The burner and domestic heating furnace for liquid fuel

 

The invention relates to household heating devices operating on liquid fuel (kerosene, diesel and other) without the use of additional types of energy, namely the design of the furnace and the burner evaporative type, in which air for combustion is carried out under natural draught. The burner is a cylindrical body, which is bonded to the base in the form of a disk with Windows intake, which has two coaxial cylindrical perforated shell with the formation between the combustion chamber and between the shell and the outer shell - pass-through vozduhoprovodyaschih channel. The inner shell top is closed deaf and bottom perforated diaphragms. The top of the body ends with the confuser and has openings for the supply of the secondary air, located in its upper half. In the inner shell is mounted a tubular evaporator fuel, the inlet of which communicates with the fuel system of the heating device, and an exit with a gas manifold, made in the basis between the shells in the form of an annular channel, in which the tool is installed for gas dispersion, made of POH the ends of the shells installed swirl in the form of throttling of the lattice in the form of a ring, contains many vanes. The blades are located in a plane between the housing and the inner sides in the radial direction. For the ignition device has a pilot site, located near the manifold is arranged to fill the fuel in the manifold. The furnace contains a fuel tank with a flow regulator, a casing within which is located a combustion chamber and separated therefrom by a partition wall of the air chamber, located in the lower part of the body. Above the combustion chamber is made flue having a top exhaust pipe with the regulator vacuum. In the partition set describes the burner so that the upper part of its body is located in the combustion chamber of the furnace, and the rest with holes for supply of secondary air in the air chamber. The housing is configured to pass ambient air through the combustion chamber in the flue gas out of the burner by the bypass window is made in the partition. The fuel supply from the tank to the evaporator of the burner by gravity. The maximum fuel level in it is situated at an altitude precluding flow of fuel from the evaporator to the reservoir. This embodiment both the reliability and saving characteristics with long-term work permit without the need to readjust the design to use as fuel gas. 2 C. and 23 C.p. f-crystals, 9 Il.

The invention relates to heating systems, in particular for Autonomous household furnaces and burner devices evaporative type for them, running on liquid fuel (kerosene, diesel, alcohol and other), in which air for combustion is carried out under natural draught without the use of additional types of energy.

Known burners of the specified type and destination, in which the fuel evaporates from an open surface of the fuel layer, such as a burner, in which the evaporation is carried out by transfer of heat by radiation from open flame (see Y. P. Sosnin, E. N. Bukharin. Heating and hot water to individual homes. M.: stroiizdat, 1991, pages 176-177, Fig.93A). It consists of a cylindrical body inside which there is a base disc forms of fuel, carrying along the axis of the air column planetretail the top and on the periphery of the cylinder with holes for the secondary air. Inside the base there are fittings for supply and discharge of iridescent fuel, and to supply fuel to the ignition spark. The fuel in the burner is supplied by gravity from the pressure tank. The air from vents, changing direction on the mirror fuel. An air-fuel mixture is formed above the mirror and the perforated cylinder, where burning occurs.

Described burner does not ensures complete combustion of fuel. First of all it is caused by the uneven distribution of fuel and primary air into the perforated cylinder (the combustion chamber) as the front, and height. The main mixing them is on an opposite movement in the upper part of the cylinder where there is unwanted excess air, which can penetrate into the lower (especially internal) zone of the cylinder and then to the mirror through the combustion front, especially in the counter-current traction difficult. In addition, the fuel vaporization also occurs unevenly, so that the intensity of combustion in the burner section, and accordingly the heating different parts of the mirror fuel are different. These circumstances (especially when natural draft) lead to the imperfection of the workflow and the exhaust from the burner unburned fuel particles. Compounding this shortage and supply in the combustion zone of relatively cool Central air flow, reducing the flame temperature. As a result of the combustion is significant creamatorium, especially the range of power of combustion. Normal operation requires precise installation in a horizontal plane and continuous monitoring of the fuel level therein, so as overfilling may cause fire, which complicates the fuel system of the heating device. A preference for forced air supply requires the use of additional types of energy, limiting the scope of the burner. To start the burner requires a separate power supply system and ignition.

Also known heater for domestic premises using to generate heat, the principle of catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels (and.with. 1778450, CL F 24 5/08, 1992).

The heater includes a housing with double walls, between which is formed through hot air channel. Inside the body is placed burner with the annular catalytic nozzle (burner) inside of the evaporator tube, which is connected by a fuel line with a fuel dispenser, which in turn is connected to the main fuel tank located above the evaporator. The dispenser and the fuel tank mounted on the rod can move up and down. The heater is also equipped with a device startup, the power of which is gasoline or soldato combustion but it is achieved at the maximum temperature of the catalytic surface and small convection currents in the burner, practically in the absence of any exhaust products of combustion, as is the case in currently used heaters domestic and foreign production. Install the same catalytic burner in a furnace with an exhaust pipe (channel), as described in the heater, reduces its efficiency, since the presence of any traction reduces the temperature of the catalytic nozzles. In addition, the latter requires the use of light hydrocarbons (gasoline, kerosene) and strictly rationed fuel, and in a narrow range, because at low flow the combustion process tends to attenuation due to insufficient temperature, but at a higher leads to clogging of the pores of the nozzle combustion products and "breakthrough" oxygenated fuel vapour, unjustified his flow and reduce the efficiency of the device as a whole. Moreover, the "breakthrough" vapors in the specified heater is possible not only through the nozzle, but with an excess of them in the evaporation chamber in end-to-end hot air channel (through the holes in the support ring and forth in a heated room. This does not prevent poplasen the ex fuel tanks and especially the dispenser in the line of the evaporator complicates the design and significantly reduces the reliability of the heater. Possible leakage shut-off valve malfunction of the float mechanism in the dispenser can cause an overflow of fuel from the evaporator and fire. Because of these shortcomings, this heater has not found practical application.

