Electrolyte composition of lead batteries
The invention relates to electrolyte compositions of the lead storage battery, which can keep the performance of the battery at low temperatures due to improved performance and increased service life of the battery. According to the invention, the battery can be fully charged within a short period of time due to increased efficiency of current. The present invention allows to extend the service life of the battery due to its inherent ability to remove white lead sulfate without corrosive effect on plate electrodes, which allows re-use of spent batteries, rasagiline due to white lead sulfate. According to the invention, an electrolyte composition contains 0.5-1.7 wt.% sulphate of cobalt, 40-50 wt.% magnesium sulfate, 0.2 to 0.8 wt.% ammonium chloride, 15-25 wt.% aluminium chloride and 0.05-1.0 wt.% nicotinic acid, distilled water - the rest. 10 Il., table 4.
The present invention relates to electrolyte compositions lead rechargeable battery that allows you to support the work of the battery at low temperature is nomu the invention can be fully charged within a short period of time due to increased efficiency of current. The present invention allows to extend the service life of the battery due to its inherent ability to remove white lead sulfate without corrosive effect on plate electrodes, which allows re-use of spent batteries, rasagiline due to white sulphate of lead.
Lead rechargeable battery is a rechargeable battery with a long history. Over time in this type of battery made many improvements. These batteries are widely used in vehicles, emergency power sources, as well as standard rechargeable batteries. Currently, the share of the batteries of the total production of the secondary battery is on the market up to 90%.
Lead battery consists of an anode plate (bO2), the cathode plate (Pb) and electrolyte. As a result of influence of the electric discharge both electrodes are converted to lead sulfate PbSO4. Peroxide of lead bSO2on the anode plate is formed by oxidation of lead or red lead. This type of active material is porous, which makes it a large area of interaction, the devastation caused by the expansion and contraction amount due to charge and discharge, the resulting discharge sulphate of lead affects the characteristics of the active material of the anode plate, which in turn is the main cause of aging of the battery.
To resolve the above problems, a study was conducted with the aim of suppressing aging using superior synthetic materials as active materials of the electrodes. Although there is a method of improving the suppression of aging by improving the characteristics of the electrolyte, however, the studies in this direction are likely to be insufficient.
In Korean patent No. 83-1674 disclosed method of preparing an electrolyte composition, which consists in reducing the amount of sulfuric acid in the lead rechargeable battery and adding magnesium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and perborate ammonium. However, this is only the improved resolution of the problems of conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte, currently almost not found. And, in addition, the actual value of the invention rather doubtful due to the neutralization of caustic soda sulfuric acid (i.e., the main ingredient).
Disclosure of the invention
The purpose of this invented the first battery, which would allow to increase the performance and extend the service life of the battery by removing sulfuric acid from conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte.
Electrolyte composition of lead batteries in accordance with the present invention comprises 0.5 to 1.7 wt.% sulfate cobalt (CoSO4), 40-50 wt.% magnesium sulfate (MgS4), 0.2 to 0.8 wt.% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), 15-25 wt.% aluminium chloride (ll3) and 0.05-1.0 wt.% nicotinic acid at 100 hours with distilled water.
With regard to the methods of mixing these compounds, can be applied widely known industry methods.
With regard to the composition of the electrolyte according to this invention, the upper limits of the respective components are set in such a way as to obtain maximum efficiency current at that time, as lower limits are limits to the effectiveness of the performance of the electrolyte composition.
Conventional lead battery may suffer performance degradation or explode as a result of rapid charge. In contrast, a rechargeable battery, which uses an electrolyte composition in accordance with the present invention, can the buy gets rid of white lead sulfate (bSO4without corrosion on the plates of the electrodes. In other words, the invention helps to prevent the emergence of white lead sulfate, which is one of the main reasons for the reduction of battery life. As a consequence, the application of the present invention increases the service life of the battery and this invention is reuse of spent batteries, destroyed the white sulphate of lead.
Moreover, the specific weight of the electrolyte composition of the present invention is 1.15-1,17 that lower than the weight of conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte (approximately 1,28). Thus, it is possible to reduce the weight of the batteries using the electrolyte composition according to this invention.
Further the present invention can be used for batteries in electric vehicles, contributing to the resolution of the existing problems regarding service life, efficiency and quick charging. The present invention can be illustrated by specific embodiments and experimental examples described below. But the specific cases of implementation of the present invention are only Otsego invention.
