Microwave tomographic device for spectroscopy and the method of its implementation

 

The invention relates to medical equipment, namely to devices and methods for internal structural images of biological tissues. Device for microwave tomographic spectroscopy of tissue includes many microwave emitters-receivers that are spatially oriented on the fabric, matching the environment, the control device for selective control through the subsystem forming channels, the encoder which is configured to encode the microwave radiation and decoding the received signal from multiple emitters-receivers. In this case the implementation of the method of identification of discrete signals towards the antenna arrays decoding is carried out with the ability to determine sluchivshego its emitter-receiver. When conducting microwave tomographic spectroscopy of multiple emitters-receivers operate so that they through the system channel formation radiated multi-frequency microwave radiation. The use of the invention allows the rapid assessment of biological functions and anatomical structures in real-time. 4 N. and 31 C.p. f-crystals, 21 ill.

Background of invention

When forming mikrovolnovogo topographic images for display object is used microwave radiation, it is the effect of the object on a microwave beam after its interaction with a given object. In the case of applying microwave radiation to the nature of the interaction is determined by the dielectric constant of the dielectric and conductivity properties of the tissues of the displayed object. The dielectric constant of the dielectric and conductivity properties of the object are expressed together in the form of complex dielectric permittivity.

Electromagnetic wave as a component of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum occupy the frequency range from about 0.1 GHz to 300 GHz. This corresponds to a wavelength range from 300 mm to 1 mm Microwave range used to obtain mikrovalnova images of biological tissues is in the range of about 0.5 to 3 GHz, but can also use other ranges Mikri non-ionizing radiation.

In the General case, the receiving microwave image differs from the use of x-rays, positron emission, ultrasound or nuclear magnetic resonance, because microwave radiation interacts with the object to be plotted as a function of the complex permittivity of the object. Complex dielectric permittivity consists of the dielectric constant of the dielectric and dielectric losses. The dielectric constant of the dielectric is its real part and is determined by the equation:

Accordingly, the dielectric loss is expressed imaginary part of:

whereois the permittivity of vacuum,- conductivity of the material and f is the operating frequency.

For example, water has a broadband dielectric constant, which is approximately 80 at a frequency of about 1 GHz and decreases to a value of about 4.5 at frequencies above 100 GHz. Dielectric water losses increase with frequency of about 1 GHz to about 25 GHz. An additional factor affecting the dielectric constant of water is of Egorov - obtaining a static image, based on the formation of images by determining the absolute values of the dielectric constant for microwave radiation after its interaction with the object. The second category is obtaining a dynamic image, which is based on the changes in the dielectric constant inside the object that occur during exposure to microwave radiation. This second form of image acquisition is particularly applicable to obtain images of biological tissues when controlling directly occurring physiological changes. However, it should be clear that upon receipt of static images and dynamic images, you must have an active influence in the process of image acquisition, resulting in the need to make the movement of microwave scanner or scanning of the incident radiation, which results in the detection of changes in the microwave radiation, which are the result of their interaction with the display object.

Most non-biological objects, which are applicable to obtain an image using electromagnetic microwaves, represent the biological tissues show a wide range of relative dielectric constant. It is believed that these ranges are determined, to a large extent, due to the interaction of microwave radiation with the charges on the surface of cell membranes, and the actual structure of the cell membrane with a hydrophobic layer between the hydrophilic layer, and water and electrolyte, both inside and outside of the cell structures. Therefore, the interaction of biological tissue manifests itself in an extremely difficult and even change over time due to small temperature changes caused by absorption of microwave energy, used to get microwave image. This absorbed energy is converted into heat, this is especially true for water. This is quite an important factor because, on average, biological tissue contains approximately 70% water.

Usually when receiving microwave tomographic image, a set of microwave transmitters and receivers, spatially arranged in the form of an antenna array around the object, the image which you want to retrieve. In publishing, 1990, in Proceedings of the IEEE on biomedical engineering, T. 37 No. 3; C. 303-12 (IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol.37 no.3, pp.303-12), March, 1990, entitled "Obtaining image is in Joffre and other (Jofre et al.), describes the location of the antenna array of microwave emitters and receivers cylindrical shape. This antenna array consisted of 64 waveguide antennas, arranged in four groups of 16 antennas. Each waveguide antenna capable of functioning as an emitter or a receiver. The object image which you want to obtain, is placed inside the circle of the antenna array of emitters and immersed in water in order to minimize the attenuation of the incident microwave beam during its interaction with the surface of the object. Each antenna in the group sequentially turns on the light, and 16 antennas in the group opposite the radiating groups, work on reception. This procedure is sequentially repeated for each antenna until you have completed one round. The output microwave signal was radiated at a frequency of 2.45 GHz, forming collimation field height of approximately 2 cm, the power density on the object is less than 0.1 milliwatt per square centimeter.

In the structure of Jofre and other uses coherent quadrature phase detector for measuring the level and phase of the signal receiving antennas. The data is converted into digital form, and the computer performs the image reconstruction, the data, thus, to obtain an approximation of the microwave diffraction in two dimensions. This algorithm uses the born approximation, in which it is assumed that the scattering has the same effect as a weak perturbation lighting, and, therefore, the field inside the body is approximately equal to the incident field. This problem of approximation remains a real limitation in microwave tomography.

In a publication in the Journal on methods of Neuroscience Journal of Neuroscience Methods), 36; S. 239-51, 1991, entitled "Computed active microwave imaging of the brain; the answer", the authors Amiral and other (Active Microwave Computed Brain Tomography: The Response to a Challenge, Amirall, et al.), disclosed the use of a cylindrical antenna array described in the article by Jofre to obtain images of the brain. In this case, the image was restored using the algorithm of diffraction for cylindrical configurations, using the method of fast Fourier transform and the born approximation of the first order. Data recovered using the algorithm determines the contrast in the values of dielectric permittivity of the cross section of the body, as a function of spatial coordinates of the part of the represented body creates this contrast dielectrical half wavelength of the microwave radiation. For a frequency of 2.45 GHz, this means theoretically minimum resolution of approximately 6 cm in air and 7 mm in water. In the used reconstruction algorithms and constraints used in electronic devices these theoretical values were not reached.