Closest to the proposed burning device and furnace operation and design is a heating device at the request of the Russian Federation No. 93014935 A, class F 24 5/02, publ. 19.06.1995, the Device runs on liquid fuel used in the burner is made in the form of a cylindrical body with a base Cup attached to the housing, in which a vertically installed the fuel evaporator in the form of two coaxially arranged tubes, the inner of which is connected with the fuel system of the heating device, and the outer is the collection of fuel vapor and communicated with a gas manifold, made in the form of a torus with holes attached to the evaporator at the bottom of the bowl. Above the manifold between the casing and the evaporator, one above the other with two blade swirl. The air in the burner goes through the lower part of the housing above the base.

The burner is vertically fixed in the horizontal partition of the casing of the heating usty the wall where the top of the combustion chamber has an exhaust pipe. The outside of the case comes with heat shield, bearing the fuel tank, the fuel level is lower than the upper edge of the inner tube of the evaporator. The tank is hermetically installed flow regulator with shut-off needle, blocking the entrance to the feed burner fuel line. Regulation of the fuel level in the evaporator is carried out on the principle of operation of the vessel of the MARRIOTT, which in the tank through a sealed filler neck skipped the drain pipe, the lower section of which is located near the bottom of the tank at the zone level of the evaporating fuel in the evaporator. The burner is installed in the partition so that the upper part of her body is in the combustion chamber, and the lower air chamber.

For ignition of the burner in a bowl with a wick is filled with fuel and the impregnated wick it on fire. As heating of the evaporator it starts to evaporate the fuel and the resulting gas is fed in the manifold. Dripping out of the holes of the collector, the gaseous fuel is ignited in a stream of air entering the burner, and a main combustion is in the area of the swirler. Fire intensity is largely determined by the thrust in a torch.

Supply only of the massive air flow to the base of the torch causes an intensive cooling of GAZOVAJA mixing and the start of combustion reduces the flame temperature and leads to sazheobrazovanie. This affects the mixing. In addition, with this supply of air is its excess in the zone of mixing (especially at low fuel consumption) and the deficit in the upper part of the body that violates the required ratio of fuel and air and reduces fire intensity. As confirmed by the tests of this design, achievement in the burner set temperature of 800-900C does not provide complete combustion of the fuel, as evidenced by abundant sauvagerie. Deposited on the vanes of the swirler and the evaporator, soot reduces their temperature, changes the geometry of the blades, reducing aerodynamic qualities of the latter and the evaporation of the fuel. All this further exacerbates the flaws in the mixing and combustion in the process, dramatically reducing the stability characteristics of the burner. In addition, the soot on the evaporator complicates the subsequent ignition of the burner, and possible separation of the torch from the collector due to excess air (especially at low fuel consumption) can lead to an explosion of the combustible mixture as fuel vapours continue to do it even in hot burner and the combustion chamber of the heating device. Burner does not allow to use as fuel gas, as the collector is not predusmotrit immediate disruption of the flame and create a hazardous situation. The output of the flame from the burner with some spin and speed is (in the combustion chamber of the heating device) to rashvalivanie torch under the action of centrifugal force and consequently to a drop in its temperature and nesvorny remaining fuel particles, which causes further sooting, especially at low fuel consumption. In addition, the burner operation is accompanied by high sound pressure level. This is facilitated by the location of the swirl vanes in the zone of intensive expansion of the gases and increasing the gas flow rate, which generally limits the scope and power of the burner.

Regulation of the fuel level in the evaporator on the principle of operation of the vessel, the MARRIOTT has significant drawbacks. Low static pressure of the column of fuel between the slice of the drainage tube and the bottom of the fuel tank causes the continuous fluctuations in the level of fuel in the evaporation tube relative to the effective evaporation zone. This contributes to uneven changes in static pressure in the tank due to "bubble" the flow of air from the drainage tube. The volatility of the fuel level in the evaporator causes the instability of the combustion process due to various STA is and seals shut-off needle leads to the release of even liquid fuel from the inner tube of the evaporator, what makes the furnace of fire and requires constant monitoring. Overfilling the fuel tank is possible when the furnace through the drainage tube because of the increased fuel temperature and changes in atmospheric pressure. Install the tank on the furnace body causes increased evaporation of the fuel, resulting in poor sanitary conditions of heated space. In addition, the location of the exhaust pipe directly in the zone of the combustion chamber contributes to inefficient heat in the atmosphere.

