KDF adjustable damper. And to solve the problem of placing KDF at a height up to 25 m, to place it inside the cage, above the liquid surface. The fact that brythons determined by the specific load - the amount of gas released through a unit area. This tends to increase the surface area in the separator, i.e., to fill it to about half. Capreolata is also determined by the surface area of deposition. Therefore, modern separators having a lack of space mifano the TATKO. In addition, the problem of heat loss in the winter.
3.6. Substantiation of claims
All claims form the unity of type “one to implement another” and meet the requirements of unity of the inventive concept. The main hallmark of the first point is that the local vacuum processing is carried out before entering the riser. It may be implemented in any device - valve, gate valve, throttle washer or in a special device. This allows you to use the effect of lefterova to reduce back pressure, which, in turn, enables the vacuum-processing in a special device without an additional source of pressure. Experience shows thatP(Q) and(Q) in this case, the amount does not exceed the effect of lefterova, so maybe alternate implementation of the vacuum-processing on multiple parallel separators without disturbing the normal separation in the rest of the devices.
In the second paragraph of the main distinguishing feature is the regulation of the pressure to itself guarantee the inclusion of a bypass at best the work of OLA, and for bypasing flow of gas emitted from the vacuum treatment is asticheskoe Stripping light gas, the liberated gas is heavier, and therefore do all the talking will be primarily light components, as required.
In the third paragraph the main distinguishing characteristic is the flow of gas through the pressure regulator to itself, the implementation of which will reduce the loss of gas Stripping and reduce the outflow of gasoline fractions in the gas phase (the main drawback of “Stripping”).
Paragraph four replaces the above-mentioned impact wrench or hammer, is not acceptable from a security point of view (except the key or the sledgehammer will be medney).
In the fifth paragraph, the main distinguishing features are the parameters of flow and thus reduce the value ofP(Q), which is a restrictive formula two to three times compared with the prototype and provide the change the most wear parts, opening the way for mass production of individual products and making the life of the structure as a whole is virtually unlimited.
In points, from the sixth to one tenth invention is dissected into its component parts, each of which can be used independently and novel (to our knowledge). For example, the 6th item allows you to group all of the harness on one end of the tank and doubled at key stress Fig.1. Hydraulic characteristics of the OLA.
Fig.2. The working characteristics of the OLA.
Fig.3. Pre-vacuum-processing (OLA) (A).
Fig.4. The mounting device (OLA).
2. The prechamber
3. Adjusting peak
Fig.5. Separation system (General view)
Fig.6-10 parts centrifuges
In Fig.5-10 stated:
5. Pre-preparation for separation
7. Pre-separation of the phases
8. The inclined section of the end divider phases
9. The separation tank
11. The drive plate
16. The damper actuator
18. The edge of the tray
INFORMATION CONFIRMING the POSSIBILITY of carrying out the INVENTION
A General view of a separation unit shown in Fig.5. It consists of a preliminary site preparation oil separation 5 (more detail is shown in Fig.4), tower 6, the pre-separation of gas-liquid mixture 7, adapters connected to the pipe attached to the KDF 8 placed inside the separator 9.
Pre-separation of gas-liquid mixture (Fig.6-10) externally is a thickening of the top of the riser with side exhaust. Inside there are two to streams, falling into the trough formed by the second row. Above the exit of the riser with a slightly flared end installed movable plate actuator similar to the actuator of the valve. The lower surface of the plate has a conical surface, creating with flared pipe end conically radial access. When moving the plates will change the speed coming out of the jet, the intensity of its impact on the area and, consequently, the degree of destruction of the foam. The optimal position of the plates during operation is determined by a simple selection.
Sloping plot KDF is calculated using G-0004-90 (guide for the design and operation of separation units oil fields, the selection and arrangement of separation equipment: Ufa: Vniisptneft, 1990, 68 C.) and recommendations article Yurchenko Century. And. About optimizing conditions for the trapping of aerosol from the surface of the pipes and channels with turbulence in the gas flow orifice. - TOHT, 1992, T. 36, No. 1, S. 133-137. The last - with the introduction of the hydraulic radius and the new criterion is the degree of tightness of the flow aperture is equal to the ratio of the squares of the bore with the diaphragm and without it.
Due to the reduction of the path of the particles prior to deposition of a partially completed section of the beam is b, regular step diaphragms can help volnoobrazovaniye on the surface, therefore it is better to make it irregular within the recommended there values.
Finally, the last node is the node regulate the degree of filling KDF. Location KDF inside the cage free from worries about the tightness of the site, but begets new - pair-facing jet with a free surface, in the General case with variable distance to it. Regulation can be accomplished, for example, common flat heavy flap that can slide along a cut plane, inclined to the pipe axis. In this case, the outer surface of the valve serves as a tray for Oceania jet and the angle of the cut should be chosen with this in mind. But the lower angle below a certain limit is not wise too increase the size of the damper and friction forces. Therefore unavoidable additional system tray (see Fig.5.3) which are symmetrical relative to the longitudinal axis of the separator, the intersection of two inclined planes with a cutout to accommodate the valve and longitudinally inclined edge crossing plates.