Brief description of drawings
Fig.1 is a conceptual diagram of an experimental device for charging and discharging;
Fig.2 is a graph illustrating the effect of the discharge in accordance with changes of the current depending on the use of the electrolyte of the present invention and a conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte;
Fig.3 is a graph illustrating the effect of the discharge in accordance with changes in the temperature of the electrolyte of the present invention and a conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte;
Fig.4 is a graph used to compare the specific gravity of the electrolyte of the present invention and a conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte during charging;
Fig.5 is a graph representing a comparison of the specific gravity of the electrolyte of the present invention with a conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte during discharging;
Fig.6 is a graph representing a comparison of the impact of the discharge of the electrolyte of the present invention with a conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte during continuous charging and discharging;
Fig.7 is a graph showing the discharge voltage of the electrolyte of the present invention and a conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte at a load of 6 - 10 W;
Fig.8 is a graph showing the discharge voltage of the electrolyte of the present invention and a conventional sulfuric acid e is ateneu and conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte at a load of 12 - 100 W;
Fig.10 is a graph showing the discharge voltage of the electrolyte of the present invention and a conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte at a load of 12 V - 150 watt.
The best option of carrying out the invention
Electrolyte composition of the present invention was prepared by adding 1.0 wt.% sulphate of cobalt, 50 wt.% magnesium sulfate, 0.3 wt.% ammonium chloride, 20 wt.% aluminium chloride and 0.07 wt.% nicotinic acid at 100 hours with distilled water.
Measurement of characteristics of charge and discharge were carried out using the above electrolyte composition and a conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte (33,3% by weight of sulfuric acid). The experimental device used in this invention for charge and discharge, shown in Fig.1. The block element (the voltage of 4V, the current of 2A), consisting of four anode plates 2 and five cathode plates 1, was poured respectively electrolyte according to this invention and a conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte. Characteristics of the discharge and the charge was measured using a voltage regulator/galvanometer 5 (MRV - A, IMAGE Co.), which is joined to the cable routed from block element. When this was done adjusting the voltage using the test apparatus accuta in accordance with changes in current and temperature. In this example, can be used generally accepted industry devices: camera temperature control 4, PC 7, thermoelectric couple 8, the temperature controller 9 and a testing device for refrigerant accumulator battery 10. Depending on circumstances, the number of used blocks of anode and cathode plates may vary.
Additionally were measured by the following indicators: changes in specific gravity of the electrolyte of the present invention and sulfuric acid electrolyte during charge and discharge, as well as the performance of lead batteries in a continuous process of charge and discharge. The results are shown in Fig.2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.
In accordance with the fact, as shown in Fig.2, the electrolyte (b) according to this invention is characterized by a high power discharge than the electrolyte of sulfuric acid (and). In accordance with the fact, as shown in Fig.3, with increasing temperature the electrolyte (b) according to this invention is characterized by a higher efficiency of the discharge compared sulfate electrolyte (a). In particular, it is possible to note a big difference in power discharge when 0C. Thus, the electrolyte according to this invention is characterized by a high alignment with the electrolyte according to this invention is characterized by a more steeply rising curve during charging at a higher proportion. In accordance with the fact, as shown in Fig.5, sulfuric acid electrolyte as compared with the electrolyte according to this invention began to crumble during the discharge at a higher specific weight, and the final specific gravity sulfuric acid electrolyte was higher than that of the electrolyte of the present invention. In accordance with the fact, as shown in Fig.6, in the case of sulfuric acid electrolyte (a) during the repeated charge and discharge capacity of the discharge has undergone significant decline. And in the case of the electrolyte according to this invention (b) is not observed almost no change in the discharge power when performing repeated charge and discharge. In fact, during the repeated charge and discharge was even a slight increase in the discharge power.
The characteristics of the discharge current was measured using the electrolyte composition of the present invention and a conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte. For measuring currents of discharge was made a circuit with two blocks of electrical resistors of 2.2, with a maximum value of 10 W, and the load 5V - 10 watt (total resistance 3,66 Om) were used two blocks of electrical resistors 5, with a maximum value of 10 watts, or 3 with a maximum value of 10 W, were used to load 6 In - 10 watt (total resistance 2,46 Ohms). The results are shown in Fig.7 (load: 10 W), Fig.8 (load 6 - 15 W), Fig.9 (load 12 V 100 W), Fig.10 (load 12 V - 150 W) and table 1.
In accordance with the fact, as shown in Fig.7, 8, 9 and 10, the curve of the voltage of the electrolyte of the present invention is characterized by the gradual form at the time of discharge. Conversely, sulfate electrolyte was noted not so gradual characteristic (a). Moreover, the time required for the voltage drop in the case of the electrolyte of the present invention, it was longer. In accordance with the fact, as shown in table 1, the time period until the voltage drop for the electrolyte of the present invention was much longer than for electrolyte of normal sulphuric acid.