The present invention is to improve combustion efficiency and operational reliability in a wide range of power and fuel brands, improve fire safety, and ensuring that the noise level in the work and availability of domestic gas as fuel without complications and changeover design.

The problem is solved in that the burner device, comprising a housing oval cross-section shape, position of which is vertical, is bonded with him the base, carrying the tube of the fuel located in the vertical direction, the inlet of which is intended for connection with the fuel system of the heating device, and the output of soyemi, located on the ground inside equidistant last about education between the combustion chamber and between the shell and the outer shell - pass-through ring vozduhoprovodyaschih channel, while the inner shell top is closed deaf and bottom perforated diaphragms in the specified radix has the intake box and the gas manifold is made in the base facing upward annular channel located between the said shells, in which the tool is installed for gas dispersion, made of porous, hygroscopic, heat-resisting material such as asbestos cardboard and swirl made in the form of a throttling lattice with multiple vanes, installed on the upper ends of the perforated shells, this blade in the plan are located between the shell and the inner shell and inclined to a plane above the ends to one side, moreover, near collector has a pilot site, and the top of the body ends with the confuser and has openings for the supply of the secondary air, the perimeter of its upper half.

In a preferred embodiment, the base body is in the form of a thickened thesis which matches the contour of the outer shell, and on its side surface in the lower part is made of the boss, to which by means of legs attached to the housing, the lower edge of which is not above the level of the lower ends of the shells, and the amount of protrusion of the base equal to the width of the ring vozduhoprovodyaschih channel with the gas manifold is made of rectangular profile and a lateral inner wall in the lower part is made annular groove communicated with the evaporator of fuel through cylindrical channels made in the base, and a gas supply fitting with holes in the wall, strengthened in the Central part of the base.

Preferably the evaporator fuel to perform as installed in the inner cowling-shaped tube, inlet elbow which passed through the base and has a fuel injection nozzle, and the output is fixed in the gas supply nozzle, the height of these tribes 2-3 times more housing, and the diaphragm inner shell has holes for missing them.

It is advisable dead of the aperture of the inner shell to perform in the shape of a bowl below the upper end of the shell for 3-15 mm, to which it is attached by its edge.

In a preferred embodiment of Olney on the level of 2/3 of the height of the shells, the total cross section of these holes is 0.2 to 0.5 orifice ring vozduhoprovodyaschih channel.

Perhaps throttling lattice perform in the form of a ring of sheet blanks, the outer side is made of guide vanes, spaced evenly along the contour in the radial direction and the inner side has a flared bottom, adjacent to the side wall of the hollow diaphragm.

Suitable vanes throttling lattice tilt to the plane of the upper ends of the shells from this angle, so that the total flow section between 1.5-2 times less than the total flow area of the combustion chamber and the annular vozduhoprovodyaschih channel.

Preferably the confuser corps to perform arcuate profile, and the size of its outlet cross section and height to perform not less than, respectively, the transverse dimensions of the inner shell and the distance between the shells, which are located below the confuser on the height of the throttling of the lattice.

It is advisable on the inner surface of the confuser throughout its height to perform satirically ribs, spaced evenly along the contour with an inclination to the plane of the upper ends of the shells to one side with blade throttling lattice.

is but a means to dissipate the gas to perform one or more tapes, the total thickness and the length of which is equal respectively to the width and length of the gas collector.

Preferably the total cross section of the holes in the perforated diaphragm to perform commensurate with the reduced cross section of the ring vozduhoprovodyaschih channel.

Possible pilot site to perform in the form of holes in the outer shell, coaxially to which it is attached nozzle with a removable tube, the free end of which is located in the hole provided in the housing.

Preferably the housing and the shell in cross-section, and the base plan to run round.

Preferably the movement of the gas and air flow, respectively, in the combustion chamber and the annular vozduhootvod channel be provided at a rate of 0.5-10 cm/sec.

The problem is solved also by the fact that in the heating furnace for liquid fuel with air supplied for combustion, natural draught, including the fuel tank, flow regulator, a casing within which is located a combustion chamber and separated therefrom by a partition wall of the air chamber, located in the lower part of the body, is provided in the upper part of the exhaust pipe with the regulator vacuum, and the burner will be strengthened in the partition, the last executed according to the Rania, and the rest with holes for supplying secondary air in the air chamber, and the furnace housing is configured to pass ambient air through the combustion chamber outside of the burner, for example, by using an overflow box, made in the partition.

In addition, the partition wall around the body of the burner is made additional bypass holes.

The area of the overflow box and the extra holes selected from the conditions of security in the burner device, movement of the gas and air flows at a rate of 0.5-10 cm/sec.

Moreover, the bypass window from the side of the combustion chamber is made with a flared or guiding pipe, the height of which no more than the height of the hull of a burner located in a combustion chamber.

In addition, the furnace is equipped with a thermostatic valve with a sensor in the form of a thermocouple, while the valve is installed in line between the fuel tank and the flow regulator, and a thermocouple above the confuser burner.