If guaranteed normal operation of the system maintain the level in separationmedical vacuum processing flow of oil separation gives some effect on any mode therefore, under normal conditions, when the dissolved gas in the incoming oil enough, it closepacked: the higher the consumption, the greater the emitted gas, the lower the back pressure and the closer to the nominal mode. If degirolamo liquid water is small enough, then the operating mode of the sound of tearing of the liquid in the OLA no. Therefore, the mode judged by the inlet pressure and the outlet. Sign exit OLA mode is the rapid reduction of pressure at the base of the riser at a constant pressure at the entrance to the OLA. When you first start to remember the pressure at which this reduction begins and the final result. It is useful to measure the pressure and separation. This will allow you to calculate the effect of lefterova. In the proposed separation plant inputs and outputs of oil and gas are located nearby. Useful all pipes to supply pressure gauges to monitor the normal course of the process. Increased capture the liquid droplet on a hot KSU accompanied by warming the walls of the discharge pipeline, so when warming it is necessary to adjust the KDF or change the position of the input throttle plates, or change the position of the output valve. In point of impact on the quality of the separation.
Prior to the passage of the KDF and thin upholding the discharge of the KDF on the surface leads to the fact that the oil in the separator can contain only gas captured stream from the discharge of the KDF on the surface of the liquid. This gas is quickly separated from the oil without contaminating the gas space. Therefore, during normal operation of the whole complex of need in special separators no: gas should be pure cleaner than after the most perfect KDF (thanks to the additional impact of the expansion in the tank).
By reducing the gas content of oil possible output mode OLA from the work area. In this case, at the base of the riser pressure rises sharply, giving impetus to activate the mechanism for Stripping or start an ultrasonic transducer. Both these methods lead to the reduction of pressure at the base of the riser and the output unit in the operating mode, then the flow of gas to the Stripping or exposure to ultrasound cease.
According to the results of industrial tests technology doubles the number of sampled gas, deepening the degassing of oil, and is ideal for uniform distribution of oil between the parallel separators and to divide the oscillating circuits.
where RIand Ro- pressure on the inlet and outlet of the device prior vacuumoperated flow;
P - pressure drop across the device when working with output Q;
- the width of the zone of unstable operation of the device.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that it is not processed by the vacuum portion of the stream before feeding it into the riser is passed through the pressure regulator to itself that is configured to the maximum allowable pressure at the inlet to the device.
3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the strut through the bubbler serves gas through the pressure regulator after itself, is configured with a maximum permissible pressure at the output of the processing device of the vacuum.
4. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that when the pressure at the outlet of the device processing vacuumm above a certain limit, the area of least pressure or the base of the riser is subjected to vibromaster, adjusting needle with drive, confuser, neck length equal to two diameters and fraught with confuser in an arc with a radius of 0.2 of the diameter of the throat and the diffuser, wherein the confuser is made with an angle of taper 80-120, adjusting the needle - variable taper from 0 to 10at the base and 20-30at the top of the needle, cone - variable taper, which varies from 6-10neck and up to 30in the end, the chamber is made from the tee, and adjusting the needle and the interior of the confuser and the neckline is made removable from the viscous austenitic stainless steel.
6. Separation system including a separator and piping, characterized in that the base of the riser connected to one or more processing devices vacuum with shutoff valves on the inlet and outlet of each, the bypass pressure regulator to itself, with shutoff valves of the same diameter and a diffuser at the outlet, designed to permit the maximum flow rate supplied to the installation when the maximum allowable pressure drop and fully open valve.
7. Separation installing the Les themselves”, or vibrator, ustanovlenny on the neck of the processing device of the vacuum or on the basis of the riser.
8. Fractionation device under item 6 or 7, characterized in that it has a limit divider phase to enter the treated compound vacuum inside the separator, partially located in the gas space of the separator from the system tray on exit, excluding the fall of the jets at a free surface of oil in the separator.
9. Separation installation according to p. 8, characterized in that the end part of the lifting of oil mounted pengassan having a movable valve for controlling the speed liquid jet.
10. Separation installation according to p. 8, characterized in that the exit end of the divider phase it is further provided with a valve for regulating the liquid level therein.
11. Separation installation according to p. 8, characterized in that the inner surface of the end divider phases supplied in the gas portion of the gas energizers as part of annular diaphragms located with variable step, eliminating the wave generation of the free surface of the liquid in the divider phases, and its outer surface is provided with ribs for intensification of copiosamente.
