The method of obtaining energy from mineral substances of natural origin
The invention relates to methods of obtaining energy from substances. The method of obtaining energy from mineral substances of natural origin is that in a mixture of fossil fuel and mineral matter mineral matter particle size less than 50 microns is introduced into the mixture evenly over the volume of fuel in quantity, to ensure ionization of mineral substances and the process of burning fossil fuel, with the optimal concentration of mineral substances are of 0.09 and 0.03% by weight of organic fuel. Ionization of minerals is the heat flux from the combustion of fossil fuels without direct contact with the torch of fossil fuels. As mineral substances used substance whose volume specific energy of atomization of not less than 60 kJ/cm3. The invention allows to reduce the consumption of fuel and the cost of their transportation. 2 C.p. f-crystals.
The invention relates to methods of producing thermal energy, in particular to a method of burning substances.
Known methods for producing thermal energy from organic substances in the form of hydrocarbons through the organ of the CC of the combustion chain branching (Samothrace) reaction occurs when the fuel mixture unit active centers - of the molecules with the free valences and starts to outwardly manifest only upon accumulation of a sufficient concentration of these centers. This is followed by the appearance of the front ignition or volumetric explosion . Active centers in this case are created by the introduction of ready or resultant mixture lighted torch, hot body or electrical sparks. Thus the calorific value averaging: the fuel oil 40 kJ/g, coals - from 7 to 27 kJ/g of peat - from 7 to 10 kJ/g, oil shale to 10.5 kJ/g, coke - from 26 to 29.5 kJ/g of dry natural gas from 23 to 41 MJ/m3artificial (generator gases from a lump of coal; water gases from coke gas from 5.5 to 26.5 MJ/m3, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel of 3.75 MJ/m3.
Another possible source of thermal energy is water. The process of obtaining energy from water can occur, for example, in the cavitation power plants . The destruction of water molecules in them is in the process of collapse of the bubbles of water vapor. As a result, the energy release when using water as an energy source is in the current setup 10-20 kJ/g
The next step in obtaining energy from various substances is the burning fuel particles of rocks act as active centers, stimulating the process of combustion of the primary fuel and increasing the combustion efficiency.
Thus, from the above analogues shows that the same basic characteristics as the calorific value or energy used substances, even with the introduction of mineral additives in them do not emit more energy than 80-90 kJ/g
As a prototype of the selected method of intensification of mass transfer processes . Burning in this invention is considered as a mass transfer process in the chemical reactions of combustion.
In this process, fine quarcoopome and karastergiou breed (particle size of 95% by weight - not more than 15 μm, 5% by weight - not more than 30 μm) is introduced into the fuel in combination: from 0.1 to 5% by mass of rock; the rest is fuel. The average value of the energy stability of the introduced rock - 82 kJ/cm3. The result is an increase in the completeness of combustion of fuels, in particular oil. This is due to the increase in the number of active centers, which are fine particles of rocks.
As previous counterparts, the prototype has the same drawbacks - the calorific value of a substance remains low.
- in heating systems for domestic and industrial premises;
- transport in internal combustion engines;
in other combustion devices.
The prototype, preserving traditional fuels as the main, can not fundamentally solve the problem.
The problem is solved by way of obtaining energy from mineral substances of natural origin and is that in a mixture of fossil fuel and mineral matter mineral matter particle size less than 50 microns is introduced into the mixture evenly over the volume of fuel in quantity, to ensure ionization of mineral substances and the process of burning fossil fuel, with the optimal concentration of mineral substances are of 0.09 and 0.03% by weight of organic fuel. Ionization of minerals is the heat flux from the combustion of fossil fuels without direct contact with the torch of fossil fuels. As mineral substances used substance whose volume specific energy of atomization of not less than 60 kJ/cm3.
The basis of the invention is tasked to implement the processes of energy initiating the process of energy release from minerals. The value of the energy liberated in this process is limited by the upper limit value of the specific energy of cohesion of atomic cores and binding electrons - Wi [5-6]. While this value is determined in relation to the mass or volume of a particular substance. For non-metallic minerals this value on average is in the range from 500 kJ/t (anhydrite) to 780 kJ/g (serpentinite and kaolinite).
