Multistage ac voltage stabilizer (options)

 

The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering and can be used to power electrical equipment, communication systems, automation and remote control, lighting networks. The technical result is to improve the quality of the output voltage, the simplification of the power of the device, improving its reliability. For this purpose, the device comprises a transformer, a switching unit that contains switching elements, first and second intermediate relays, the comparator and control, an auxiliary source, first and second switching relay, while the switching unit is made in the form of breaking and closing of contacts parallel to the primary winding of said transformer switched capacitor, a normally open contact connected to one terminal connected to the connection point of the NC contact and the primary winding of the transformer, another conclusion - towards zero wire, the comparator and the control is designed in the form of n circuits and control, controlling increase or decrease of the load voltage from a prescribed level, n stages connected speed, parallel to the switching elements included RC-circuit. Similarly, the proposed damage lower or higher, and also, if necessary, in both directions. A cascade connection contributes to the creation of a stabilizing systems with a high degree of stabilization (1-5%) and high efficiency (97-99%). 2 C. p. F.-ly, 4 Il.

The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering and can be used to power electrical equipment, communication systems, automation and remote control, lighting networks.

Known stabilizers AC voltage with nonlinear elements, which serves as a serial or parallel resonant circuit containing a saturated inductor and capacitor, also known thyristor voltage regulators that contain the keys, the comparison circuit and control [1].

However, the output voltage of such stabilizers is a distorted form, contains higher harmonics. In addition, such stabilizers have low Massabielle characteristics.

Also known stabilizers with stepped output waveform containing the power transformer, switching device, the comparison circuit and control [2]. In the main part of the power transmitted to the load as unregulated, and the portion of the adjustment by means of thyristors. In fact takovogo regulation during each half-cycle of the line voltage.

Also known stabilizer AC voltage containing power transformers included secondary windings to one of the power bus, the primary through the switching elements to the input voltage, the comparator and control, bridge devices [3]. The main disadvantages of this device are multiple transformers, nonoptimality of management, significant weight and size characteristics.

In addition, a known stabilizer, AC voltage [4], which contains a transformer, the primary winding through which a switching unit connected to the leads for connection of the input voltage and the secondary winding is connected between terminals for connecting a load, four bridge circuits, transformer control, power key, key management and decoupling capacitor, the switching unit includes two pairs of switching elements, each of breaking and closing of the switching element, the comparator and control that contains the comparison circuit and the gain stabilizer circuit control level and control level, the primary winding of the transformer is connected to the common conclusions of the pairs of switching elements, the control circuit is level with the additional resistor to the middle points of the above-mentioned voltage dividers, the second inputs of Comparators respectively connected through other limiting resistors to the common wire of the power supply control circuit level, the outputs of the Comparators through a third pair of limiting resistors connected to the inputs of the keys of the control level, in the output circuits of which are connected in series with the LEDs and the windings of the respective switching elements.

The main disadvantages of such stabilizer are powerful switching key, additional transformer control, significant switching currents in the process, which affects the reliability of the switching elements, and electromagnetic compatibility of the entire device as a whole, the presence of linearly-key mode.

Closest to the proposed device adopted for the prototype is the AC voltage stabilizer, containing a transformer, the primary winding of which through the switching block containing the switching elements connected to the leads for connection of the input voltage and the secondary winding is connected in the load circuit, the comparator and control, characterized in that the switching unit is made in the form of NC and C a NC contact, in parallel bounding resistor between zero wire and make contact, enabled break contact of the third relay is parallel to the primary winding of said transformer switched capacitor, the comparator and the control executed in the control circuit and that controls the increase or decrease of the load voltage from a prescribed level, the input of which is connected to the output of the auxiliary source connected to the phase and zero wire, the output of the above-mentioned control circuit and the control is connected to a switching relay that controls the above-mentioned breaking and closing the contacts of the switching unit, to the phase and zero wire connected to the first intermediate relay, in the circuit which is normally open contact of the switching relay, a second relay in the circuit which is normally open contact of the first relay [5].