A comparison was made of the characteristics of conventional sulfuric acid by placing the electrolyte of the present invention in the battery (24 V - 120 A), which was used for more than 2 years. When using pulsed DC 120 And rectifier were conducted to measure the following indicators: stability of electrolytes, toxicity, corrosion, e.g. the veil of the lead plate electrodes. The results obtained are shown in table 2.
Compared with sulfuric acid electrolyte the electrolyte according to this invention is easy to handle. It is non-toxic towards humans and has no irritating smell. Moreover, in case of using the electrolyte according to this invention is the disappearance of white lead sulfate on the battery terminals and wires. And due to the fact that there is no need to add distilled water, prevents the infiltration of impurities.
The battery used for this example was used for more than 2 years occurring white lead sulfate. Moreover, the presence of white lead sulfate was significant on a plate electrodes, which led to the deterioration of the conversion into chemical energy. And as a result, these batteries were characterized by a decrease in performance as the battery, which was reflected in the loss of the electrodes, reducing the capacity of the battery, etc., However, the white sulphate of lead completely disappeared after 20 hours pouring of the electrolyte of the present invention.
In rechargeable batteries (320 EN) such ü performance comparison with batteries, filled with sulfuric acid electrolytes. As regards the assessment of efficiency, measurements were taken of the following indicators: the number of runs made battery locomotive in the mining industry with a length of 1500 m with a slope of tunnel 1/175, the number of digits of safety lamps for mining and tunneling works etc. When measurements were used: silicon rectifier, battery locomotive weighing 5 tons and safety lamps 4 - 12 EN for mining and tunneling works. The measurement results are given in tables 3 and 4.
In accordance with the fact, as shown in table 3, in the case of the battery, filled the conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte was produced in an average of 120 tons of coal. If the battery filled with electrolyte of the present invention, the average was obtained 270 tons coal, which means greater efficiency and more than 2 times. Moreover, with an increase of 15% efficiency discharge the electrolyte of the present invention recovers quickly at the same time the charge that conventional sulfuric acid electrolyte.
As shown in table 4 for the experiments with safety lamps, the electrolyte of the present invention had a power increase of 30% is rolita, its useful life was ended in approximately 5 months. This, in turn, prevented the continuous use of the battery during operation in the tunnel due to the decrease in discharge time. Conversely, during operation in the tunnel was continuously using the electrolyte according to the present invention.
As shown above, the electrolyte of the present invention is able to maintain the performance of the battery at low temperatures by increasing the performance and longevity of rechargeable batteries. The battery can be fully charged in a short period of time due to the greater efficiency of the current. The present invention can also contribute to lengthening the service life of the battery due to the possibility of removal of white lead sulfate without causing corrosion of the electrode plates, which, in turn, may allow re-use of waste batteries that have become unusable due to white lead sulfate.
Electrolyte composition of lead storage batteries, containing 0.525 wt.% aluminium chloride and 0.051.0 wt.% nicotinic acid, distilled water the rest.
FIELD: chemical current supplies; electrolytes used for lead-acid batteries.
SUBSTANCE: electrolyte is doped with polyacrylamide in the amount of 0.001 to 6.0 mass percent per amount of electrolyte. Polyacrylamide added to electrolyte depends for its action on its coagulating properties and on increase of electrolyte viscosity which holds powdered active masses and products of reaction on electrolyte surface thereby preventing their fall-down, creeping, and wash-out. Polyacrylamide is introduced in the form of its aqueous solution before or after battery is filled with electrolyte to function as its additive.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics and enhanced service life of batteries.
FIELD: electrical engineering; chemical current sources; production of lead-acid cells, additives for sulfuric-acid electrolytes in particular.
SUBSTANCE: proposed additive is made from mixture of sulfate of metal with phosphonocarboxylic acids and aminoalkylphosphonic or hydroxyalkylene diphosphonous acids in diluted sulfuric-acid medium at pH no more than 0.8 and total content of phosphonous acids equal to 0.001-0.015 mass-% and metal sulfate of 10-18 mass-%. Additive may additionally include fluorine-containing surfactants in the amount of 0.01-0.1 mass-%. Proposed additive is used for excluding sulfitation of plates of lead-acid cells and restoration of sulfated storage batteries.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
5 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: electrical engineering; lead battery manufacture.
SUBSTANCE: proposed lead battery has strengthened active material on its positive plate thereby enhancing its utilization efficiency at low internal resistance of battery. Novelty is that only positive plates hold in their voids gel-like sulfuric-acid electrolyte and remaining space of battery is filled with liquid sulfuric acid electrolyte.
EFFECT: enlarged service life of battery.