The technical result - the process of energy release from mineral substances of natural origin with a high energy density, in a joint application of minerals and fossil fuels, giving a significant increase in the calorific value of the mixture by addition of the received energy and a more complete combustion of conventional fuels.
The technical result is ensured by the fact that in the method of obtaining energy from mineral substances of natural origin, the process of energy release from mineral substances is carried out in two variants:
initiation energy release from mineral substances in mixtures with fossil fuels;
initiation energy release from mineral substances heat flow from Xu direct contact minerals and flames from burning fossil fuels.
In the first variant of fine material with a particle size of less than 50 microns is introduced into the volume of fossil fuel with uniform distribution by volume, with the percentage by weight determined by the characteristics of minerals and fossil fuels. For each combination of substances in the mixture has its own optimal concentration. The excess of the stated concentration of mineral substances in the fuel leads to Perinatology active centers, which among other things takes the mineral substance, the necessity of spending more energy on ionization excess mineral material and reduce the power density of the mineral material. The energy deposition of minerals is from 200 to 400 kJ/g
In the second case, the heat required for ionization of minerals, fail when burning through some barrier, such as a metal plate. When this mineral substance evenly in a thin layer located at the surface of the plate, with no contact with the torch of the burning of organic matter directly. The amount of mineral matter also has an optimal value depending on characteristics of the burner, EO is the energy of the minerals to the mineral substance is necessary to supply power, equal to its volumetric energy density atomization. After this mineral substance is ionized and depending on the composition of the mineral particle of the medium can occur in different chemical reactions with mineral matter. In particular, the combustion of silicon oxide with an organic fuel in oxygen atmosphere under high pressure chemical reactions involving silicon oxide may not be observed, since the oxygen atoms in the oxide can remain in place, without entering into any interaction. After ionization minerals it gives the environment the accumulated internal energy.
The non-contact method of energy one portion mineral substances can be used for a long time due to the cyclical process of allocating internal energy and new energy absorption of empty photons by atoms minerals.
Such processes of energy release from minerals implement any known combustion devices or internal combustion engines.
Below are examples of specific implementations.
Example 1. Burning a mixture of fossil fuel and mineral substances by the method of bomb EROSKI quartzite. At the optimum concentration of 0.05% of energy from minerals 23.4 kJ/g
The mixture of the fuel oil M100 - serpentinite. At the optimum concentration of 0.09% of energy from minerals was 46,1 kJ/g
A mixture of vaseline oil - Krivoy Rog quartzite. At the optimum concentration of 0.09% of energy from minerals amounted to 29.4 kJ/g
A mixture of vaseline oil - serpentinite. At the optimum concentration of 0.08% of energy from minerals was 46.4 kJ/g
The mixture of the fuel oil M100 - quartz. At the optimum concentration of 0.09% of energy from minerals amounted to 49.5 kJ/g
Example 2. Contactless combustion process in the calorimeter. The tests were performed in a pair of gas - serpentinite. The dispersion of mineral matter less than 40 microns. When hanging 0.3 g of energy amounted to 570 kJ/year When hanging 0.6 g of energy amounted to 440 kJ/year Total dissipation of the mixture was 35% greater than the heat generation from organic fuel.
Example 3. Burning a mixture of coal GISS-050 - serpentinite in the coal boiler. The dispersion of mineral matter less than 40 microns. The concentration of mineral substances 0.05% by wt is asgodom clean coal with the same system parameters.
Example 4. Burning a mixture of fuel oil M100 - serpentinite in oil-fired boiler. The dispersion of mineral matter less than 40 microns. The concentration of mineral substances 0.05% by weight of fuel. The energy deposition of mineral substances was 662,4 kJ/, the Flow of the mixture decreased 1.8 times in comparison with the consumption of pure oil with the same system parameters.
Example 5. Burning a mixture of gasoline 92 - serpentinite in the internal combustion engine. The dispersion of mineral matter less than 40 microns. The concentration of mineral substances to 0.04% by weight of fuel. The energy deposition of mineral substances amounted to 365 kJ/, the Flow of the mixture has reduced by 30% in comparison with pure gasoline consumption under the same conditions.
However due to unique design of the combustion systems and combustion chambers and the process of burning them in the magnitude of the energy release in all cases are different and does not exceed the limit values of W=780 kJ/g (serpentinite).