In this fuel tank height is made not more than one-third of the height of the evaporator fuel burner and is located in the area of its upper third, and the maximum fuel level in the tank is La improve thermal efficiency of the furnace in terms of completed square form and a large part of the combustion chamber is blocked by the upper panel, forming along two adjacent sides of the body D-shaped exhaust box informing you mentioned chamber with a flue located on top of the latest made in the form of a vertical duct of cross-section corresponding to exhaust the window going up in horizontal the national chamber forming together with the specified panel operational niche, with an exhaust pipe attached to the top of the exit chamber having inside the labyrinth for products of combustion, and the top panel of the combustion chamber is made with a ring.

In addition, the inner side of the case is coated with heat-resistant paint, and the bypass window is located at a maximum distance from the body of the burner and the minimum from the exhaust window of the combustion chamber.

Set forth brief description of the attached drawings, where Fig.1 shows a vertical longitudinal section and a partial General view of the proposed burner; Fig.2 is a cross section a-a according to Fig.1; Fig.3 - type B according to Fig.1; Fig.4 is a view In accordance with Fig.3; Fig.5 is a General view of the local section of the proposed heating furnace with the proposed burner device; Fig.6 is a schematic vertical section of the furnace; Fig.7-combustion furnace.

The proposed burner device is a casing 1 of cylindrical shape, the position of which is vertical. Alternatively oval shape in cross-section, for example ellipsa. Top case ends confuser 2, and the bottom is bonded with the base 3 made in the form of a thickened disk with the rim 4. On the upper end surface of the rim inside the housing 1 coaxially of the latter are two cylindrical shells 5, 6, the height of which 6-8 times longer than distance between them. The entire surface of the shells evenly perforated holes, mostly small diameter (1.3 to 1.7 mm). Holes are placed in horizontal rows with the same step between them. In 2-3 rows, spaced from each other at the same distance, the holes are made larger diameter (2.2-2.5 mm) in comparison with the main array of holes. The edges of the end surface of the rim 4 are fixing flange 7 with bayonet sockets for attaching the shells with the lower edges of the respective flanging. Shells 5 and 6 form between them a combustion chamber 8, and between the outer shell 6 and the housing 1 ring vozduhoprovodyaschih channel 9. While the inner shell is in the shape of a bowl, below the upper end of the inner shell 5 on 3-15 mm, almost to which it is attached by its edge, and the total cross section of the holes in the perforated diaphragm 11 is commensurate with reduced cross-section vozduhoprovodyaschih channel 9.

The diameter at the base and 3 is almost equal to the diameter of the outer shell 6, with the side outer surface in the lower part is made of the boss 12, which by means of legs 13 is attached to the housing 1, the lower edge of which is located above the lower ends of the shells, and the amount of protrusion bosses almost equal to the width vozduhoprovodyaschih channel 9. Closer to the rim 4 in base 3 made the intake window 14, spaced evenly around the circumference. In the axial zone of the Foundation of the fortified fuel evaporator 15, made in the form of-shaped tubes positioned vertically in the inner shell 5. The input elbow tube passed through the base 3 and is fitted with fuel injection fitting 16 for connection with the fuel system of the heating device, and output the knee fixed in the gas supply nozzle 17 fixed in the centre of the base 3.

To ensure that the evaporator is necessary static pressure of the fuel in use is sa 1, and in the diaphragms 10, 11 of the shell 5 has holes for missing them. The fastening of the gas supply nozzle 17 at the base of carried out using a coupling nut 18. The bottom end fitting 17 is made hollow, and in the middle part has radial openings 19 for the passage of gas, which is around the fitting at the base of the ring made of the distribution cavity 20. A possible embodiment of the evaporator in the form of two coaxially arranged tubes, mounted in the gas supply fitting. The internal tube in it skipped through the nozzle and provided with a fuel injection fitting, and the outer plugged from above and communicated with the cavity gas supply fitting and then through holes in its wall with an annular distribution cavity in the base (not shown). The cavity 20 through the cylindrical channel 21, is made in the basis between the intake Windows 14, is in communication with the gas manifold 22, which is made in the rim 4 of the base between the shells 5, 6 in the form of facing up the annular channel of rectangular profile. The width of the collector 22 in 2.5-3 times less than the distance between the shells. On the side of the inner wall of the collector 22 in the lower part is made annular groove 23, into which open the channels 21. To collect Stoykova material, for example, asbestos cardboard in the form of one or several tapes 24 (as shown in the drawing). The thickness of the tape or set of tapes made equal to the width of the manifold 22 so that the said funds were established in it without a clearance and compression, leaving free the groove 23 leading to the tapes gas. Moreover, the height of the tape made with the protrusion of the collector 1-3 mm

Possible execution means for gas dispersion in the form of an annular or more arcuate inserts made of ceramic (not shown) installed in the manifold 22 similarly specified flexible means. In the rim 4 at the upper edge of the collector 22 is made of three horizontal through holes, spaced evenly around the circumference. In these holes installed wire retainers 25, which prostart package tape 24. In the upper half of the housing 1 uniformly on a circle with holes 26 for the supply of the secondary air, located at the level of 2/3 of the height of the shells 5, 6, while the total flow section of the holes is 0.2 to 0.5 bore vozduhoprovodyaschih channel 9.