The use in the above-mentioned device approximations of the first order and of the algorithms used limits its use to obtain images of small bodies, such as members of the body. In the case of large bodies such as the human head, the restored image correctly would show only the outer contour of the body, but not its internal structure.

When using a dynamic image, image reconstruction is performed based on the difference of the diffracted fields, registered from multiple sets of data collected while conducting irradiation of the body with varying contrast of the dielectric. Amiral and others were able to get the internal image of large bodies, however, the resolution was only about half theoretically predicted values.

The invention

The present invention is a device for microwave, topogra the new radiation, many microwave emitters-receivers that are spatially oriented on the fabric, matching the environment located between the emitters-receivers, a control device, operatively connected between the power source and lots of microwave emitters-receivers, the encoder to encode the microwave radiation and a computing device for calculating tomographic spectroscopic image of the tissue using the received microwave signals, in accordance with the invention the control unit is configured to selectively control through the subsystem forming channels, supply energy to many emitters-receivers and reception of microwave signals from multiple emitters-receivers so that that multi-frequency microwave radiation emitted from the selected set of emitters-receivers after it passes through the fabric, and the encoder subsystem forming channels configured to encode the microwave radiation applied to the selected set of emitters-receivers, and decoding the received signal from receiving multiple emitters-receivers.

In addition, soglasnaaaaaaaaa from approximately 50 to 90 at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and a dielectric loss of about 5 to 25, multi-frequency microwave radiation is preferably in the range from about 0.2 GHz to about 5 GHz and is generated using a pulsed radiation from one of the emitters, and each time the radiation energy level is approximately 1 mW/cm2.

Many microwave emitters-receivers forming the antenna array of emitters-receivers arranged in a circle.

In addition, the position of the microwave emitter-receivers can be changed along the radius of the circular antenna array.

Many microwave emitters-receivers contains many placed one above the other emitters-receivers arranged in a circle. The control unit has the ability to choose the number of emitters-receivers to operate as emitters and a separate series of emitters-receivers to operate as receivers.

The computing device contains a component forming an input for receiving and generate the data used in the direct problem solution, and the component of the direct problem solution is configured to receive data from the component forming the input data and to calculate the image bi is about in biological tissue will occur dielectric effects, and calculate the expected values of the amplitude and phase of the transmitted microwave energy component of the solution of the inverse problem, which decides from the component of the direct problem solution, and then computes the image of the biological tissue, based on the known values of the amplitude and phase of the radiated microwaves known and accepted values of amplitude and phase of the antenna arrays of emitters-receivers, and frequency component of the correlation.

Component of the inverse problem solution contains a component of the functional form, made with the possibility of summing the input signals from all emitters-receivers, component forming a gradient made with the possibility of the use of the derivative component of the functional formation to facilitate fast processing component calculation parameter minimization “Tau”, designed to confirm the accuracy of the gradient and to ensure the recovery image the most accurate way, and component calculations* made with the possibility of calculation* as a representation of the dielectric �/949.gif">’+’ and where’ and’ are the measured values of dielectric constant and dielectric losses, a i represents the imaginary number.

In addition, the encoder includes means for changing the phase of the microwave radiation. The encoder includes means for changing the amplitude of the microwave radiation.

In addition, the encoder includes means for changing the polarity of the microwave radiation. The result of evaluating* is a value obtained by calculating the dielectric characteristics’ and’ derived from the measured amplitude and phase of the radiated and received microwave energy in a certain frequency range.

The present invention includes a method for microwave tomographic spectroscopy of tissue without violating its integrity, comprising stages, on which place the power source of microwave radiation, placed many emitters-receivers, microwave radiation, manage multiple emitters-receivers, microwave radiation, p is the nice fabric, which will be exposed to radiation inside the medium separation, encode the emitted microwave radiation, receive microwave radiation from a microwave emitter-receivers after its interaction with tissue, and decode the received microwave radiation, and the measured change of the microwave radiation after interaction with the tissue, in accordance with izobreteniem many emitters-receivers is controlled so that a number of selected emitters-receivers through the subsystem channel formation radiated multi-frequency microwave radiation to multiple emitters-receivers, receiving microwave radiation, encode the emitted microwave radiation among the selected emitters-receivers, and decode the received signal after interaction with the tissue with the ability to determine sluchivshego its emitter-receiver. In addition, multi-frequency microwave radiation simultaneously emitted from a variety of sources.

The step of measuring includes the solution of the inverse problem for the calculation of the tomographic image of the tissue based on the measured change of the microwave radiation, and the solution of the inverse task contains steps that opredeljivanje to create a component forming a gradient, used to increase the processing speed of mathematical calculations to restore, calculate the minimum “Tau”, and perform a calculation*.

The present invention also provides a method for the identification of discrete signals with respect to a particular antenna arrays containing the stages of orientation of the tissue, the image of which will be built in a matching environment in the device microwave tomographic spectroscopy, containing a power source for supplying microwave radiation, many microwave emitters-receivers, a control device with encoder, encoding the emitted microwave radiation and decoding the received signal, in accordance with the invention encode simultaneously emitted microwave radiation from a variety of selected emitters-receivers, and then decode received after interaction with the tissue signal with the ability to determine sluchivshego its emitter-receiver.

The step of encoding includes the phase change of the microwave radiation. In addition, the encoding step includes changing the amplitude of the microwave radiation, and the step of encoding includes a change heave.