These examples show that the claimed method allows to obtain significant additional value of energy release from mineral substances when the use of fossil fuels as the initiator of the process of energy release and ensures that there is a material saving system parameters.
Sources of information
1. G. F. Knorre, K. M. Aref, A., Bloch, E. A. Nahapetyan, I. I. Paleev, C. B. Steinberg. Theory of combustion processes. - M.-L.: Energy, 1966, S. 5.
2. Ibid, S. 6-7.
3. RF patent №2054604, 1996. Bull.5. The method of obtaining energy. /A. F. Treasures.
4. RF patent №2129461, 1999. The way geoanalytical intensification of mass transfer processes and composition for geoanalytical intensification of mass transfer processes.
5. Century Century Zuev. The logical relation of the physical properties of minerals and other solid crystalline bodies with their energy coupling of the atomic cores and binding electrons. Milling of ores, No. 5, 2002, S. 42-47.
6. Century Century Zuev and other Regular relation of the quantities characterizing the physical properties of crystalline solids, with values of specific energy coupling of the atomic cores and binding electrons. Scientific discovery. Diploma No. 204.
1. The method of obtaining energy from mineral substances of natural origin, characterized in that a mixture of fossil fuel and mineral matter mineral matter particle size less than 50 microns is introduced into the mixture evenly over the volume of fuel in quantity, to ensure ionization of mineral substances and the process of burning body the ski fuel.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the ionization of minerals is the heat flux from the combustion of fossil fuels without direct contact with the torch of fossil fuels.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the mineral substances used substance whose volume specific energy of atomization of not less than 60 kJ/cm3.
FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.
EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: combustion apparatus for fluent fuels.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying gas to be burnt out from the head of the burner of the torch plant in the combustion zone. The composition of gases is variable. The gas flow rate varies from 1m/s to 3.5 of sound speed due to generating excess static pressure of gas from 0.00001 MPa/cm2 to 3.0 MPa/cm2 by the movable control device. The gas jet is turbulent with a cone angle from 2o to 155o.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: combustion apparatus using fluent fuel.
SUBSTANCE: burner comprises casing made of a scroll, hollow shaft for fuel supply arranged inside the casing, sucking and exhausting branch pipes for air secured to the casing, nozzle mounted in the conical sleeve, diffuser, and drive. The shaft is mounted for rotation and provided with blades of the fan. The nozzle and conical sleeve are secured to the hollow shaft. The drive is secured to the casing inside the sucking branch pipe. The branch pipe is mounted with a space relation to the casing to provide a space for air flow. The shaft of the drive is hollow to provide fuel flow to the nozzle. The shaft of the drive and hollow shaft of the burner are axially aligned and interconnected. The drive shaft is provided with emulsifier for generating emulsion or suspension and supplying fuel and/or water emulsion and cock for fuel supply.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: methods of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the method of combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel in a burner. The method of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel in a burner provides, that along the burner external surface a non-corroding technical atmosphere is set in motion, chosen from a group including steam, CO 2 , nitrogen or their mixture. In the capacity of the non-corroding technical aerosphere they use steam. Combustion is carried out at the presence of steam. At least a part of the non-corroding aerosphere is added to the hydrocarbon fuel. The non-corroding aerosphere is used in an amount sufficient to dilute or replace a corroding technical aerosphere existing around the external surface of the burner. The invention allows to avoid a corrosive spraying of the metal and carbonization of the industrial burners exposed to action of the corroding technical aerosphere.
EFFECT: the invention allows to prevent a corrosive spraying of the metal and carbonization of the industrial burners.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: methods of burning pulverized fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preparation of fuel for burning, delivery of fuel, transportation of high-pressure air, mixing air with pulverized fuel and delivery of high-concentrated aeromixture to boiler burners. Transporting air is ozonized before mixing it with pulverized fuel ; part of ozonized fuel is delivered to transport of pulverized fuel and remaining part is delivered autonomous passage of burner to flame root via pipe line.
EFFECT: steady ignition of pulverized fuel; enhanced efficiency of burning process.