On the upper ends of the shells 5, 6 has a swirl of gas and air flows, made in the form of a throttling grating 27, containing many is e.g. in the manufacture of the lattice in the form of a ring of sheet blanks, the outer side is made of guide vanes and the inside has a frame 28 down, almost adjacent to the side wall of the hollow diaphragm 10. Guide vanes are evenly spaced around the circumference in the radial direction and is inclined in one direction to the plane of the upper ends of the shells 5, 6, and the angle of inclination selected so that the total flow section between the shoulder blades 1.5-2 times less than the total flow area of the combustion chamber 8 and vozduhoprovodyaschih channel 9.

The confuser 2 case is made of curved profile, while the diameter of its outlet cross section and the height is made not less than, respectively, the diameter of the inner shell 5 and the distance between the shells. On the inner surface of the confuser throughout its height (for example, by stamping) satirically ribs 29, spaced evenly around the circumference with an angle to the plane of the upper ends of the shells to one side with blades grid 27, and the angle of inclination does not exceed the corresponding angle of the blades of the lattice. The height of the shells 5, 6 are located below the confuser 2 almost to the height of the grating 27, which thereby fixes them in the vertical direction. In General, the design parameters of the device selected from the conditions ensuring the patient at a rate of 0.5-10 cm/sec.

In the lower part of the burner has a pilot site, made in the form of holes 30 in the outer shell 6, which coaxially attached to it a pipe 31 with a removable plug 32, the free end of which is located in the hole 33 provided in the housing 1. The lower edge of the nozzle 31 is located near the gas manifold 22 with access to the tape 24 with a match or other ignition means.

The housing 1 above the openings 26 for the supply of the secondary air is supplied brackets 34 for mounting the burner in a heating furnace or similar device, while the upper part of the housing 1 is designed for installation in the combustion chamber of the heating furnace, and the rest with apertures 26 - out of this camera in the air.

An example of using the proposed device illustrated in Fig.5-8, which shows the proposed heating furnace with the specified device. The furnace is a housing 35 in terms of almost square shape, within which are located the combustion chamber 36 and the air chamber 37, separated by a horizontal partition 38, in which by means of brackets 34 fortified burner device. It is installed so that the top part of his korpusnoi chamber 37, moreover, these holes are located directly under the partition 38. The air chamber 37 is located in the lower part of the housing 35 and is communicated with the surrounding atmosphere through the openings therein, and a combustion chamber on top most part is overlapped with the upper panel 39 with the ring 40. Panel 39 forms along two adjacent sides of the body G-shaped slit-like suction window 41. The top of the combustion chamber 37 of the furnace body has a flue 42, made in the form of a vertical duct, the cross section of which coincides with the shape of the exhaust window 41, which is the flue. In the upper part of the basket moves in a horizontal team chamber 43, in terms coinciding with the contour of the lower part of the housing 35. On the top wall of the exit chamber 43 has an exhaust pipe 44 with the regulator depression 45 in the form of butterfly valves.

If necessary, the pipe can be installed in the exhaust pipe. For greater heat dissipation chamber 43 inside is a maze of 46 for products of combustion. Wall of the enclosure, facing the panel 39, and the bottom wall of the exit chamber 43 in conjunction with the panel 39 of the combustion chamber form an operational niche 47 (for cooking, heating food, water). Inside the housing 1 is configured to bypass the United in the partition 38. The window 48 is located at a maximum distance from the body 1 of the burner and at a minimum from the exhaust window 41 of the combustion chamber, from which the bypass window 48 is flared 49 or guide pipe (not shown), the optimum height not exceeding the height of the housing 1 of the burner, located in the combustion chamber. In addition, around the casing 1 in the partition 38 with uniform step performed additional bypass holes 50 of small diameter (8-10 mm). The area of the overflow box and the holes 50 is selected from a burner in the device, movement of the gas and air flows at a rate of 0.5-10 cm/sec.

Fuel furnace system includes a fuel tank 51 with the cover 52 top with drain hole and the feed valve 53 is connected by a fuel line 54 through the flow regulator 55 to the nozzle 16 of the evaporator 15 of the burner. Tank 51 in height is made not more than one-third of the height of the evaporator 15 and is installed in the area of its upper third of the outside of the furnace housing on a separate stand or wall 56 (not shown). You can mount the tank and the furnace body. Moreover, the maximum fuel level in the tank is below the level of the transverse section of the evaporator 15 is eductor pressure (not shown). To further improve the fire between the tank 51 and the control valve 55 in the fuel line 54 is installed thermostatic valve 57 (type EM-1) blocking the fuel supply in the event of termination of combustion. This valve has a sensor in the form of a thermocouple 58, mounted on the confuser 2 of the housing 1. From the side of the duct 42 in the furnace body with a gap from it has the heat shield 59 covering the body is almost up to the operational niches 47, by which the level of the top panel 39 on the housing 35 fortified protective handrail 60, which serves also for operational needs. In addition, to increase the heat transfer in the furnace body from the side of the duct 42 can be made vertical corrugations (not shown). For protection against thermal corrosion of the casing from the inner side coated with heat-resistant paint (silicone based). For connectivity water or antifreeze batteries (tubular dryers) oven has a tubular heat exchanger 61, mounted inside the combustion chamber 36 and the duct 42, and the entrance of the heat exchanger is located in the lower part of the combustion chamber, and an exit in the national chamber 43 of the flue. At the bottom of the air chamber 37 is installed pallet 62 to collect randomly Politova has a door 63 for maintenance. Above it in the zone of the combustion chamber is made viewing window 64 with heat resistant glass.