The present invention also provides a method of microwave tomographic spectroscopy of tissue without violating its integrity, comprising stages define the scope of the target tissue to microwave radiation, determining the expected values of the dielectric parameters of the tissue of a region of a target tissue, irradiation of a specific area by means of microwave radiation from multiple emitters-receivers, receiving microwave radiation from the irradiated area many emitters-receivers and its analysis to obtain the observed values of the dielectric parameters of the tissue and comparing them with expected values to determine the physiological state of the tissue in a specific area of the target, in accordance with the invention, the irradiation region of the target tissue carry out multi-frequency microwave radiation by means of simultaneous transmission of the selected set of emitters-receivers, and the stages of analysis and comparison include the step of solving the inverse problem for the calculation of the tomographic image of the tissue based on the measured change of the microwave radiation, and the solution of the inverse task contains steps that about the St formation to create a component forming a gradient, used to increase the speed of mathematical calculations to restore, calculate the parameter minimizing the “Tau” and perform a calculation*.

In addition, the step of securing the transmission of microwave radiation includes a step multi-frequency microwave radiation. The step of comparing includes comparing a received microwave radiation in real time, which allows determining in real time the changing physiological state.

Certain physiological condition is a physiological condition selected from the list of physiological conditions consisting of a temperature, a state of the electrical excitation, saturation of oxyhemoglobin, oxygen content in the blood, total haemoglobin concentration and partial pressure of gas in the blood, and the partial pressure of gas in the blood includes RHO2defined area of the target tissue includes cardiac region of the patient to determine the location of the beginning of the cardiac arrhythmia.

In addition, the step of providing the system of sending and receiving multi-frequency microwave radiation involves the use of subsystems in vivo and in vitro. Use the subsystem to the second tissue using subsystem catheter removal. In addition, the subsystem catheter removal uses to remove the laser energy and microwave energy, and subsystem catheter removal uses to remove the energy of high frequency. A certain region of the target tissue includes tissue near the chest of the patient.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 depicts a schematic diagram of the device for microwave topographic spectroscopy according to the invention.

Figure 2 depicts a schematic diagram of the device microwave tomographic spectroscopy according to the invention.

Figure 3 depicts a block diagram of the algorithm for solving the inverse problem.

Figure 4 depicts a block diagram of an alternative reconstruction algorithm for solving the inverse problem.

Figure 5 depicts a graph of the dielectric characteristics of cardiac tissue of the dog as a function of the cardiac cycle.

Figure 6 depicts a graph of the dielectric characteristics of cardiac tissue of the dog as a function of the cardiac cycle.

Figure 7 depicts a graph of the dielectric characteristics of cardiac tissue of the dog as a function of closing and re-wetting.

Figure 8 depicts a graph of the dielectric characteristics of cardiac tissue with the IR cardiac tissue of the dog as a function of closing and re-wetting.

Figure 10 depicts a graph of the dielectric characteristics of cardiac tissue of the dog as a function of closing and re-wetting.

Figure 11 depicts a graph of the dielectric characteristics of the first and second order cardiac tissue of the dog as a function of time and frequency microwave radiation.

Figure 12 depicts a graph of the dielectric characteristics of the first and second order cardiac tissue of the dog as a function of time and frequency microwave radiation.

Figure 13 depicts a graph of the dielectric characteristics of the first order of cardiac tissue of the dog in relation to the frequency of the microwave radiation.

Figure 14 depicts a graph of the oxygen content in the blood relative to the dielectric characteristics of the second order of cardiac tissue of the dog and the frequency of the microwave radiation.

Figure 15 depicts a graph of the oxygen content in the blood in relation to the correlation coefficients of the first order dielectric and the frequency of the microwave radiation.

Figure 16 depicts a graph of the oxygen content in the blood in relation to the correlation coefficients of the second order dielectric and the frequency of the microwave radiation.

Figure 17 depicts a graph of the dielectric coefficients of the first and second Gura 18 depicts a graph of the dielectric characteristics of the second order for normal and diseased tissue of the left myocardium ventricle of the human heart, correlated to the frequency of the microwave radiation.

Figure 19 depicts a graph of the dielectric characteristics of the first order for normal and diseased tissue of the left myocardium ventricle of the human heart, correlated to the frequency of the microwave radiation.

Figure 20 depicts a zoomed-in graph of the dielectric characteristics of the second order for normal and diseased tissue of the left myocardium ventricle of the human heart, correlated to the frequency of microwave radiation, is shown in Fig.18.

Figure 21 depicts a block diagram of the algorithm of choice is surgical removal.

Detailed description of the invention

Figures 1 and 2 depict schematic diagrams of devices for topographic spectroscopy 10 according to the invention.

The application of the present invention are possible in many areas, however, it is preferable to apply it in the field of medicine, as described below. In particular, embodiments of the present invention described below relate to diagnose without violating the integrity of the authority and therapy of cardiac arrhythmias. This microwave device allows you to quickly and accurately produce the detection and localization of cardiac arrhythmogenic foci, without breaking the whole. The device 10 performs these procedures, using multi-mode technology, signal encoding, improved mathematical algorithms and previously unused function correlation. These and other properties of the invention will be apparent from the detailed description below.

Identification of the origin of cardiac arrhythmias produced previously using one of three basic ways: mapping the distribution of characteristics by means of a catheter, mapping the distribution characteristics of the electric excitation during heart surgery or mapping the distribution of electric potentials or magnetic fields on the surface of the body. Each of these methods contains a real risk and limitations. For example, preparation of distribution characteristics of the catheter and mapping the distribution characteristics of excitation during heart surgery necessarily surgery, they are characterized by limited access, and they are time-sensitive. Mapping the distribution characteristics on the body surface can be performed without violating the integrity of the body, with low risk, but with such bad is I directed therapy. Mapping the distribution characteristics can be performed using sequential temporal changes in the distribution of electrical potential on the body surface or successive changes of magnetic fields on the surface of the body.