The proposed device as a prototype, contains the following configuration options: 1thoption - limit voltage “from above”, i.e., increasing, or “bottom”, i.e., with its lower; 2thoption - limitation of voltage “top” and “bottom”, t, aderrasi transformer, the primary winding of which through the switching block containing the switching elements connected to the leads for connection of the input voltage, the comparator and control in which the switching unit is made in the form of two ends and two NC contacts, the primary winding of the transformer connected in parallel to the secondary through normally closed contacts, in series with which is included closing the contacts, the same conclusions which are connected, in parallel bounding resistor between zero wire and closing contacts included normally open contact of the third relay is parallel to the primary winding of said transformer switched capacitor the comparator and control is designed in the form of two identical circuits and control, controlling increase or decrease of the load voltage from a prescribed level, the inputs of which are connected to the output of the auxiliary power source, the input of which is connected to the phase and zero wire, the outputs of the mentioned schemes control is connected to the first and second switching relays, control mentioned above razmeshtenie relay, in the circuit which are connected in series normally open and normally closed contacts of the first and second switching relay, a second relay in the circuit which are connected in series normally open and normally closed contact of the second and first switching relay, a third relay in the circuit which is normally open contact of the second relay and in parallel enabled him contact of the first relay.

As in the first embodiment, the comparator and control contains two circuits of the control.

The disadvantages of the prototype are not fully repaid transients, the discrete implementation of the scheme of control, no speed control.

The aim of the invention is to improve the quality of the output voltage, the simplification of the power of the device, the improvement of the characteristics of its reliability, electromagnetic compatibility.

This objective is achieved in that the device contains a transformer, the primary winding of which through the switching block containing the switching elements connected to the leads for connection of the input voltage and the secondary winding is connected in the load circuit, Ervina of the transformer is connected in parallel to the secondary directly and through normally closed contact, parallel to the primary winding of said transformer switched capacitor, characterized in that the normally open contact is connected to one terminal connected to the connection point of the NC contact and the primary winding of the transformer, another conclusion - towards zero wire, the comparator and the control is designed in the form of n circuits and control, controlling increase or decrease of the load voltage from a prescribed level, the input of which is connected to the output of the auxiliary source connected to the phase and zero wire, the output of the above-mentioned control circuit and the control is connected to a switching relay that controls the above-mentioned breaking and closing the contacts of the switching unit, the output voltage is connected to the first intermediate relay in the circuit which is normally open contact of the switching relay, a second relay in the circuit which is normally open contact of the first relay, n stages connected speed and parallel power switching contacts included RC-circuit.

In addition, the device containing the transformer, the primary winding of which through the switching block containing the switching elements connected to the output of the e two ends and two normally closed contacts, the primary winding of the transformer connected in parallel to the secondary through normally closed contacts, in series with which is included closing the contacts, the conclusions of which are connected parallel to the primary winding of said transformer switched capacitor, closing the contacts are interconnected and second pins connected to the ground wire, the opposite conclusions of the windings is connected through normally closed contacts, the comparator and the control is made in the form 2n schemes control, controlling increase or decrease of the load voltage from a prescribed level, the inputs of which are connected to the output of the auxiliary power source, the input of which is connected to the phase and zero wire, the outputs of the mentioned schemes control is connected to the first and second switching relays that control the above-mentioned breaking and closing elements of the switching block, the output voltage is connected to the first intermediate relay in the circuit which is connected in series normally open contact of the second switching relay, a second relay in the circuit which is connected in series normally open contact of Pervov the s RC-circuit.

In Fig.1-4 depict a diagram of the proposed device. In Fig.1 and 2 is the first variant of Fig.3 and 4 the second option. The first is a stabilizer, voltage-limiting "on top" or "bottom" and "top" and "bottom". The term "above" means that the voltage has increased and it is necessary to reduce the load, the concept of "bottom - voltage decreased and the increase of the load; the "bottom" and "top" - the work comes within the specified range of output voltages.

In the case of voltage limitation only the "top" or "bottom" are used device structural diagram of which is shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2. In Fig.1 the secondary winding of the transformer 1 is connected in series with the load, the switching unit includes a normally closed contact 4 and the normally open contact 5, the same conclusions primary and secondary windings of the transformer 1 are interconnected and connected to the phase wire, the latter findings mentioned windings are connected through the normally closed contact 4, the point of connection of NC contact 4 and the primary winding of the transformer 1, shunted by a capacitor 13 connected one of the conclusions closing of the contact 5, the second terminal of which is connected to numoda connected in parallel to the secondary and through the break contact 2, forming together with make contact 3 of the switching unit, to the primary winding shunted by a capacitor 13 of the transformer 1, the second findings of the primary and secondary windings of said transformer 1 are connected, one output closing contact 3 is connected to the connection point of the primary winding and the capacitor 13 with output disconnect pin 2, the other output is connected to the ground wire.