FIELD: oil extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device includes exposure chamber, U-shaped branch pipe on it for passing of oil with picking of oil from upwards, made in form of five pipes inserted into one another with common ceiling and bottom and apertures in upper and lower portions of pipe, forming serially placed U-shaped and upturned U-shaped branch-pipe, and channel for passing of water with picking of water from downwards, having common output from device.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gas-liquid systems coming from oil production wells. Mixture is separated into liquid and gas in separator. Liquid is periodically accumulated in separator container and then displaced with gas. During this operation, differential pressure for liquid reaching its lower and upper recorded levels and time required for filling recorded volumes are measured as well as absolute pressure and temperature of gas in container. Liquid flow value expressed in weight is calculated using special mathematical dependence. At oil field, liquid and gas enter separator from preliminary gas intake installation or from the first separation step.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement due to avoided gas density registration and excluded necessity of using strictly cylindrically-shaped measuring container.
FIELD: oil extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: mixture is separated on liquid and gas in separator. Liquid is periodically collected and forced away by gas while measuring absolute pressure and gas temperature in separator tank near upper and lower fixed liquid levels, and times of forcing away of fixed liquid volume. Additionally measured are absolute pressure and temperature in moment when liquid reaches intermediate fixed level. Then liquid is forced from intermediate fixed level to lower fixed level separator is switched off from well, and mass loss of gas is calculated from provided relation. Device for realization of method consists of separator with feeding pipe, in which a three-drive valve is mounted, and draining pipe, which through said valve is connected to liquid outlet channel and to gas outlet channel. Separator is provided with sensors of temperature and pressure and sensors of upper, intermediate and lower levels, mounted in such a manner, that they separate fixed volumes between each other in separator tank, in case of equality of which calculations are simplified.
EFFECT: higher precision.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes mixing water-oil emulsion with drain water in line of inlet of first electric hydrator by dispersing drain water in volume 8-15% from volume of prepared oil at temperature 40-50°C. As washing water drain water is used from same oil deposit with mineralization less than saturation limit.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes feeding oil emulsion to reservoir with flow 0,5-1 m3/hour through layer of drain water of same oil deposit with mineralization less than saturation limit at temperature 20-30°C and bed thickness of drain water 6-8 m. in reservoir oil is separated and directed to inlet of oil preparation plant.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities.
FIELD: oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes dispersing water in oil emulsion at input of accumulator. As water, drain-water of the same oil deposit is used with content of oil products no less than 60 mg/l and hard suspended particles no more than 50 mg/l in volume 8-15% of volume of prepared oil at a temperature 5-25°.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: oil industry, particularly to prevent salt deposits in collector and measuring installations during oil production and transportation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing product flows and transporting thereof, wherein compatible liquids are chosen for further mixing so that during mixing of above liquids oversaturated salt solution does not appear to prevent salt precipitation. Liquid for mixing is taken in amount enough to reduce salt concentration to value, which does not exceed saturated concentration and provides mineralization obtaining after liquid mixing. Mixing of liquid flows is performed out of process equipment and in tubes provided with release coating applied on inner tube surfaces.
EFFECT: increased simplicity due to elimination of chemical reagent usage and due to reduced number of stages.
FIELD: oil production industry, particularly for oil product separation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing gaseous hydrocarbon with aqueous acid solution with pH value of not more than 4 so that hydrate-generation gas is converted into hydrate phase under hydrate phase forming control.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to increased separation degree, increased simplicity, possibility to utilize separation products and enhanced safety.
15 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil production, oil refining, oil chemistry and other fields connected with emulsion breakdown, particularly adapted for formation fluid separation into such components as oil, gas and water.
SUBSTANCE: method involves subjecting formation fluid flow to magnetic treatment to provide emulsified water droplet coalescence; breaking inhibiting shells at oil-water interface to provide additional water droplet collision. To increase rate of water-gas-oil emulsion stratification, to improve quality of emulsion separation into oil, gas and water and to reduce emulsifier consumption above magnetic treatment is carried out in field directed transversely to fluid flow and having strength H = 5-10kA/m and magnetic field strength gradient dH/dr=2-5·106 A/m2. Unidirectional unipolar point constant magnets are used for above magnetic field creation. Inhibiting shells are broken with the use of vibration having 10-100 Hz frequency and 0.5-10 mm amplitude.
EFFECT: increased emulsion breakdown rate along with decreased hydrocarbon concentration in water and water content in hydrocarbon, as well as reduced demulsifier consumption.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: water production from boreholes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling production and injection borehole systems; penetrating borehole by perforation thereof; applying vibroacoustic pressure oscillations to formation, wherein the pressure oscillations are excited by acoustic borehole tools lowered in boreholes; producing water from boreholes. Injection borehole pipes are not perforated and are filled with working liquid. Acoustic oscillations are initially applied to production boreholes so that pressure in production boreholes preliminarily filled with fracturing liquid should be at least 2 times greater than formation breakdown pressure. Acoustic borehole device is located within perforation area. After crack opening water is lifted from production boreholes. During water lifting acoustic pressure oscillations are applied to formation through injection boreholes.
EFFECT: provision of water production in dry territories, increased economy and efficiency.