The present invention does not require the entry of the catheter into the body, you do not need to enter the probes in the cardiac tissue. However, using the present invention, it becomes possible to perform reliable and accurate (2-5 mm) three-dimensional reconstruction of the heart and order of its electrical excitation. The techniques listed below, to remove arrhythmogenic places made without violating the integrity of the organism and successfully uses a different frequency and direction of the beam energy so that the threshold for removal will occur only in the correct location. The present invention prevents surgical intervention, for example, using systems for removal performed by catheters or surgical procedures when conducting targeted therapies.

As briefly mentioned above, the present invention uses the new features of the correlation. These functions relate to the physical properties of the tissue and the changes in these Holy which can be defined by two parameters: the dielectric constant and conductivity. Function parameter include the frequency, temperature and the type of fabric. The type parameter of the tissue provides the ability to identify anatomical structures, measuring transmitted through the fabric, that is reflected and scattered electromagnetic energy. For homogeneous objects dielectric characteristics can be easily determined by measuring the amplitude and phase of the transmitted electromagnetic radiation. However, the task is complicated when you try to measure the dielectric parameters using radiation transmitted through inhomogeneous biological tissue using a simple measurement of the amplitude and phase of the transmitted wave. This task is known as the "inverse" or "reverse" problem, and it has attracted some attention to its solution. The present invention includes a strong dependence of the characteristics of the tissue temperature, and solves the reverse problem in new ways, using multi-frequency field and the configuration of emitters-receivers with a different location.

Depicted in figures 1 and 2, the device 10 includes a host of microwave emitters-receivers 14, suitable for installing a variety of microwave emitters-receivers 16. The preferred configuration of the location of the emitters-receivers - in view of the e for some body parts or the whole body (for example, "head", "heart", "hands", "feet", and so on), are applicable in the present invention. Each emitter-receiver 16 is able to move radially relative to the circular antenna array. Node 14 may also include multiple emitters-receivers, placed vertically. The power source 19 emits short pulsed electromagnetic signal energy for each emitter, which create the incident power density on the object is not more than about 10 mW/cm2. Preferably the bandwidth of these short pulse signals is concentrated between approximately 0.1 GHz and approximately 6 GHz, and more preferably within a frequency range approximately from 0.2 GHz to about 2.5 GHz. The power source 19 can include multiple power sources or a single source of supply, type of generator. In the embodiment represented in the figure 2, the power source 19 includes diagnostic generator 22 sweep, block 24 control diagnostic generator, the generator 27 delete and block 29 of the control generator removal. Diagnostic generator 22 sweep produces multi-frequency energy of low power for use in the Alenia designated areas of the fabric. Select one of the above generators is performed by the switch 33, which connects the output of one of the generators with the emitters 16.

The mechanism of formation of channels 35 is designed to activate and control channels i, i+1, i+n, formed for the radiation energy and its reception. This subsystem contains the switch 36 channel number, amplitude attenuator detector manipulation (ADM) 39, the phase shifter detector 42, the amplitude detector 45, a phase detector 48 and the switch 53 of the antenna mode. When diagnosing switch 36 channel number connects the diagnostic output of the generator 22 to the input of the emitter (or multiple emitters) at any given time. In uninstall mode or therapy switch connects all channels with the output of the generator 27 removal. The amplitude attenuator detector 39 and the phase shifter detector 42 are arranged on the path of the radiation in all channels. The amplitude attenuator detector 39 reduces the amplitude of the radiated energy and together with the phase shifter detector 42 detects and encodes the output signal. Amplitude detector 45 and a phase detector 48 are on the way of receiving all of the channels in the diagnostic mode will detect and decode the amplitude and phase of received here the use of additional coding-decoding components. The switch 53 of the antenna mode works on all channels for connecting the output paths of the radiation from the antenna or the ways of the path of the receiver, using the same antenna.

The tool 65 computing and control module includes a Central processing unit (CPU) 68, subsystem 72 of the separation medium, the display 75 and software 77 display and storage device 82. Subsystem 72 of the separation medium consists of a digital to analogue Converter (converters) (DAC) 86, a multiplexer 89, analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 92, and block 94 control, which sets the time synchronization regulated processes and retrieves the data that will be analysed.

The auxiliary subsystem 102 includes thermostatic shield 105 to control the temperature of the matching environment 106. A suitable regulatory environment, for example, may be a liquid type of titanium and barium chloride solutions. Other suitable liquid (or substrates), type specially homogenised solutions fats, are also applicable in the present invention. These fluids have the original adjustable dielectric constant in the range from approximately 50 to 90 at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and the block 108 thermostat to control thermostatic shield 105 and the block 111 of the main channel to control the received signal from the Bi control channels, when the device 10 is in calibration mode. Additional accessories can be added depending on the desired properties of the functioning of the device, for example, it may be appropriate to connect to the device 10 of the electrocardiogram analyzer and/or a printer 119.

In multi-frequency tomographic device spectroscopy 10 fabric 135 targeting sequentially irradiated with microwave radiation of low energy from the first to n-th emitter (receiver) 16 while measuring the received signals in (emitters) receivers 16 that at this particular stage does not function as emitters. For receiving the signal transmitted by a single emitter-receiver 16 in each moment of time there are several emitters-receivers 16. The device 10 sequentially quickly replaces the channel number and mode of operation of the antenna in accordance with the above configuration. After one cycle of transmission and reception of nth channel rapid diagnostic generator 22 sweep performs another loop switchable dimensions of the n-th channel. The total number of measurements in the cycle usually does not exceed NM, where N is the number of antennas and M - to the ü performed using the multi-configuration encoding. Performing a measurement, the device 10 decides to "reverse" the task in accordance with the obtained information and new algorithms, more fully described below with reference to figures 3 and 4. When measuring physiological changes it is important to understand the time required to achieve physiological events that happened, for example, myocardial contractility. These intervals are defined as temporary event loops in the fabric.