1 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for preparing electrolyte aqueous component for chemical current supply includes magnetization of distilled water for which purpose permanent magnet is immersed in the latter, then water is heated to boiling temperature, and boiling water is doped with animal-origin substrate in the amount of 5 to 8 g per 1 liter of water and boiled for 20 - 30 minutes, whereupon vegetable-origin oil in the amount of 15 - 20 ml per 1 liter of water and vegetable-origin resin in the amount of 20 - 25 ml per 1 liter of water are added thereto, and boiling is continued for 5 - 10 minutes; then solution obtained is cooled down and filtered off.
EFFECT: enhanced power characteristics of battery.
4 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is used for reconditioning lead battery cells filled with sulfuric acid based electrolyte using additive based on aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, saccharides, and/or aldehydes, or their derivatives. Novelty is that lead battery is alternately or periodically charged and discharged in the course of electrochemical reconditioning of cells upon its treatment with some reconditioning additives based on aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and after main charge. Battery is charged to full possible level by current amounting to 1.1-4% of rated value and its discharge is conducted with current of 0.01-5% of rated capacity of cell or battery; as an alternative, battery is charged in two phases by current of constant magnitude. Discharge below admissible value is conducted by current amounting to 1 to 4% of rated capacity followed by charging with current amounting to 3-10% of battery capacity until voltage per cell or per any cell of battery is reduced to 1.6 V. In the process battery acquires 10-15% of its rated capacity; entire procedure is repeated two to five times. Reconditioning additive has 1 to 70 ml of sulfuric acid at density of 1 to 1.32 g·cm-3, 0.1 to 10 g of saccharides in the form of solid material and/or aldehydes, or their derivatives, 0.1 to 10 g of sodium and/or potassium bicarbonate, and/or at least one hydroxide out of group of alkali metals in the form of solid material, and 0.1 to 20 g (better 0.5 to 2 g) of disulfonic acid dinaphthyl methane disodium salt per every liter of hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution. Reconditioning additive can also incorporate 0.1 to 10 g of sodium perborate and/or tetraborate, and/or pyrophosphate in the form of solid material.
EFFECT: enhanced battery capacity exceeding primary rated value.
11 cl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to lead batteries (AB). In this invention lead AB contains group of plates fitted into accumulator jar and ionogen introduced in it for plate group saturating with ionogen with simultaneous forming processing. Here lead AB is adapted to be used partly charged when charge condition is limited within interval from exceeding 70% to less than 100%. Plate group is formed by package consisting of large number of negative electrode bases including grid bases filled with active material of negative electrodes, of large number of positive electrode bases including grid bases filled with active material of positive electrodes and porous separator located between negative electrode bases and positive electrode bases. Ionogen contains at least one kind of ions selected from group consisting of aluminium ions, selenium ions and titanium ions.
EFFECT: creation of lead battery suitable to be used in partly charged condition.
23 cl, 9 tbl, 71 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compounds of formula I, production and use thereof to obtain corresponding organophosphinates [Kt]z+ z[(CnHmF2n+1-m)xPCIyF6.x.y]- (I) where [Kt]z+ is an organic cation of formula (1) [NR4]' (1) where R is an optionally phenyl-substituted linear C1-4-alkyl; formula (2) [PR2 4]+ (2) where R2 is independently C6-14-alkyl; or formula (6) [HetN]z+ (6), where HetNz+ is a heterocyclic cation selected from a group comprising imidazolium, pyrazolium, dihydroimidazolium, pyrrolidinium, triazolium, pyridinium, pyridazinium, pyrimidinium, piperidinium, piperazinium, pyrazinium, R1,-R4, denote H or C1-10-alkyl; n=1-4, m=0 to 2n+1, x=1-4, y=1, z=1-2, under the condition that x+y<5.
EFFECT: novel compounds, a method of producing said compounds and use of said compounds to obtain valuable compounds are disclosed.
12 cl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: as halogenide of another element, potassium bromide is taken at the following ratio of components (wt %): lithium nitrate 76.5…73.5; potassium bromide 23.5…26.5.
EFFECT: reduced temperature of melting and specific enthalpy of melting, which reduces power inputs for putting electrolyte into working condition and expands temperature range of electrolyte usage.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical current sources, particularly to compositions of electrolytes, used in lead-acid accumulators, and can be used for production of accumulator batteries for electric vehicles, automobiles with combined power plant, as well as for vehicles with traditional petrol engine. Electrolyte contains, wt %: borate methylphosphite 0.6-0.8, perfluoropolyether acids flouranhydrides with molecular weight of 800-1,000 0.1-0.3, Chitosan 0.1-0.3, sulphuric acid 20.0-30.0, and distilled water up to 100.
EFFECT: technical result is improved electrical and operating characteristics of lead accumulator, as well as increasing its service life.
1 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex