The method of disposal and processing of solid domestic waste

 

The invention relates to the field of public utilities, namely the disposal and processing of solid waste. The method of disposal of solid waste includes biochemical disposal and recycling, while solid waste is served on a conveyor belt, then undertaking the selection of separators of solid waste, scrap metal, plastics and paper, as well as manual selection of solid fractions, sorting and deleting. Then submit the remaining organic waste in bobaraba (B) on the biochemical decontamination, where for the fermentation of the compost serves litter, heated to 45-50With the air. In the capacity of the battery serves biopulp with active sludge treatment facilities, heated air, organic matter and water. As the maturation of the received biopulp served in (B) for irrigation of household waste. In (B) is a two-step biochemical decomposition of organic waste with the participation of microorganisms in anaerobic and aerobic conditions. After processing the compost mass of (B) is fed to the crushing and screening and then enters the warehouse stacking; waste polymeric materials postupka and non-ferrous metal, and the paper is packaged in bales and sent for further processing. The invention allows to solve the pressing question of the disposal and processing of solid domestic waste, improve the environment. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of public utilities, namely the disposal and processing of solid household waste.

In connection with the intensive development of industry, the growth of cities and other settlements, increasing their beautification faced a serious problem of disposal of solid waste. Their enormous volumes adversely affect the environment, poisoning the soil, the infiltration into aquifers aggressive toxic wastes, pollution of all sorts of infections and air pollution emitted gases as a result of decaying organic matter.

Currently, the main methods of disposal of solid waste is disposal and incineration. For the organization of waste disposal requires significant allocation of land close to the city and requires a large consumption of material, energy and labor resources.

Combustion of solid life is rececca process in the adverse reactions produced many highly toxic products, such as dioxins, heavy metal oxides, oxides of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and others. In addition, thermal technology, as a rule, multi-stage. These include: drying, pyrolysis (burning), treatment of the solid residue, chemical and thermal deactivation of flue gases.

Closest to the claimed invention is a technology Saint-Petersburg pilot plant with mechanized waste recycling and processing of their bio-thermal method in the compost, which is used for landscaping gardens and parks (see Novikov, C., Dudarev, A. J. "the Sanitary environment of the modern city". Leningrad, 1978).

In the technology of this plant uses a high temperature processing (pyrolysis) and in a large amount of manual sorting.

It has the disadvantages of:

1. When burning, in addition to the smoke of the atmosphere is polluted with poisonous impurities.

2. After the burial of residues is a chemical decomposition of the masses with the release of harmful gases and toxic heavy metals and other

3. The lands designated for landfill, for many years out of the useful speech.

The task was to create an environmentally friendly and cost-effective technology for neutralization of the work.

The problem is solved by the present invention. In the method of disposal and recycling of solid waste, including biochemical disposal and recycling, according to the invention municipal solid waste is fed onto the belt conveyor and then is the selection of separators scrap metal, polymeric materials and recycled paper, hand-selected solid fractions, sorting them and removing, then the remaining organic matter enter bobaraba on biochemical decontamination, in addition, bobaraba for the fermentation of the compost is biopulp, litter and other organic material and heated to a temperature of 45-55With the air, with capacity-battery comes biopulp with activated sludge from biological treatment facilities, heated air, organic matter in the form of grain dust, waste buckwheat husk, leaves, sawdust and other organic matter and water, the biomass is fed into bobaraba and irrigates household waste, biobrane is a two-step biochemical decomposition of organic waste with the participation of microorganisms in anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and after the end of the process paramasivan the th ripening, then ripped the compost mass is screened and divided into two streams: powder compost and ballast.

In a preferred embodiment, the selected separator scrap is fed to the packaging ferrous and non-ferrous metal selected waste polymer materials processing, where it is processed into free-flowing granules and waste paper are pressed into bales and sent to further processing.

The invention achieves the following technical result.

The use of the claimed invention provides for an integrated approach to waste using mechanical sorting and biological decontamination and recycling of organic matter with obtaining valuable biocompost for fertilizers, the application of which leads to increased crop yields by 25-30% compared to soil without biocompost.

Application of the proposed method of solid waste will improve sanitary and environmental conditions. Garbage will be requested product, and its cleaning and recycling is profitable. Will increase the profitability of the collection and Deposit produced in the city waste.

Ways to use em poultry, pig farms and other

In connection with the application process as additives litter and biopulp with a high content of anaerobic bacteria and heated waste decomposition (fermentation) of organic waste tens of times faster.

The inventive method differs from the known, taken as a prototype, the fact that municipal solid waste received on the belt conveyor and the separator separates the metal, polymeric materials, paper, manually selected solids and are removed and the remaining organic matter enter bobaraba on biological decontamination, and the drum serves litter heated to 45-55°C air and separately prepared in the battery biopulp consisting of a slurry of activated sludge from biological treatment plants, organic matter and water, and the resulting compost mass is placed in piles on ripening, then sifted and divided into compost and ballast. Thus, the proposed method satisfies the criteria of the invention of "novelty."

In the patent and scientific literature is not well-known methods of disposal and processing of solid domestic waste in which the waste previously exempt from scrap metal, polymeric materials which, where does heated air at a temperature of 45-55With, litter trained biopulp activated sludge from sewage treatment plants. After mixing and preparation obtained compost mass of bobaraba laid in piles on ripening (60-90 days), after which it is crushed, screened and delivered to the warehouse.

Thus, the proposed solution meets the criteria of the invention "inventive step".

The proposed method can be used universally for processing household waste and create valuable agricultural product is enriched with nitrogen compost. The method can be used for processing of solid household waste together with waste from poultry farms, pig farms and waste wood, leaves, sawdust, grass, containing limnogeology materials. Technology recycling is an environmentally friendly and cost effective and will improve sanitary and environmental conditions.

Thus, the proposed solution meets the criteria of the invention "industrial applicability".

The drawing shows a diagram of the proposed method of disposal and recycling of household waste.

The method is performed by a device, municipal solid waste (MSW) 6, the tape feeder 7, the drum screen 8, the electromagnetic separator 9, the separator selection of polymeric material 10, the press of the polymers 11, the conveyor 12, the separator selection of paper 13, crusher 14, the solid waste containers 15, the capacity of the battery 16, the pumps 17, 18, the thunder-bolt 19, pluzhkovogo the resetter 20, the blower 21, the electric heater 22, the litter bin 23, bobaraba 24, the tape feeder 25, baler black metal 26 and baler non-ferrous metal, paper baling press 27, bunker, ballast 28, piles of compost 29, the fan 30, the filter-sorbent 31.

The method is as follows.

In the composition of municipal solid waste includes: waste paper - 20-35%; food (organic) waste - 35-40%; ferrous and non-ferrous metals - 3-4%; plastics waste - 7-8%; glass - 3-4%; textiles - 2-3%, etc. Loaded garbage trucks arrive at the test site through the weight 1, where the installation of surveillance cameras 2, which are interlocked with the computer 3, which automatically registers the date and time of arrival of the car, her state room, mark and code, the name and affiliation of the organization of the carrier, type of waste, determine the weight of the vehicle and load.

The weight consists of truck scales with 4 cargo platform, which the mouth of the received data weighting are logged in the computer 3 and summarizes the amount of waste generated per day, week, month, etc.

After weighing municipal solid waste (MSW) unloaded into a hopper 6, is equipped with plate feeder 7. Apron feeder 7 overloads waste in the drum screen 8, in front of which has an electromagnetic separator 9, which selects the scrap metal, the roar of 8 passes under the separator 10, which selects the polymeric materials and supplies at the press of the polymers 11, and then recycled.

Provided further processing of polymeric materials using the principles of agglomeration, extrusion, etc. that can be obtained from waste friable granules of predetermined fraction. Processing shall be subject to all waste types: polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, PVC, and PET bottles.

Next is the selection of a paper screen 8 a separator 13, which goes to the press 27 where it is pressed into bales and goes to further processing. Then the roar of 8 household waste passes through manual selection solid waste fractions. Selected recyclable materials are sorted by type of waste and then is loaded into the container 15, and then is sent for processing, and after the final hand sorting of household, mainly food and other organic waste from gr is a rotating machine, in which the biochemical process of neutralization of waste flows in artificially created conditions. In biobrane 24 is the biochemical decomposition of organic substances in anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The required volume of the boot material is determined by the oxidation process and the amount of biopulp 1-4% by weight of waste passing through a distribution device (not shown). The oxidation capacity of bobaraba 24 varies widely, as its value depends on many factors: temperature biobrane, the composition of the incoming waste, the amount of heated air, humidity, speed (mixing).

Download waste and unloading of biocompost is continuously or periodically depending on the time of the composition in biobrane 24 waste.

To activate the oxidation process waste and education quality biocompost and disposal of waste from pathogens in bobaraba 24 is fed continuously heated in the heater 22 to a temperature of 45-55With the air. At this temperature there is a complete extinction of pathogenic microorganisms. the kladyvaetsya in piles (stacks) on maturing within 1.5-2 months. After maturation, Biokom not dangerous when used as fertilizer, because the process of neutralization.

The most high quality and wide polyfunctional effect has biocompost obtained with the addition of poultry litter, cattle, pig farms, etc. In this case, litter is a substrate for fermentation of biocompost. Litter from the container 23 feeder 25 is served in bobaraba 24.

It should be noted that Biokom with the addition of litter in their properties in several tens of times greater than unprocessed litter and manure.

The speed of composting in the application of litter increased tenfold compared with the traditional methods of waste disposal of poultry farms, pig farms and other Pomeranian on open sites, where to use this litter as biocompost to fertilize only after 2-3 years.

