The method of controlling the blade on the slopes

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for open development of mineral deposits. The technical result is to increase the technological process of regulating the movement of the blade on the slope. For this purpose, the method includes adjustable movement of the blade through the use of natural displacement of the blade inclined plastic layer, originally created before laying breeds in the blade pouring a layer of rocks in the cold period of dumping with the inclusion of snow, and it produces the dumping of rocks warm season or, on the contrary, the first layer of rocks in the warm season, and it occiput breed cold period (the contact area is zero degrees), and then on an inclined plastic layer produce the dumping of overburden at first narrow and then wide front when the slope of the blade to the quarry, which provides for thermal interaction of species in an inclined layer creating maximum shear stress and displacement of the blade on the flat part of the slope with a reduced volume of preexcavation rocks. In case of resumption of dumping using an inclined plastic layer is achieved by a gradual filling of the slope of the overburden rock is owano when open development of mineral deposits.

The known method of dumping, including the dumping of rocks in the blade, which is overlain by rocks with low bearing capacity, followed by the formation of the landslide pomodorino type and its bias [1].

The disadvantage of this method is its lack of adaptability and uncontrolled displacement of the blade due to differences in rock properties of the underlying layer in different parts of the slope.

A known method of controlling the pile of rocks, including education in the base of the pile of layers of raznomestnyh rocks and then offset it filled with rocks of the blade to the design elevation [2]. The disadvantage of this method is the increased complexity of creation at the base of the pile of layers desired inclination and capacity of raznomestnyh rocks and limited displacement of the blade due to the destruction of the plastic layer.

There is also known a method of controlling the blade on the slopes in mountainous terrain, including disordered dumping heap of rocks of different climatic seasons [3] (prototype). The disadvantage of this method is its lack of adaptability due to intensive output front dumping because of disordered dumping in a pile of rocks warm and cold periods of the * invention - improving the manufacturability of the process of regulating the movement of the blade on the slope by reducing the amount of preexcavation rocks or fill slope of the overburden due to the use of natural displacement of the blade inclined plastic layer.

This goal is achieved by the fact that originally in the base of the pile occiput inclined plastic layer during the cold season the filling with the inclusion of snow and produce the dumping of rocks warm season, dumping, or Vice versa, the first layer of rocks warm period otsuki, and then cold (zone of contact with the zero isotherm), and the development of front dumping carried out gradually at first, narrow front, and then when reaching the bottom edge of the border of the slope of the quarry - wide front that provides due to thermal interaction of rocks sloping layer achievement of maximum shear loads and displacements of the blade on the flat part of the slope.

In Fig.1 and 2 depicts a process diagram illustrating the proposed method.

The method is as follows. Originally on the slope on the plot of the blade to produce the inclined dumping plastic layer 1 (Fig.1) first, the dumping of rocks with minus temperatures and snegomania produce dumping overburden initially narrow (width B1and length l1and then a broad front (width2and length l2) (Fig.2), when the slope of the blade 2 to the quarry 3 to achieve the maximum blade shear loads during thermal interaction of species in an inclined layer, after which movement rocks the blade sliding surface 4 (Fig.1), and the blade takes the form 5, which reduces the amount of preexcavation rocks blade at a cutoff slope (phase I Fig.1). After the offset of the blade again create an inclined plastic layer and arrange the dumping of overburden to offset blade that can be placed on the slope of the additional volume of overburden (stages II, III, IV, the shape of the blade 6, Fig.1).

The feasibility of the method is confirmed by the following.

The strength and deformation properties of rock mass with snow (ice) can be determined by empirical dependencies of the form of resistance to shear

=AaWbcdcVdyte,

where a is a constant, And=0,23-0,834;

t - temperature,;

a, b, C, d, e - exponents and=0,120,15; b=0,060,011; C=0,040,08; d=0,180,21; e=0,00150,013.

Deformation (plastic) properties l

where A1- constant And1=3,82;

- shear stress;

Vy- speed seal (precipitation);

Wc= zasnejennoi,%;

d - diameter of the particle;

Vy- speed seal (precipitation);

T - time;

a1, a2b1c1, k1the exponents, a1=1,05; and2=of) 0.157; b1=-0,08; c1=0.104 g; k1=0,87.

Strength properties of the rock in the field of zero temperature set and make up 20-40% of their shear strength at temperatures of minus 4 minus 6[3]. Therefore, the creation at the base of the blade sloping layer of rock with a temperature at the boundary of different seasons, close to zero degrees, and with snow in the rocks winter dumping allows you to form a slip plane with lower strength properties, subject to certain regularities of deformationbody issledovanii most fully Prof. C. S. Valuim, where- shear,and n, respectively, the constant and the exponent.

Confirm the feasibility of the method is based on the data of deformation and displacement of the temporary dumps on the slopes in the mine of JSC “Apatite” in the Arctic.

Blade No. 8 began to sleep in April 1968, when from the pit to dump more water flowed with a small amount of snow and temperatures close to zero degrees, then took breed warm season, and a year later in April 1969 when the limit load, the blade began to smoothly deform and move down the slope.

Blade No. 9 began to sleep in may 1969, and its sloping layer at the base had a temperature close to zero degrees. Then took breed warm period and a year later in June 1970 deformation of the blade exceeded regulated for safety strain rate of 50 cm/day, he began to move down the slope.

Down along the slope and proposed by the author of blade No. 10, filled by the above method with the formation at the base of the sloping plastic layer with zero temperature.

However, due to irregular and disordered dumping rocks on uchastka significant amounts of preexcavation rocks, generally worsened techno-economic parameters of operation of the temporary dumps.

The proposed stockpiling narrow front to reduce preexcavation rocks is confirmed by the fact that in practice uholka from the rock was 3-5 times higher than when doing work on a broad front.

The proposed method can improve the efficiency of dumping on the slope and its adaptability through the use of natural deformation of the blade with a plastic layer at the base, to reduce the volume of preexcavation rocks due to more fully engage them in the movement over the inclined layer and to increase the filling of the flat part of the slope or valley protruding rocks of the blade due to their semitransitive the slope.

Sources of information

1. Kracko O. Y. Management of open dumps of rocks. M.: Nedra, 1980. - 255 S.

2. A. C. the USSR №848641, E 21 41/00. The method of controlling the pile of rocks. Auth. A. M. Demin, V. I. Shilkin and B. N. Evseev.

3. Dumps on the mountain slopes / E. B. Krasnosel'skii, G. C. Kalabin, B. K. ovodenko and other Leningrad: Nauka, 1976. - 152 C. (prototype).

Claims

The method of controlling the pile of rocks, including adjustable movement of the blade, characterized in that the blade inclined plastic layer, created initially before laying breeds in the blade pouring a layer of rocks in the cold period of dumping with the inclusion of snow and produce the dumping of rocks warm season or Vice versa, the first layer of rocks in the warm season and occiput breed cold period (the contact area is zero degrees), and then on an inclined plastic layer produce the dumping of overburden at first narrow and then wide front when the slope of the blade to the quarry, which provides for thermal interaction of species in an inclined layer creating maximum shear stress and displacement of the blade on the flat part of the slope with a reduced volume of preexcavation rocks, and when resumption of dumping using an inclined plastic layer is achieved by a gradual filling of the slope of the overburden.

 

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FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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