The way to create roughness on snow and ice surfaces
The invention relates to the field of operation of roads in winter conditions, and in particular to methods of increasing the coefficient of friction of snow and ice surfaces. The way to create roughness on snow and ice surfaces includes a fixation on snow and ice surfaces of solid particles. On snow and ice surface previously exposed ferry to education includes water layer, and then the resulting water layer before it hardens make solid particles by the method of partial immersion. On snow and ice surface effect steam temperature 100...320With pressure 1470...10300 kPa to create a water layer thickness of 3...5 mm as solid particles can be used in sand, crushed stone, gravel, marble chips. The technical result of the invention is to increase the traction of the wheels of a vehicle with snow and ice road surface by creating roughness, coefficient of friction of snow and ice surfaces. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.
The invention relates to the field of operation of roads in winter conditions, and in particular to methods of increasing the coefficient of friction of snow and ice surfaces.
There is a method to create the Winter in the city, an article in the newspaper “Have an idea”, Supplement to the weekly “Arguments and facts” No. 1, 20.01.1994,]. Under the wheel of the vehicle solids few are pressed into the surface layer and increase the coefficient of friction.
The disadvantages of the method are the low efficiency of the use of sand or granite chips and to increase the pollution in the area. Low efficiency due to the weak penetration of solid particles on the most solid and slippery sections, so that the friction coefficient increases slightly due to the weak adhesion of solid particles with the ice particles do not stay on the convex and the most slippery places, i.e. where they are most needed, and accumulate in the grooves on the side of the road.
More promising in this respect is the invention according to the patent of Russian Federation №2123082 “Way to create roughness on snow and ice surfaces”(IPC6E 01 19/21; E 01 11/24; E 01 N 10/00; publ. December 10, 1998), as adopted for the prototype.
According to a known method on snow and ice surface applied solid particles in a mixture with water at the ratio of the volume of dry solids to the volume of water equal to 5...at 0.01. For this purpose mounted on the vehicle chassis and reportii. Mixer evenly distributes the particles of sand by volume water. The resulting slurry through the pump is supplied from the tank to the surface of a rotating disk, which scatters the suspension in the form of drops. When the drops fall on the icy surface of the slurry should be spread in a thin layer, connecting with suspension neighboring drops. Forming a thin layer of thickness approximately twice less than the average particle size quickly premarket to icy road surface and premarket to it and fix the lower part of the sand, the upper part of which, the idea of the author, stands above the ice surface and form roughness.
However, this method does not provide sufficiently reliable coupling of the wheels of vehicles with icy road, especially in conditions of severe cold (-40 -25...(C) that dominate in January-February over much of the North of Russia, the Urals, Urals region, the Far East and so on, When these cold drops of suspension freeze even in flight. It recognizes and is the author of the prototype, which offers additional measures to prevent this: the increase of the droplets of the sprayed suspension; reducing the height of the spray disk above the road; teploizoljatsionnye zone, where spraying of a suspension; heating the suspension in the tank. All of these recommendations are purely theoretical, not shown ways of their practical implementation, and from theoretical side, they look unreal. For example, we all know that the cold rubber loses its elasticity and the recommendation to use it to create flexible bounding wall is weak. As well as the recommendation to provide heating of the slurry in the tank on a moving car. Therefore, the result of this method is the formation of rough ice surface, consisting of ice pellets with grain inside.
But even if you apply any of these supporting measures, they will not help to overcome another disadvantage inherent in the known way. As is known, the dispersion slurry is produced by a rotating disk mounted on a moving car. Disk scatters suspension both forward and backward (natural and sideways), while the car is moving forward steadily forward. Thus, emitted from a rotating disk forward and sideways drops suspension after a certain period of time, seconds 8...10, covered with drops of suspension emitted from disk ago. P the s particles. If a drop of suspension will not freeze on the fly, which is unlikely. But in any case the result of the spraying of the suspension will be the creation of a rough ice surface, within which under the icy crust will be grains, which contributes little to gain traction wheels with the road transport. The correctness of this conclusion is confirmed by the absence of practical use of this method in the fight against ice slick on the roads.
Another disadvantage of this method is the inability to use larger particles than sand, for example, gravel, gravel, etc. that it is impossible to create a suspension for spraying or for pumping the pump. But even if somehow be able to scatter gravel-water mixture (e.g., shovel or scatter of the mixing device with moving on the road cars), then formed the frozen dumplings, because the velocity dispersion will be much lower than the rate of spraying of water-sand slurry rotating disk.
The task of the invention is to improve the traction of the wheels of a vehicle with snow and ice road surface by creating roughness, coefficient of friction of the snow-lnyh surfaces, including mount snow-ice surface of solid particles, on the snow-ice surface previously exposed ferry to education includes water layer, and then the resulting water layer makes solid particles.