In Fig.1 and 2, the first and second switching relay 6 (7) connected respectively to the output voltage in series with the outputs of the control circuit and control 8 (9), the input control circuit and control 8 (9) connected to the output of the auxiliary power source 10, the input of which is connected to the phase voltage of the network, the first 11 and second 12 intermediate relay connected to the output voltage, in series with the element 11 is enabled break contact 14 of the second switching relay 7, similarly connected in series with the element 12 normally open contact 15 of the first switching relay 6.

Auxiliary power supply 10 includes, for example, a transformer, bridge rectifier and a smoothing filter. The node 10 may be made without transformer, using instead quenching (condenser) re znachitelbnogo current consumption circuits and control 8, 9.

In Fig.3, 4 shows a diagram of the device, limiting the "top" and “bottom”. It contains a transformer 1, the secondary winding of which is connected in series with the load, the switching unit containing the power switching elements 2, 3, 4, 5, 2, 4 - NC (normally closed) and 3, 5 - no (normally open), the primary winding of the transformer 1 are connected in parallel to the secondary in series with the switching elements 2 and 4, in series with NC elements (each of them) included closing the switching elements 3 and 5, unlike the findings of which are interconnected, i.e., items 2-5 form a circuit, in which between the points of connection elements 2, 3 and item 4, 5 includes the primary winding of the transformer 1, parallel to which the switched capacitor 13, and between unlike terminals of the elements 2 and 4 on the secondary winding of the transformer 1, the same conclusions switching elements 3, 5 are interconnected. Parallel items 2-5 included elements 16, 17 connected in series. The connection elements 6-17 corresponds to their connections in Fig.1, 2. In Fig.3, 4 the first switching relay 6 and the second switching relay 7 are connected respectively to output the control 8 and 9 connected to the output of the auxiliary power source 10, the inputs of which are connected to the phase voltage of the network, the first, second, intermediate relays 11, 12 is connected to the output voltage, in series with the element 11 is enabled break contact 14 of the second switching relay 7, similarly connected in series with the element 12 normally open contact 15 of the first switching relay 6. The device depicted in Fig.1 and Fig.2, are similar to Fig.3, 4. When the switch contacts 4 and 5, i.e. in the limit from above leads to a negative (subtractive) EMF, and switching pins 2 and 3, i.e. in the limit from below, to the presence of positive (summing) EDS. In other respects the operation of the device is identical. The device shown in Fig.3, 4, operates as follows.

In the initial state, the position of the switching elements such 2-5, as shown in Fig.3, 4, i.e., the switching elements 2 and 4 are closed, and 3 and 5 are open. The primary and secondary windings of the transformer 1 are connected in parallel, their inductive resistance is quite low, and the supply voltage and the load is almost the same. The unit 9 controls the reduction of the load voltage, operates at lower node 8 controls the voltage at the load (susanta 7, he disconnected from the single-phase network, his contact in the circuit of the second intermediate switch 12 is open. In this case, fairly practical equality voltage and load.

If you increase the voltage by more established level of node 9 through node 7 switching relay 7 is activated, while working elements 12 (i.e., switch pins 2 and 3).

The voltage at the load will be equal to the difference voltage and the EMF induced in a winding of the transformer 1. If the circuit voltage is decreased, the circuit returns to its original state, if the voltage becomes less than the level established by node 8 for item 6, it will be included with item 11 (switch contacts 4, 5) and the voltage at the load will be equal to the network plus the EMF induced in the secondary winding of the transformer 1. With increasing voltage the circuit will return to its original state. Levels of actuation and release of the elements 6 and 7 are determined by the total instability of the stabilizer.

Control circuit and control 18 and 19 may be performed, for example, as in [5], as shown in Fig.1-4, and may be executed on the microprocessor and the microcontroller using multiplexing so 2n levels, as there are cascade sooo voltage.

While the concept of “intermediate element” and “relay”, “switching element” and “switching of the relay, respectively, are identical and equivalent. Relay, for example, can be Electromechanical, electronic, as well as their contacts.

Possible three-phase variant of the device with common management or control for each phase individually.

An RC circuit 16, 17 improve performance under transient conditions and in the process of switching contacts 2-5, as in these modes, the circuit of the primary winding is not torn, and is connected through the corresponding RC-circuit, for example, when the voltage (the minimum limit - Fig.2), in the transition mode opens contact 2 and then closes contact 3.

In this intermediate state, the primary winding its beginning is connected to the zero network via an RC-circuit 16, 17, and the capacitor 16 at the first moment in accordance with the laws of commutation is an almost short circuit. I.e. the current in the primary winding at this point is limited by the resistor 17. This is one function of an RC circuit. The second - mentioned circuit performs the functions of a classical iskrovaya schema.