The data collection device 10 is performed within time intervals that are part of the cycle time cycle events in the tissue so that data collection can occur multiple times for each event in the tissue, and these data can be stored in the storage device 82. The time spent on renovation, not enough movement of the body was the problem. The anatomical structure of the object and the temperature profiles are observed on the display 75, the image of which can be adjusted using the software 77 display, and it can be printed using a printer 119. Arrhythmogenic zones hearts opretty as areas with specific values’ and’. The spatial coordinates of these zones opredelyayuschaya 10 periodically performs temperature control of a matching environment 106 using block 108 thermostatic control. The device 10 also synchronized with the heart cycle, the fabric is subjected to a study using analyzer 115 electrocardiogram.

The main feature of the device 10, which makes it possible to provide fast and accurate calculations is the use of a coding device for coding a microwave signal applied to the emitters. When receivers receive the appropriate signals after interaction with the tissue, you can define the emitter or group of emitters, transferring these signals. The preferred coding technique is the phase, amplitude or polar modulation; however, within the consideration of the present invention is also the use and frequency modulation. Frequency modulation can be useful in certain applications that require simultaneous radiation from a variety of sources.

The device 10 represents one embodiment using the steps of the new method in accordance with the present invention, which allow microwave tomographic spectroscopy of tissue without damaging the integrity of the body. This method comprises the steps of: providing Pete is boron microwave emitters-receivers thus, this kit emitters-receivers can radiate radio frequency microwave signals from the power source to the set of emitters-receivers, which receive microwave radiation. Further steps include; accommodation matching medium between the radiating and receiving microwave emitters-receivers to provide a dielectric matching, placement of the tissue studied, which will be exposed to radiation inside the matching environment; radiation of the microwave energy from the microwave emitter-receivers; receiving microwave radiation microwave emitters-receivers after its interaction with the investigated tissue; and measuring changes in the microwave radiation after its interaction with the investigated tissue.

As described above, for calculations related to the solution of the "inverse" problem, uses new algorithms. In the present invention are not used approximations, such as the born approximation, described above, to determine the dielectric parameters or inhomogeneous conductivity of irradiated objects tissue. Rather, the stage dimensions above include both the old and the new concept for cleaning and providing playback is but on the chart, is depicted in Fig.3, the measurement stage contains calculations that use the 220 forming the input component 222 of the direct problem solution, component 224 for solving the inverse problem, the component 226 multi-frequency correlation, the management computer image forming 236 spectroscopic and tomographic image 238.

The solution of the direct problem is well-known calculation method, which solves the parameters of microwave propagation from the transmitter to the receiver through the biological environment. The solution of the inverse problem allows to accurately calculate and generate useful tomographic spectroscopic image of the tissue based on the measured changes of the microwave radiation. The stages of solving the inverse problem contain component 228 determination of the functional form, which summarizes the input signals of all emitters-receivers; use component 230 of the formation of the gradient as the derivative component of the functional units for ease of processing speed; calculating a parameter minimizing the "Tau" to verify the accuracy of the gradient function and to perform the reconstruction with the best accuracy; and performing calculations 234 E*. 9.gif">’ and’ are the values of dielectric permittivity and losses, measured in accordance with the present invention, which represent the imaginary number. Use* as representation’ and’ is a convenient mathematical tool. It should be understood that the present invention can also use’ and/or’ as measured dielectric parameter to generate the image. The reason you use* is that the dielectric contrast between the fabric and/or physiological state of the tissue may be defined as the difference or the change of variables’ and/or’. If’ and’ are calculated together as* I will define any parameter change of the dielectric values of’ and’ when calculating*. As will be shown below, some physiological changes of parameter dielectric better just what it is important to recognize, everywhere, wherever used, the value of* instead it can also be used’ or’.

The process diagram is shown in Fig.4 represents a variant embodiment of the present invention, which can also be used in a catheter system. The information goes to step 240 direct problem solution from step 242 form a working antenna array, and phase 244 simulate antenna. Step 242 form a working antenna array receives information from step 248 frequency and temperature correlation, which takes its initial value from step 250 the zero approximation. At step 244 simulate antenna produces values for the beginning of the calculation process, which works well as a base line from which is constructed the image. Step 240 direct problem solution then allows us to solve the problem of image formation, based on knowledge of the values of the amplitude and phase of the radiated microwave energy, and making an assumption about what should be the effect of dielectric biological tissue, and calculating the expected value of the amplitude and phase of the transmitted microwave energy. This solution from step 240 solution volumes of equations, step 256 the formation of the Jacobian and step 258 for not reporting matrix. Step 252 solving the inverse problem then computes the image of the biological tissue, based on the known values of the amplitude and phase of the radiated microwave energy and is known for the adopted values of the amplitude and phase of the signals radiated by the antenna array emitters-receivers. In fact, the solution of the inverse problem is the generation of tomographic images based on the knowledge of the amplitude and phase of the radiated microwave energy and the amplitude and phase of the transmitted and received microwave energy to vychisleniya dielectric properties of biological tissue has passed through microwave energy. This information about the image from step 258 the formation of not reporting matrix then goes through a process of iterative correction of errors, including the stage 260 of the estimation error and the step 262, the first error correction. For each value of the emitted and the received amplitude and phase, where i equals 1 to n, at step 258 for not reporting matrix, together with an estimate of the error 260 and the first error correction 262 is formed iterative loop that begins with the input of the first grid point** T will stage the estimation error and the first error correction, these values are then passed on to step 264 anatomical and T-reconstruction and evaluation of the anatomical errors. In this place the values that were submitted at step 264 estimation errors are compared with the value of’ and if there are errors, the value is passed to step 266 visualization of anatomical structures and T, which is used to generate two-dimensional or three-dimensional images of biological tissue, based on the dielectric contrast. However, if during the assessment phase error will not be generated corresponding to the response information point is passed at step 268 the second error correction, which adjusts together with step 262, the first correction value generated at step 248 frequency and temperature correlations.

