The method of preparation of the potatoes before putting it into storage
The invention relates to the technology of storage of potatoes. To destroy harmful insects without negative impact on the immune status, germination and organoleptic properties of the potato before putting it into storage is treated with a composition comprising a suspension of Steinernema caprocapsae and drug derived from biomass micromycete Mortierella marburgensis for a given technology.
The invention relates to the technology of storage of potatoes.
The known method of preparing potato before putting it into storage, providing for his handling of chemical pesticide (Ivakhnenko O. A., Species composition, distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes and their effectiveness against major pests of potatoes in the Krasnodar region. Abstract of thesis. K. B. N. Krasnodar: VNIIBT, 2001, S. 20-21).
The disadvantage of this method is harmful to humans and the inability to use when handling food products.
A known method of preparation of plant products, including potatoes before putting it into storage, providing its irradiation (Metlitsky L. C., Rogachev Century. And., Khrushchev Century BC, Radiation processing of food produots, but reduces its likepeople due to the compromised immune status and activation of enzymes, and also leads to deterioration of organoleptic characteristics of potato food destination and reduced germination of seed potatoes.
It should be noted that both of the mentioned method is applicable for the destruction of microorganisms and harmful insects on the surface of the potatoes, but ineffective against insects, penetrating beneath the skin.
Closest to the proposed technical essence is a method of preparation of plant products, including potatoes before putting it into storage, capable of handling immune stimulator selected from the group comprising chitosan and arachidonic, zhasmonovoi and eykozapentaenovuyu acid (Vasenkov O. I., Yushin E. A., fundamentals of storage technology of plant products using natural Immunostimulants // Materials of international scientific-practical conference "food industry of the South of Russia. Environmentally friendly energy-saving technologies of storage and processing of vegetable and animal origin. Part II Krasnodar: KNEIP, 2000, S. 44-45).
This method is in contrast to previous the awn potatoes, does not change its organoleptic properties.
The technical result of the invention is the provision destruction of harmful insects without disturbing the immune status of the potatoes, without deterioration in its organoleptic properties and germination.
This result is achieved in that in the method of preparing potato before putting it into storage, providing for the processing of the immune stimulator, according to the invention, the adjuvant used in conjunction with a suspension of Steinernema caprocapsae in an amount of about 0.2 to 1% by weight, and immune obtained by sequential extraction of biomass micromycete Mortierella marburgensis nonpolar solvent in the supercritical state, water, alkali, water, acid, water, alkali and water and combining the first extract from the solid residue.
The method is implemented as follows.
Dry biomass micromycete Mortierella marburgensis extracted with a nonpolar solvent, for example carbon dioxide or hexane, supercritical condition. At this stage, separating the first extract used in the future when receiving immunostimulant. Further biomass sequentially extracted with water, alkali, water, acid, water, alkali and water. the extract. Thus obtained product contains, mainly, chitosan and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic and eykozapentaenovuyu, which in combination with chitosan exhibit high immunostimulirutuyu activity. The preparation does not contain substances that can inhibit this activity, and phyto-toxic substances, so the drug can be used as immunostimulant. The product does not contain toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and anti-nutritional substances, so it can be used for processing potatoes food destination. The preparation does not contain substances with pronounced nematicidal activity against nematode species Steinernema caprocapsae, so it can be used in conjunction with this type of nematodes. The resulting preparation of biomass micromycete rtierella marburgensis injected into the suspension of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema caprocapsae in amount of 0.2-1% by weight of the suspension. The number immunostimulant justified by the fact that its content in the composition is less than 0.2% by mass makes its use ineffective against insects getting inside of potato tubers, and when the content of more than 1% of the composition dramatically increases the viscosity and starts gelir artotel, preferably during transport on the conveyor when the load on the storage. This provides sufficient uniformity of treatment of all tubers. On the processed potato nematodes penetrate into the passages left by harmful insects, and hit them both on the surface and inside the tubers. Because nematodes are not adapted to life in the open air included in the preparation of the biomass micromycete Mortierella marburgensis lipids and basic proteins, which possess film-forming properties, prevent nematodes from drying out and death, which increases the processing efficiency. Used nematodes are harmless to humans and do not hurt yourself, the tubers. Infected nematodes insects die before it can cause significant damage to the tubers. At the same time the preparation of the biomass micromycete Mortierella marburgensis strengthens the immune status of the potato, which increases its likepeople and germination of seed potatoes destination.
To confirm the achievement of the technical result of potatoes affected potato moth, was treated with a suspension of Steinernema caprocapsae with the titer of infective larvae from 1000 to 6000 individuals/ml with the addition of from 0.2 to 1% by weight of the drug from rgensis separately at the same concentration. When the flow rate of the working fluid 70-100 ml per 1 kg of potatoes separately nematodes Steinernema caprocapsae and preparation of biomass micromycete Mortiereila marburgensis was ineffective and resulted in the complete destruction of the potato larvae of the potato tuber moth, the biological effectiveness of the proposed composition, as measured by the persistence of potatoes, was not less than 91% and the maximum was reached 95,8%. The immune status of the experimental potatoes were not changed in comparison with the reference, which was not affected potato moth and was treated at the closest analogue. Germination compared to the benchmark slightly reduced with a difference, time-dependent destruction of the potato moth before processing. The organoleptic characteristics of food and canned products obtained from treated according to the proposed method of potato and control of potato, not affected by pests and not subjected to any processing at all, the same. The amount of waste in the processing of potatoes, processed by the proposed method is slightly higher than in the control of potato, due to the localization of moves larvae of the potato tuber moth in the peripheral areas of tubers, but does not exceed the traditional norms of departure the research Institute of potato without negative impact on the immune status, germination and organoleptic properties.
The method of preparation of the potatoes before putting it into storage, providing for the processing of the immune stimulator, wherein the immunostimulant used in conjunction with a suspension of Steinernema caprocapsae in amount of 0.2-1% by weight of the suspension, and immune obtained by sequential extraction of biomass micromycete Mortierella marburgensis nonpolar solvent in the supercritical state, water, alkali, water, acid, water, alkali and water and combining the first extract from the solid residue.