The operation of the burner and the furnace is as follows. The regulator depression 45 in the exhaust pipe 44 is set at maximum thrust. The opening of the feed valve 53 and the flow regulator 55 (a small number) is used to supply fuel to the evaporator 15, in which it fills the input knee to the level of fuel in the tank, not reaching lateral knee evaporator. Opening the door 63, remove the stopper 32 of the nozzle 31 of the firing site and through the funnel (or a similar tool) is poured into the reservoir 22 a small amount (about 40 g) of kerosene. When this tape 24 are impregnated with fuel and ignition devices serve as a wick. Then a match or other ignition means of the tape 24 is ignited and above them the ring is placed in the flame. The pipe 31 is closed by a stopper 32 and within 6-7 min is the ignition of the burner.

During this time, the heated shells 5, 6 and the evaporator 15, which starts boiling and evaporation of fuel. The resulting gas is output through the knee of the evaporator 15 where further heating, the fitting 17 and then through the radial holes 19 therein, the ring in the first groove 23 therein, which is free from the tape 24, the gas is evenly distributed around the entire circumference of the manifold 22. Under certain static pressure in the latter, the gas penetrates through the pores of the tapes 24 and exits the manifold is almost uniform continuous annular stream which enters the combustion chamber 8 between the perforated shells 5, 6. It through many holes in the shells comes the false air of the air chamber 37 through the Windows 14 in the base and holes in the diaphragm 11 under the effect of traction in the exhaust pipe 44 and its own traction device. The flow defines the flow area of the holes in the bottom of the diaphragm 11, the ring vozduhoprovodyaschih channel 9 and the holes 26 in the housing 1, which are selected under development for a specific size of the burner and the flow through the holes in the shells is provided with a slight excess (about 20-30% compared with the stoichiometric ratio).

A great deal of interaction of gaseous fuel with air in the combustion chamber 8 facilitates homogeneous mixing and getting vysokoorganizovannoi mixture. At a height of 5-10 mm from the tape 24 starts burning, the intensity of which to the upper areas of the NT combustion, increasing the temperature of the flame, shells and evaporator 15. As warming up the last level of the fuel therein is reduced and arranged in the area of the bottom of the shells. The achievement of stable combustion regime in the small consumption of the last set to obtain the desired power device in which the combustion process has additional features. The main array of small-diameter holes in the shells 5, 6 provides between parietal air flow, which keeps the flame in the middle zone between the shells, thus preventing its cooling touch with them. Through the larger diameter holes in the shells, the air in the combustion chamber is fed streams, which, penetrating into the flame, create turbulence of the gas flow, contributing to a better mixing of the air with fuel and their balance. All of these processes together with heated air as it passes through heated to 500-600C perforated diaphragm 11, the hot shell and the overheating of the gas in the evaporator 15 contribute to the intensity of the fire.

A significant influence on the processes in the combustion chamber 8 also provides grille 27, while performing three functions: throttle, means for afterburning and swirl. Having the flow area between the channel 9, the grating 27 throttles the gas and air flow in them. In this regard, the speed of flow in comparison with the free slows down after that in the limited volume of the combustion chamber leads to uniform distribution of the combustible mixture and burning all over the camera. As a result, the combustion rate increases, develops a high temperature, reaching under the grate to 2000C, which mainly provides a complete burnout of the fuel. In addition, the bars 27 being in the flow of the flame and having less in comparison with it the temperature, initially causes deposition on the blades of unburned carbon particles, particularly when the ignition and not high-quality fuel, but under the influence of the temperature of the blades (warmed up to 1000C) and passed through a high temperature gas stream these particles are burnt and the grid always remains without particulate coating. Passing through the bars 27, the gas and air flow curve in the axial torch afterburners 65 formed on the housing 1 in alignment with the confuser 2. Thus the air from vozduhoprovodyaschih channel 9, the additional twists the ribs 29 on the confuser 2 and creates around the torch aerial shell that feeds it fresh secondary air, postupalsky combustion furnace, and collapse it in the past, thereby maintaining the temperature of the torch. Educated deaf aperture 10 a niche on top of the inner shell 5 creates in the root zone of the flame afterburners certain vacuum, at a height of 50-70 mm from the confuser 2 causes compression of the torch axis, which together with the axial twist gives it a persistent whirling form, providing secondary (after the combustion chamber) temperature rise in this area up to 2000C, causing almost complete burnout of remaining fuel.