Figure 5 shows a graph demonstrating the capabilities of the device 10 to determine the excitation of the heart to changes in dielectric characteristics of cardiac tissue. In particular, �6.gif">T1the electrical excitation process and during the transition periodT2recovery. The figure 6 shows a similar determination for the device 10, but for values of’ parameter of the dielectric. On both figures 5 and 6, each point represents the average value for the seven dimensions.

In figures 7-10 depicts graphs showing the percentage change of selected dielectric characteristics, for multifrequency radiation during a series of coronary arterial occlusion. In figures 7 and 8 shows, for a long time, a series of short occlusions followed by one long occlusion. These figures demonstrate the correlation of dielectric characteristics for’ and’ depending on the degree of ischemia of the heart. This distribution of dielectric changes corresponds to the well-known phenomenon in the tissue protective effect of conditions prior to full occlusion. In figures 9 and 10 shows, in a short time, a series of short occlusions followed by prolonged occlusion. These figures confirm the conclusion made above otnosheniya tissue. In this figure the curve values in percentage change’ at a frequency of 4.1 GHz is relatively flat and less suitable compared with the corresponding values at frequencies of 0.2 GHz or at 1.17 GHz. This underlines the need for the device 10 to determine the effects of excitation of tissue and other physiological events, such as ischemia, using multi-frequency technology, which, otherwise, may remain undetected or unacceptable for analysis using a single frequency. This is further demonstrated in the graphs*(f), shown in figures 11 and 12, which curves 145, 147, 149, 151, 153 and 155 represent the time after occlusion (i.e. acute ischemia) after 0, 15, 30, 45, 120 and 125 minutes, respectively, for’ (shown curves with labels *) and’ (shown curves with labels on). The value ofpreviously*/*. Re-wetting occurred within 125 minutes and is represented by the curve 155. These figures demonstrate that, if the analysis is restricted to use a single frequency for short periods of excitation damagetotal analysis sufficiently at the same time, the physiological effects of tissue will be clearly identified.

In figures 13 and 14 shows the correlation of the dielectric characteristics of the content of oxyhemoglobin in the blood. In figure 13 the dielectric characteristic is the percentage (’(Hb2)-’(86,9))/’(86,9), and in figure 14 the dielectric characteristic is the percentage (’(bO2)-’(86,9))/’ (86,9). Each piece curves frequencies 161, 163, 165, 167, 169, 171 and 173 correspond to a frequency of 0.2 GHz To 1.14 GHz, 2.13 GHz, 3,12 GHz To 4.01 GHz, 5.0 GHz and from 6.0 GHz, respectively.

The dielectric constant of oxyhemoglobin (bO2), the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and total hemoglobin (tHb) correlate in the range of microwave frequencies from 0.2 to 6 KHz in figure 15. The highest degree of correlation for oxyhemoglobin occurs in the frequency range between 0.5-2.5 MHz. In this range the value of dielectric permeability’ most sensitive to the contents of the saturation oxyhemoglobin blood.

The curve of the correlation coefficient for’, dielectric loss, ifficient correlation RHO2approximately uniform in the range from 2.5 to 4 GHz.

Studies of the correlation coefficients, shown in figures 15 and 16 represent the possibility of using the present invention for the separation of percent oxyhemoglobin saturation (Hb2) and RHO2. Both of these values are important pieces of information necessary for treatment of the heart. Currently, there is a measure of percent oxyhemoglobin saturation in real-time while caring for patients, called the oximeter. However, for values of RHO2of the patient should be withdrawn arterial blood special syringes and pass it through a machine that can perform direct measurements of partial pressure of gases in liquids.

Curves’ and’ total hemoglobin as initial value for the calculation of correlatio depicted in figure 17. As can be seen, curve’ has a fairly flat curve correlation, which is not sufficiently correlated, storing the correlation values less than 0,995 almost throughout the entire curve. Curve’ but, pokazywana from 4 to 5 GHz. As noted above, in the discussion relating to Figures 3 and 4, the correlation values for oxyhemoglobin RHO2and full of hemoglobin can be accurately obtained from these curves the correlation during the scan one frequency in the range from 0.2 to 6 GHz and calculate the values of dielectric permittivity’ and dielectric loss’ for blood. The concentration of oxyhemoglobin saturation would be then better correlated with values of’ at a frequency of approximately 1.5 GHz, the value of RHO2could be calculated from the correlation values of the dielectric loss in fabric’ that is calculated at a frequency of approximately 3.5 GHz and the value of tHb can be calculated from the magnitude of the correlation curve of dielectric losses’ that is calculated at a frequency of approximately 4.5 GHz. For each scan in the frequency range from 0.2 to 6 GHz may require no more than a few milliseconds microwave irradiation, and then will calculate the values. Thus, the present invention can be used in virtual real-time the ring in real time percentage saturation values bO2and RHO2when caring for patients. The present invention allows this without the necessity of removing blood from the patient and without the delays and costs associated with sending blood for laboratory analysis.

The present invention is not limited to the measurement of the values b2and RHO2. Any of the components of the blood and tissues with characteristic dielectric contrast can be directly measured and estimated in real-time, without compromising the integrity of the body, using the present invention. The present invention also has the ability to determine changes in the dielectric characteristics that occur in the tissue, which is becoming sick. As an example, was restored weakened patient aneurysmectomy part of the left ventricle ten-year-old male. During this recovery diseased part was subjected to resection of the heart so that the patient be completely removed. This requires that the edges of the resection included the normal myocardium. The present invention was used to assess this part of the cardiac tissue that underwent resection, and evaluation results are shown in figures 18-20.

Description dielectrically was carried out using microwave radiation with a frequency in the range from 0.2 to 6 GHz. Over the entire frequency range this normal tissue clearly differs from abnormal tissue, represented by the curve 202.