FIELD: methods of burning hydrocarbon fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel includes separate delivery of fuel and air to burner; fuel is delivered mainly to central area of air flow and is burnt over periphery of flame at excess air mode and at excess of fuel in central area of flame; vapor is fed to central area of flame and field of acoustic oscillations is applied. Burner proposed for burning the gaseous hydrocarbon fuel includes air box, hollow gas manifold with outlet gas holes; it is coaxially arranged inside vapor swirler manifold made in form of hollow cylindrical body with profiled passages and mounted in cylindrical body at radial clearance; cylindrical body has nozzle hole; one end face of vapor swirler is blanked-off and opposite end face is smoothly engageable with nozzle hole in body. Burner for combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuel includes air box and injector mounted on fuel swirler and vapor swirler which are mounted in cylindrical body at radial clearance; said cylindrical body is provided with nozzle unit made in form of hollow detachable cap with holes over spherical end face; mounted at spaced relation inside this cap is cap of smaller diameter and similar in shape; smaller cap has holes which are coaxial to outer cap; outer cap is provided with additional holes; inner cap is not provided with such holes.
EFFECT: reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions by power-generating boilers at enhanced combustion of fuel.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: fuel burning devices.
SUBSTANCE: proposed ejection burner has body with branch pipes for delivery of combustion components, stabilizer, purging ports and injector additionally provided with mixing ejector consisting of body, contraction passage, fuel and oxidizer supply pipe unions; its construction makes it possible to regulate sectional areas of ejecting and ejected flows due to change of penetration of oxidized supply pipe union into contraction passage of ejector. Widening of flow of fuel-and-gas mixture in injector is made in two sections at different taper angles; diameter of spherical cover exceeds diameter of flow section of injector. Purging ports are made in form of three-stage system; first-stage purging ports are made in form of holes in burner body; second-stage purging ports are made in form of row of holes in combustion chamber; their flow sections change by means of regulating ring moved over surface of combustion chamber; third-stage purging port is made in form of coaxial circular passage copying the combustion chamber geometry. Stabilizer tube is twisted in form of cylindrical spiral. Proposed burner makes it possible to improve quality of mixing and evaporability of fuel in injector and to obtain complete combustion of fuel at extended range of stable operation by excess air coefficient.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; enhanced stability of combustion.
FIELD: burning separated oil-containing wastes formed during operation of ships.
SUBSTANCE: proposed incinerator burner includes several injectors for delivery of oil and diesel fuel wastes sprayed by air. Air injector equipped with swirler is located in front of oil and diesel fuel waste injectors; oil waste injector is located closer and distance of both fuel injectors may be changed relative to air injector whose axis lies at right angle relative to axes of fuel injectors; mounted in front of fuel injectors are jets whose orifices have diameter lesser than that of injectors.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of burning fuel; reduction of toxic emissions from reactor.
FIELD: mode of incineration of hydrocarbon fuel and an arrangement for its realization refers to engines and power engineering with working processes including preliminary processing of fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention may be applied for incineration of fuel as in a periodic regime which is characteristic for reciprocating motors of internal combustion so as for fulfillment of streaming regimes of incineration of fuel, for example, in jet, turbojet, gas turbine engines and power installations. The mode realizes induced destruction of molecules of metastable intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons, accumulated in gas volume of fuel-airy mixture, by way of power impact leading to explosive three-dimensional spontaneous combustion of gas mixture. Peculiarity of the mode consists in that fuel-airy mixture is enriched with free electrons and power impact on molecules of the mixture for excitation of oscillatory degrees of freedom of molecules is fulfilled by means of their inelastic concussion with free electrons, speeded up by electric field, which tension E is less than tension of switching to independent gas discharge. Enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons is fulfilled by way of its ionization or by way of injection of electrons. The installation for realization of this mode has a combustion chamber with a source of power impact. The source of power impact consists of a unit of enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons and a source of a speeded up electric power which includes a system of electrons with controlled multiplexer switch connected to the sources of high-voltage tension. The invention allows to realize in a necessary moment of time momentary development of three-dimensional radical explosion in fuel-airy mixture due to simultaneous destruction of the majority of accumulated metastable molecules of intermediate products. Destruction of molecules of intermediate products generates a great number of active radicals and particles dividing and creating new circuits of reaction of oxidation of hydrocarbon and leads to development of chain-radical explosion.
EFFECT: high effectiveness of incineration mode.
21 cl, 7 dwg