Directional air flow generated by-pass window 47 in the partition wall 38 of the casing of the furnace, passing through the combustion chamber 36 in the duct 42, it has little thermal and dynamic effects on the flame afterburners, which is also protected as if the curtain of thin air jets from the holes 50 in the partition 38 around the casing 1. At the same time, the specified air flow reduces the pressure in the combustion chamber 36 and thereby reduces the velocity of the gas and air flow in the burner device, facilitating their movement therein under the action of essentially private-powered devices with low speed (0.5 to 10 cm/sec), which describes the processes in the device are the most effective is regulirovanie which (when changing atmospheric conditions) regulator vacuum 45 on the mode of operation of the burner has little effect, since the main flow of air into the combustion chamber 36 flows through the bypass window 48. Depending on the flow and quality of fuel, and the level of vacuum in the combustion chamber of the furnace in the plume afterburning burns more or less fuel with the formation of different length and color of the torch from colourless-blue to blue-yellow, servant visual optimality criterion of the mode of operation of the burner - completeness of fuel combustion. When using a gas torch afterburners when any consumption saves colourless-blue color, indicating complete combustion of the fuel. Run the furnace is maintained, as for liquid fuel, by ignition of kerosene and further flow of gas into the evaporator. The subsequent processes of preparing a combustible mixture and burning the same for liquid fuels. At the termination of combustion for any reason, thermocouple 58 stops producing EMF that causes the valve 57, the overlying fuel supply line 54, which increases safety, especially when using gas and furnace operation on vehicles in the conditions of shaking, tilting. Possible fuel vapours in the air chamber 37 are sucked into the through holes 26 in the housing 1 and aromasine.

A concentrated form of the torch, after-burners, in which he does not touch the walls of the combustion chamber (in addition to specially designed burners 40), allows the use of convenient and cost-effective protection of internal surfaces of the furnace housing from thermal corrosion in the form of a heat-resistant coatings. The heating of the walls occurs due to thermal radiation and convective exchange of gas flow, which provides uniform heating of the body without the occurrence of local high-temperature plots that can cause ignition of materials by brief contact with them, which also increases the fire of the furnace. This also contributes to the fuel level in the tank below the upper knee of the evaporator 15, precluding flow of fuel in the combustion zone, as well as the installation of the tank outside of the furnace housing. In addition, the location of the tank in the area of the upper third of the evaporator 15, and the level of the evaporation zone in the lower part of it (due to its high temperatures of 400-450C) provides a stable flow and static pressure of the column of fuel in the evaporator, which reduces the level fluctuations in the past and promotes uniform evaporation and gas flow into the manifold 22 and, accordingly, a stable combustion. This same sposalizio, described in the proposed burner device and the furnace, provides almost complete combustion of all brands of used fuel in the mixture and the proportions with a minimum output of harmful substances (according to tool control - 8-10 times less valid GOST 22992-82), and the use of gas you can use the oven without the exhaust pipes in homes similar to kitchen gas stoves. The burner and in General oven silent in operation. The invariance of the geometry of the structural elements in the combustion zone (shell, grille, evaporator) due to the absence of carbon deposits on them determines the stability characteristics of the burner for a long period of operation. This also contributes to the implementation of these elements of heat-resistant stainless steels. The flow from the reservoir 22 into the combustion chamber 8 fuel type gas, preheated to 450C, virtually eliminates flameout, so as to ignite any contact of gas with air, the more heated in the mixing zone to 400-500C. After the cessation of combustion within 50-60 seconds, it may be renewed without ignition of the burner due to the high temperature components of its structure (ispar the PTO with pump dispenser and by gravity, as is proposed in the furnace. In the latter case the furnace is particularly stable and fireproof. The preferred power range for the described implementation of the burner is 1-25 kW, which guarantees the efficiency of the furnace more than 95%.

High reliability and fire safety stipulate the possibility of uncontrolled work in long time simplicity in operation and a wide field of application of the furnace, allowing you to use it in various situations in the absence of other fuels and energy, which is of paramount importance in the field and in critical conditions. Long-term trials have confirmed the advantages and characteristics of the proposed burner and furnace. Oven adopted for serial production.

Claims

1. A burner for liquid fuel for domestic heating device to supply air for combustion, natural draught, comprising a housing oval cross-section shape, position of which is vertical, is bonded with him the base, carrying the tube of the fuel located in the vertical direction, the input of which is ktoroy, and also swirl, characterized in that it is provided with two perforated shells, arranged on the basis of inside equidistant last with the formation between the combustion chamber and between the shell and the outer shell - pass-through ring vozduhoprovodyaschih channel, while the inner shell top is closed deaf and bottom perforated diaphragms in the specified radix has the intake box and the gas manifold is made in the base facing upward annular channel located between the said shells, in which the tool is installed for gas dispersion, made of hygroscopic porous heat-resistant material, such as asbestos cardboard and swirl made in the form of a throttling lattice with lots of vanes mounted on the upper ends of the perforated shells, this blade in the plan are located between the shell and the inner shell and inclined to a plane above the ends to one side, moreover, near collector has a pilot site, and the top of the body ends with the confuser and has openings for the supply of the secondary air, the perimeter of its upper half.