The figure 19 shows the characteristic of the dielectric constant’ for the same tissue samples. Normal tissue has a single curve’, is represented by the curve 204. Abnormal tissue shows a curve 206. Normal tissue of the myocardium differs from abnormal myocardial tissue over the entire frequency range using the present invention.

Figure 20 depicts an enlarged scale of the graphical representation of the same information, dielectric lossesdepicted in figure 18. Curve 208 represents the value of the’ for normal myocardial tissue, and the curve 210 represents values for abnormal myocardial tissue.

The present invention allows the use of the difference of the dielectric characteristics to generate the image. For example, when the device 10 shown in figures 1-4, scans of the chest, ANATOMICHESKOE image of organs obtained on the basis of the difference in dielectric properties between different tissues, as shown Knymi abnormal tissue within normal tissue. This anatomical information is used in different ways. One important use case is to perform direct therapy in real time. Often the abnormal tissue of the myocardium causes harmful arrhythmias. Unfortunately, this abnormal tissue can be visually indistinguishable from the surrounding normal myocardium. The present invention allows obtaining images in real-time abnormal tissue based on the difference in dielectric characteristics, such as shown in figures 18-20. Using the procedure of rapid reconstruction and scanning through the frequency range over a period of time, which are a small part of the time cycle events in the tissue, the Clinician creates a map of the abnormal tissue. Depending on what frequency and dielectric characteristics were estimated, the researcher can reconstruct the dielectric properties to generate functional maps of excitation, using an area of abnormal tissue, or alternatively, can reconstruct the temporary card changes and correlated with her temporary changes known electric markers for anomalies within A and to assess the adequacy of removal of the tissue.

One embodiment of the present invention using a laser or source of microwave energy to remove depicted in figure 21. As described, the method of removing damage, such as arrhythmogenic focus within the normal myocardial tissue, from the formation of the source data at step 300 based on the analysis of anatomical structures derived from information generated using a variant of the invention, depicted in figure 2, and the expected distribution of temperature. The step of forming the source data uses information from the microwave power source as step 302 approximation or from step 304 approximation of the laser power supply to obtain the original information, which is supplied to the forward problem solution 306 to microwave radiation or the solution of the direct problem 308 to control the laser. The detection phase to determine the possibilities for application of power supply microwave energy or laser is performed at step 310. The result of this determination is transmitted to the sources and the data Bank 312 correlation of damage to ensure stage 314 approximation, on which you enter the information from step 316 simulate antenna. Current necenzurat direct problem solution to microwave radiation or laser 306, 308 together with the adjusted value of the current temperature from step 320 is entered in the decision 322 biological heat equation for the determination of the solutions of the actual temperature. The temperature distribution from step 322 solve biological equations is transmitted at step 324 localization of damage, which transmits the information back into the database 312 correlation damaging to perform the following approximation up to the stage of the formation 300 initial data for the next step definition 322 solutions of the equation of biological heat. Information from step 322 solutions of the equation also served on the stage of the formation of a variety of necessary current damage damage to to compare the current amount of damage with the expected amount of damage to determine whether the achieved optimal therapy or not. If the treatment has reached its goal, the solution is then passed to step 328 optimal region. If the current damage is different from the required damage, information about the difference is passed back to step 312 Bank data correlation sources of damage to repeat step 314 approximation and forth across the stage 300 of forming the source Mauritania in the treatment. The number of stages of the iterative process is controlled by the switch 330 simultaneously performing the comparison of the expected position and extent of damage at the stage 332 at step 0, step 334. For the number of stages is greater than 0, the switch 330 is switched to the position of the step 336, the greater of zero. The whole process is constantly being revised estimates of quantities to guarantee full therapy deletion, and these re-evaluation of the damage produced in real time by using the generate on the basis of the analysis of anatomical structures of the resulting system of forming images based on microwave tomography.

The present invention allows using microwave energy in a new way, to make a quick assessment of biological functions and anatomical structures in real time by solving the inverse problem for the dielectric properties of biological tissues. The present invention achieves a substantial increase in processing speed, as well as significant improvement in resolution compared to any other systems of the prior art. The present invention also provides an evaluation pair is their characteristics, based on the dielectric contrast between the different States of physiological activity for the biological components or physiological reactions.

Claims

1. Device for microwave tomographic spectroscopy of tissue without violating its integrity, containing a power source for supplying microwave radiation, many microwave emitters-receivers that are spatially oriented on the fabric, matching the environment located between the emitters-receivers, a control device, operatively connected between the power source and lots of microwave emitters-receivers, the encoder to encode the microwave radiation and a computing device for calculating tomographic spectroscopic image of the tissue using the received microwave signals, characterized in that the control device is configured to selectively control through the subsystem forming channels, supply energy to many emitters-receivers and reception of microwave signals from multiple emitters-receivers so that multi-frequency microwave radiation emitted from defined is formirovaniya channels made with the possibility of encoding microwave radiation, supplied to the selected set of emitters-receivers, and decoding the received signal from receiving multiple emitters-receivers.

2. The device according to p. 1, wherein matching the environment contains a liquid having a source dielektricheskii custom dielectric constant in the range from approximately 50 to 90 at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and a dielectric loss of about 5 to 25.

3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the multi-frequency microwave radiation is preferably in the range from about 0.2 GHz to about 5 GHz.

4. The device under item 1, characterized in that the multi-frequency microwave radiation is generated using a pulsed radiation from one of the emitters, and each time the radiation energy level of approximately 1 mW/cm2.

5. The device under item 1, characterized in that a lot of microwave emitters-receivers forming the antenna array of emitters-receivers arranged in a circle.

6. The device under item 5, characterized in that the position of the microwave emitter-receivers can be changed along the radius of the circular antenna array.

7. The device under item 1, characterized in, h is her receivers, arranged in a circle.

8. The device under item 1, characterized in that the control device has the ability to choose the number of emitters-receivers to operate as emitters and a separate series of emitters-receivers to work as receivers.