The main difference of the proposed solution from the prototype is that the particles do not mix with water before applying on the icy pavement, and put on the road surface after the formation of water on it. Thanks to the speakers over a thin water layer areas of solid particles remain dry and not covered with an icy crust, and their lower parts are fixed on the surface of the icy roads during freezing thin, of the order of 3 mm, a water layer that at low temperatures (-10°C and below) takes only a few seconds. This forms a dry, rough surface provides a secure grip of the wheels of the vehicle with the road surface in winter. This rough layer is more firmly fixed in the ice surface because the solid particles, in contrast to the prototype, not painted on the ice surface, and made it partially immersed in the melted ice surface.
The inventive method is easy to implement with pamapersada, pipeline bindings and fittings in the oil industry. PUR advanced supply known devices spreading sand, gravel, etc., and a spray of steam.
More in detail the invention is illustrated by the attached drawing, which shows a device for implementing the inventive method, and a description of specific examples of the method.
Use of industrially produced Nalchik mechanical plant proprietorially the installation of foam-2U installed on the chassis of the car “Ural”. The installation of additional supply nozzle pair with holes with a diameter of 3...5 mm spray head 1 is connected with a steam boiler 2 through a pipe 3 with a diameter of 50 mm While the spray head 1 equipped at the rear end of the installation at a height of 200 mm above the surface of the roadway. The cylinder 1 is a circular chamber, the width of which is equal to the width of the chassis “Ural”. On the rear of the chassis, installed capacity 4 with sand, and at the rear end of the chassis fixed standard escortbecause machine with the disk 5, which is the capacity of the 4 reported by belt conveyor 6 for feeding sand from the tank 4 to the disk 5, which is located above the spray Golovchenko 20 km/h. Produced in the boiler 2 steam via line 3 is fed to the spray head 1 under a pressure of 15...20 atmospheres (approximately 1471...1961 kPa). The steam temperature is adjusted depending on the ambient temperature. For example, when the frost -10Served with steam +120With the cold -20Served with steam +140With the cold -40Served with steam +160...170And so on, this is Done solely for the purpose of saving and a more favorable mode of conducting the process of melting of ice road surface. In principle, one can apply the steam continuously at a temperature of 170And also to achieve the desired result. Steam pressure can be maintained also more than 20 ATM, because the shutoff valve installation foam-2U is designed for a maximum pressure 105 bar (approximately 10297 kPa). Sprayed from the head 1 steam melts the surface of the ice on the road surface to a depth of 3...5 mm over the entire width of the car “Ural”.
From the tank 4 sand belt 6 serves to disk 5 escortbecause machine, which pieces of sand on all the melted surface ice. Solid sand particles fall sverch 2...3 seconds after the head 1, therefore, the melted ice does not have time to harden. On the other hand, the weight of the sand is such that they are completely immersed in the water. After a few seconds (depends on the strength of frost, but not more than 10...15 seconds) thin melted layer of the road surface freezes again, while remaining one with the rest of the thickness of ice on the road. Emergent sand particles firmly freezes into ice and create a good rough surface, not covered with an icy crust. This surface provides a secure grip of the tires of the wheels of vehicles with the road.
The main parameters of the method are the same as in example 1, only in the capacity 4 load fine gravel. Belt conveyor 6 receives from the discharge aperture of the container 4 fine gravel size grains 3...7 mm and submits it to the rotating disk 5, which is scattering the gravel on the entire width of the melted vapor layer icy road surface. Crushed stone is more expensive than sand, but provides for a longer retention rough road surface than sand, even in the case of snowfall, because it has a much larger size particles.
The main parameters of the method are the same as in example 1, only in the capacity 4 load small g is mausica disk 5, which scatters it across the width of the melted vapor layer icy road surface. The gravel provides for a longer retention rough road surface than sand, even in the case of snowfall, because it has a much larger size particles.
The main parameters of the method are the same as in example 1, only in the capacity 4 load crumbs. Belt conveyor 6 takes the chips from the discharge aperture of the container 4 and delivers it to the rotating disk 5, which scatters crumbs across the width of the melted vapor layer icy road surface. Crushed marble provides for a longer retention rough road surface than sand, even in the case of snowfall, because it has a much larger size particles.
This method is not limited to the given examples. It is obvious that can be made certain changes in the scope of the claimed invention, such as solid particles can be used and other materials, the boundaries of which are delineated in the attached formula.
1. The way to create roughness on snow and ice surfaces, including the consolidation with effect from the ferry to education includes water layer, and then in the resulting water layer before it hardens make solid particles by the method of partial immersion.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that on snow and ice surface effect steam temperature 100...320With pressure 1470...10300 kPa to create a water layer thickness of 3...5 mm
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the solid particles used sand.
4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the solid particles used rubble.
5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the solid particles used gravel.
6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the solid particles used marble chips.