The parameters of the RC-circuit is designed so that in the transition mode is not PR is lnasty voltage ±2% and ±5%. E-the site was used operational amplifiers 1401 UDB as Comparators, type IC-1561 TLL (or LA7), type thyristor optocoupler SOG (or B, In two sequentially), type thyristor COA.

The efficiency of the stabilizer depending on the speed regulation was 99-97%. Discrete adjustment steps 6-12 Century

Thus, the proposed two variants of the stabilizer, AC voltage, limiting the value of “top” and “top” and “bottom”; the “bottom” and “top” and “bottom”. Suggested devices have several advantages compared with the known stabilizers AC voltage. The above data confirm the possibility of implementation of the present invention. This offer options of AC voltage stabilizers operate at any load without distortion of the voltage curve. Switching occurs without interrupting the current and the currents To less than the current load.

The sources of information.

1. Power supply CEA. The Handbook. Edited, S. of Naivelt. M.: Radio and communication, 1986, S. 254, Fig.7.4.

2. Power supply CEA. The Handbook. Edited, S. of Naivelt. M.: Radio and communication, 1986, S. 264, Fig.7.9.

3. Auth. mon. THE USSR №534742, G 05 F 1/30. The Stabilizer Is 5 F 1/30, H 02 M 5/12. The stabilizer AC voltage. /HP 3. Feigin, S. I. Mikhalev. Publ. 1997, bull. No. 36.

5. RF patent №2158954, G 05 F 1/30, H 02 M 5/12. The stabilizer AC voltage (range). /L. H. Feigin, S. C. Levinson, S. I. Mikhalev. Publ. 1999, bull. No. 31.

Claims

1. Multistage AC voltage stabilizer, containing a transformer, the primary winding of which through the switching block containing the switching elements connected to the leads for connection of the input voltage and the secondary winding is connected in the load circuit, the comparator and the control switching unit is made in the form of breaking and closing of the contacts, the primary winding of the transformer connected in parallel to the secondary directly and through normally closed contact in parallel to the primary winding of said transformer switched capacitor, wherein the normally open contact is connected to one terminal connected to the connection point of the NC contact and the primary winding of the transformer, another conclusion - towards zero wire, the comparator and control is designed in the form of n circuits and control controlling the increase or decrease in voltage at the load set from olevano wires, the outputs of the mentioned schemes control is connected to a switching relay that control the above-mentioned breaking and closing the contacts of the switching unit, the output voltage is connected to the first intermediate relay in the circuit which is normally open contact of the second switching relay, a second relay in the circuit which is normally open contact of the first switching relay, n stages connected speed, parallel to the switching elements included RC-circuit.

2. Multistage AC voltage stabilizer, containing a transformer, the primary winding of which through the switching block containing the switching elements connected to the leads for connection of the input voltage, the comparator and the control switching unit is made in the form of two ends and two NC contacts, the primary winding of the transformer connected in parallel to the secondary through normally closed contacts, in series with which is included closing the contacts, the conclusions of which are connected parallel to the primary winding of said transformer switched capacitor, characterized in that the trailing contacts are connected and the second is the unit of comparison and control is made in the form 2n schemes and control, controlling the increase or decrease of the load voltage from a prescribed level, the inputs of which are connected to the output of the auxiliary power source, the input of which is connected to the input and zero wires, the outputs of the mentioned schemes control is connected to the first and second switching relays that control the above-mentioned breaking and closing elements of the switching block, the output voltage is connected to the first intermediate relay in the circuit which is connected in series normally open contact of the second switching relay and a second relay in the circuit which is connected in series normally open contact of the first switching relay, n stages connected speed, parallel to the switching elements included RC-circuit.

 

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FIELD: electric engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device in each between grid and load has secondary winding of transformer, while said winding consists of two semi-windings, average point of which is connected to appropriate phase of grid, and remaining outputs are connected to load through fully controlled two-direction keys, and primary winding consisting of two semi-windings and two fully controlled one-direction keys form up two-clock high-frequency inverter and rectifier, while operation of said keys in secondary windings is synchronized with operation of said keys in primary winding in such a way that in case of fall of grid phase voltage below given level voltage of secondary winding was added to grid voltage and respectively vice versa, and value of increase was determined by displacement between operation of said keys in primary winding and keys in secondary windings.

EFFECT: lower weight, lesser dimensions.

3 dwg

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