In addition, the proposed solution to accelerate and improve the efficiency of processing solid waste using biopulp with activated sludge municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

From urban wastewater treatment plants after dropping from the aeration tank excess sludge from the activated sludge enters the clarifiers, it is brought to the landfill of household waste is poured in the vessel-achuki 21 served in a warmed the electric heater 22 air through perforated pipes, is the bubbling of biopulp that facilitates the movement of bacteria, oxygen supply and intensive reproduction. The batteries 16 are periodically introduced organic matter and water for livelihoods and bacteria.

One of the tanks-accumulators 16 is used for continuous extraction of the pulp and feed it into bobaraba 24, and the second is the multiplication of bacteria. As needed according to the analysis of pulp with activated sludge fills the tank, batteries 16. The ripe pulp of the capacity of the battery pumps 17, 18 and served in bobaraba 24 and irrigates the incoming waste and organic.

Enter the pulp with a high content of anaerobic bacteria and heated waste dozens of times accelerates the process of decomposition (fermentation) of organic substances.

Waste management is the biochemical decomposition in biobrane 24 with the participation of microorganisms in anaerobic and aerobic conditions occurring in the mass of waste, and occurs in two phases:

in the first phase of the collapse of carbohydrates, fats and proteins highlights the main breakdown products of fatty acids and hydrogen as well as carbon dioxide, alcohols, amino acids, ammonia, and their salts, etc.

in the second phase decay decay widelyvarying process biobrane 24 for processing household waste is an aerobic stabilization. She is partial oxidation of organic impurities included in the composition of the solid phase, and the duration of the stabilization ranges from 2 to 15 days depending on the composition of household waste.

Changing the properties of household waste, the degree of decomposition of organic impurities using this method corresponds to the effect obtained by anaerobic process. Aerobic process continues in the vermicompost discharged from bobaraba 24 and stored in stacks in the warehouse of finished products within 1.5-2 months.

In anaerobic and aerobic conditions nitrates in fermentative transformations at a temperature of 25-35With allow you to get Biokom, containing 10-12%-bound nitrogen and up to 30% of digestible nitrogen plants.

Exposure time waste biobrane from 3 to 24 hours. Exposure of biocompost pit 1.5-2 months. Next compostable material enters into the crusher 14, and then the thunder-bolt 19, which Biokom is divided into two streams: ballast (32) and sifted compost (33). After grinding and screening the compost is sent to the site-the warehouse where it is stored in the stack 33. Maturation of biocompost stacked may continue for 10-20 days in ze 27 is pressed in bales of paper and sold in the secondary processing. Remaining from the processing of compostable mass of the ballast in the number of 6-10% of the initial mass of solid waste is fed into the hopper 28 and is either used for land reclamation, or disposal at the landfill.

Ballast fractions do not contain food waste, unattractive to rodents and insects, do not release the filtrates and are not dangerous to the environment during storage in landfills or land reclamation since passed the process of neutralization in biobrane. Exhaust gases from bobaraba 24 by the fan 30 are fed to the filter-sorbent 31, where the decontamination gas.

Claims

1. The method of disposal and recycling of solid waste, including biochemical disposal and recycling, characterized in that the solid waste is served on a conveyor belt and then undertaking the selection of separators scrap metal, polymeric materials, paper, manual selection of solid fractions, sorting and deleting, after which the remaining organic matter serves in bobaraba on biochemical decontamination, in addition to bobaraba for the fermentation of the compost serves litter and heated to a temperature of 45-552. The method according to p. 1, wherein the selected separator scrap serves on the packaging ferrous and non-ferrous metal.

3. The method according to p. 1, wherein the selected separator waste polymeric materials served in the agglomerator, where processed according to the principle of agglomeration in bulk granulate.

4. The method according to p. 1, wherein the selected separator waste paper pressed into bales and serves for further processing.

 

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FIELD: processing materials, such as roofing bitumen-containing materials.

SUBSTANCE: waste are ground and loaded in bitumen melting boiler for separation of them from cardboard base in presence of liquid contact heat-transfer agent. During heating, flue gas is evacuated from furnace of boiler through box used for reduction of flue gas pressure via pipe line to gas separator for entrapping and settling of soot. Then gas directed to filtering unit where it is cleaned and is discharged into atmosphere in form of clean air. Molten bitumen and cardboard pulp are extracted from melting boiler and are cooled to temperature not above 140oC, after which cardboard pup is washed in bitumen-dissolving reagent and is used for manufacture of roofing materials and/or materials for furnaces; liquid phase remaining after washing is used as base for production of bitumen varnish; soot is used for manufacture of rubber articles or dye or pigment for paints and varnishes. Plant proposed for realization of this method is provided with gas separator, gas filtration unit and bitumen melting boiler.

EFFECT: optimization of process; enhanced ecological safety; increased productivity; reduced usage of materials.

22 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: Utilization of wastes containing mercury.

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