2. G the house, on the upper end of which is made gas manifold and installed the shell, and the contour of the disk coincides with the contour of the outer shell, and on its lateral surface in the lower part is made of the boss, to which by means of legs attached to the housing, the lower edge of which is not above the level of the lower ends of the shells, and the amount of protrusion of the base equal to the width of the ring vozduhoprovodyaschih channel with the gas manifold is made of rectangular profile and a lateral inner wall in the lower part is made annular groove communicated with the evaporator of fuel through cylindrical channels made in the base, and a gas supply nozzle, with holes in the wall, strengthened in the Central part of the base.

3. The burner under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the fuel evaporator is made in the form prescribed in the inner sides of the U-tube, entrance knee which passed through the base and has a fuel injection nozzle, and the output is fixed in the gas supply nozzle, the height of these knees is 2-3 times greater than the height of the housing and apertures in the inner shell has holes for missing them.

4. The burner under item 1, wherein Ice on 3-15 mm, to which it is attached by its edge.

5. The burner under item 1, characterized in that the height of the shells 6-8 times longer than distance between them and the holes for the supply of the secondary air in the casing at the level of 2/3 of the height of the shells, and the total cross section of these holes is 0.2 to 0.5 orifice ring vozduhoprovodyaschih channel.

6. The burner under item 1, characterized in that the throttling grille is made in the form of a ring of sheet blanks, the outer side is made of guide vanes, spaced evenly along the contour in the radial direction and the inner side has a flared bottom, adjacent to the side wall of the hollow diaphragm.

7. The burner under item 1 or 6, characterized in that the blade throttling grating is inclined to the plane of the upper ends of the shells at such an angle that the total flow section between 1.5-2 times less than the total flow area of the combustion chamber and the annular vozduhoprovodyaschih channel.

8. The burner under item 1, characterized in that the confuser of the case is made of curved profile, and the sizes of the output section and the height is made not less than, respectively, the transverse dimensions inside of

9. The burner under item 1 or 8, characterized in that on the inner surface of the confuser throughout its height made satirically ribs, spaced evenly along the contour with an inclination to the plane of the upper ends of the shells to one side with blade throttling lattice.

10. The burner under item 1, characterized in that the width of the gas collector is 2.5-3 times less than the distance between the shells.

11. The burner under item 1, characterized in that the means for dissipation of the gas made in the form of one or more tapes, the total thickness and the length of which is equal respectively to the width and length of the gas collector.

12. The burner under item 1, characterized in that the total cross section of the holes in the perforated aperture commensurate with the reduced cross section of the ring vozduhoprovodyaschih channel.

13. The burner under item 1, characterized in that the firing unit is designed in the form of holes in the outer shell, coaxially with which it attached to the pipe with a removable tube, the free end of which is located in the hole provided in the housing.

14. The burner under item 1, characterized in that the housing and the shell in cross-section, and the base plan is executed cropimagefilter in the combustion chamber and the annular vozduhootvod channel is provided at a rate of 0.5-10 cm/s

16. Domestic heating furnace for liquid fuel with air supplied for combustion, natural draught, including the fuel tank, flow regulator, a casing within which is located a combustion chamber and separated therefrom by a partition wall of the air chamber, located in the lower part of the body, is provided in the upper part of the exhaust pipe with the regulator vacuum, and the burner will be strengthened in the partition, wherein the burner is made in accordance with any of paragraphs.1-15 and installed so that the upper part of its body is located in the combustion chamber, and the remainder with holes for supplying secondary air in the air chamber, and the furnace housing is configured to pass ambient air through the combustion chamber outside of the burner, for example, by using an overflow box, made in the partition.

17. Oven under item 16, characterized in that the wall around the body of the burner is made additional bypass holes.

18. Oven under item 16 or 17, characterized in that the area of the overflow box and the extra holes selected from the conditions of security in the burner device, movement of the gas and air flows in according to what ortoli or guiding pipe, height not exceeding the height of the hull of a burner located in a combustion chamber.

20. Oven under item 16, characterized in that the holes for the supply of the secondary air are located directly under the wall.

21. Oven under item 16, characterized in that it is equipped with a thermostatic valve with a sensor in the form of a thermocouple, while the valve is installed in line between the fuel tank and the flow regulator, and a thermocouple above the confuser burner.

22. Oven under item 16, characterized in that the fuel tank height is made not more than one-third of the height of the evaporator fuel burner and is located in the area of its upper third, and the maximum fuel level in the tank is below the level of the transverse section of the fuel evaporator, and the upper part of the tank is communicated with the atmosphere.

23. Oven under item 16, characterized in that the housing plan completed square form and a large part of the combustion chamber is blocked by the top panel, forming along two adjacent sides of the body D-shaped exhaust box informing you mentioned chamber with a flue located on top of the latest and executed as vertical boxes with a cross-section corresponding to exhaust the window going up in InEU pipe attached to the top of the exit chamber, inside the labyrinth for products of combustion, and the top panel of the combustion chamber is made with a ring.

24. Furnace according to p. 16 or 23, characterized in that the casing from the inner side coated with heat resistant paint.

25. Furnace according to p. 16 or 23, characterized in that the bypass window is located at a maximum distance from the body of the burner and the minimum from the exhaust window of the combustion chamber.

 

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FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.

EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).

2 cl, 1 dwg

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