9. The device under item 1, characterized in that the computing device contains a component forming an input for receiving and generate the data used in the direct problem solution, and the component of the direct problem solution is configured to receive data from the component forming the input data and to calculate the image of the biological tissue, based on the knowledge of the amplitude and phase of the radiated microwave energy, making the assumption that biological tissue will occur dielectric effects, and calculate the expected values of the amplitude and phase of the transmitted microwave energy component of the solution of the inverse problem, which decides from the component of the direct problem solution, and then computes the image of the biological tissue, based on the known values of the amplitude and phase of the radiated microwaves known and accepted values of amplitude and phase of the antenna arrays of emitters-receivers, and comp the component contains functional form, made with the possibility of summing the input signals from all emitters-receivers, component forming a gradient made with the possibility of the use of the derivative component of the functional formation to facilitate fast processing component calculation parameter minimization “Tau”, designed to confirm the accuracy of the gradient and to ensure the recovery image the most accurate way, and the* made with the possibility of calculation* how the concept of dielectric contrast between areas of tissue or physiological state of the tissue, where*=+and whereandare the measured values of dielectric constant and dielectric loss.

11. The device according to p. 1, wherein the encoder includes means for changing the phase of the microwave radiation.

12. The device under item 1, characterized in that A under item 1, wherein the encoder includes means for changing the polarity of the microwave radiation.

14. The device according to p. 10, characterized in that the calculation result* is a value obtained by calculating the dielectric characteristicsandderived from the measured amplitude and phase of the radiated and received microwave energy in a certain frequency range.

15. Method for microwave tomographic spectroscopy of tissue without violating its integrity, comprising stages, on which place the power source of microwave radiation, placed many emitters-receivers, microwave radiation, manage multiple emitters-receivers, microwave radiation, put matching medium between the radiating and receiving microwave emitters-receivers, placed the fabric that will be exposed to radiation inside the medium separation, encode the emitted microwave radiation, receive microwave radiation from a microwave emitter-receivers after cooperation is zlecenia after interaction with the tissue, wherein the multiple emitters-receivers is controlled so that a number of selected emitters-receivers through the subsystem channel formation radiated multi-frequency microwave radiation to multiple emitters-receivers, receiving microwave radiation, encode the emitted microwave radiation among the selected emitters-receivers, and decode the received signal after interaction with the tissue with the ability to determine sluchivshego its emitter-receiver.

16. The method according to p. 15, wherein the multi-frequency microwave radiation simultaneously emitted from a variety of sources.

17. The method according to p. 15, wherein the step of measuring includes the solution of the inverse problem for the calculation of the tomographic image of the tissue based on the measured change of the microwave radiation, and the solution of the inverse task contains steps that a) determine the functional component is formed, b) compute the value of the derivative component of the functional formation to create a component forming a gradient that is used to increase the processing speed of mathematical calculations on the restoration, in) calculate the parameter min is Alov against certain antenna arrays, contains the stages of orientation of the tissue, the image of which will be built in a matching environment in the device microwave tomographic spectroscopy, containing a power source for supplying microwave radiation, many microwave emitters-receivers, a control device with encoder, encoding the emitted microwave radiation and decoding the received signal, wherein the encode simultaneously emitted microwave radiation from a variety of selected emitters-receivers, and then decode received after interaction with the tissue signal with the ability to determine sluchivshego its emitter-receiver.

19. The method according to p. 18, wherein the step of encoding includes the phase change of the microwave radiation.

20. The method according to 18, wherein the step of encoding includes a change in the amplitude of the microwave radiation.

21. The method according to p. 18, wherein the step of encoding includes a change of polarity of the microwave radiation.

22. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that the encoding step includes changing the frequency of the microwave radiation.

23. The way a microwave tomographic spectroscopy of tissue without the breach is determining the expected values of the dielectric parameters of the tissue of a region of a target tissue, irradiation of a specific area by means of microwave radiation from multiple emitters-receivers, receiving microwave radiation from the irradiated area many emitters-receivers and its analysis to obtain the observed values of the dielectric parameters of the tissue and comparing them with expected values to determine the physiological state of the tissue in a specific area of the target, characterized in that the irradiation region of the target tissue carry out multi-frequency microwave radiation by means of simultaneous transmission of the selected set of emitters-receivers, and the stages of analysis and comparison include the step of solving the inverse problem for the calculation of the tomographic image of the tissue based on the measured change of the microwave radiation, moreover, this solution of the inverse task contains steps that define the functional component of formation, calculate the value of the derivative component of the functional formation to create a component forming a gradient that is used to increase the speed of mathematical calculations to restore, calculate the parameter minimizing the “Tau” and perform a calculation25. The method according to p. 23, wherein the step of comparing includes comparing a received microwave radiation in real time, which allows determining in real time the changing physiological state.

26. The method according to p. 23, characterized in that a specific physiological condition is a physiological condition selected from the list of physiological conditions (temperature, state of the electrical excitation, saturation of oxyhemoglobin, oxygen content in the blood, total haemoglobin concentration and partial pressure of gas in the blood.

27. The method according to p. 26, characterized in that the partial pressure of gas in the blood includes RHO2.

28. The method according to p. 23, characterized in that a certain region of the target tissue includes cardiac region of the patient to determine the location of the beginning of the cardiac arrhythmia.

29. The method according to p. 23, wherein the step of providing the system of sending and receiving multi-frequency microwave radiation involves the use of subsystems in vivo and in vitro.

30. The method according to p. 29, characterized in that use the subsystem catheter delivery of energy to remove.

31. The method according to PP.15, 18 or 23, characterized in that additionally the.

32. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that the subsystem catheter removal uses removal laser energy.

33. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that the subsystem catheter removal uses to remove the microwave energy.

34. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that the subsystem catheter removal uses to remove the energy of high frequency.

35. The method according to p. 23, characterized in that a certain region of the target tissue includes tissue near the chest of the patient.

 

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