The method of forming piles on the slopes

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for open development of mineral deposits, in particular when dumping on slopes under high deformation until the collapse of the dumps from the slopes. The technical result is the stabilization of dumping with the exception of the collapse of the piles and increase their capacity. For this purpose, the method includes the sequential filling of the rock layers on atalina field. While dumping is performed by draining the body of the blade, protruding on a sloping part of the slope with melting snow and razzhizhayuschiesya breed by creating prigruzki the top of the site and slopes (IIthtier) with side walls, applied along the hillside and carrying out of drainage openings - trenches, ditches - with an emphasis on the disposal site before caving to collect water, and subsequent landfilling are initially lower (tier III), then 1thtier and the last step at the level of the upper tier complete filling of the fourth tier at full height dump. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in open-RA the military deformations until the collapse of the dumps from the slopes.

The known method of dumping upland dumps, in which the formation of the layers is made from the upper horizons on the bottom using serpentinejarrahdale descent, and their development from the bottom up [1].

The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of its application on steep slopes and the need to offset the lower tiers below the top in terms of deformation dumps.

Another way of dumping on the slopes includes incremental dumping rocks from pretotal to the slope using the dump equipment [2].

The disadvantage of this method is the need for penetrations in the upper part of the steep slope of corsega, installation of the console him the spreader and its complexity of operation at high wind loads and snow. This does not prevent the deformation and collapse of the dumps from the slopes.

There is also known a method of dumping on the slopes in mountainous terrain, including the dumping of spoil high tiers [3] (prototype).

The disadvantage of this method is the complexity and staging of dumping on the slope due to the fact that a resumption of dumping occurs after attenuation intense deformation of the blade or it fell from a slope-type debris flow.

The purpose of the invention is about the military objective is achieved by that dumping on the hillside in the conditions of mountainous terrain includes incremental dumping tiers from top to bottom, and the drainage body has shifted to a less steep part of the slope of the blade, with razzhizhayuschiesya rock mass due to melting snow and falling precipitation, flood and groundwater is carried out by creating prigruzki the top of the site and slopes from the side embankments carried out along the hillside, and conducting drainage excavations (trenches, ditches) across the slope in the disposal site before the collapse, which provides resistance IIthlayer and reduces the lateral pressure on the lower tiers, who slept during the following II-mtier - III first-thand then I-thand, finally, IV-thto full height dump.

The method consists in the following.

With high and steep slopes due to the complexity to create timely embankment desired height prigruzku deformable blade on the flat part of the slope is realized by dumping rocks using an unloading mechanism, such as a dragline, set on a rocky base or frozen "primask" for prism collapse. Dumping lead until then, until you reach the lower speed of deformation of the blade is alogoi part of the slope.

Prigruzku blade, protruding on the flat part of the slope, and to avoid the formation of man-made debris flow in melting snow and falling snow melt and groundwater is carried out from the side of embankments constructed with laterally from the top of the blade is initially in the form of exit for vehicles (trucks), and then form the unloading area. They are dumping rocks on the deformable layers of the blade as long as you do not stop their deformation, and does not form a sufficient retaining Pridonya layer, pour on the flat part of the slope.

In Fig.1 shows a diagram of the blade after the offset on the slope before the collapse, Fig.2 - scheme of the preparation of the slope on the birthplace of the future flow conducting drainage trenches (ditches): and holding the side embankments for prigruzki liquefied body of the blade (the density of rock mass=mindue to the ingress of rain, melting snow, flood and groundwater); Fig.3 (section a-a) - diagram of the formation of prigranichnogo layer (II-thtier) of the blade with the outflow of water through drainage ditches and seal rocks (density breed=max); Fig.4 schematic formirovanie on the slope consists of five stages: 1 - site preparation the hillside, where the blade reaches the ultimate state before the collapse, 2 - summary of embankment for prigruzki blade with liquefied breed and 3, 4 and 5 stages - dumping tiers II, III, and IV to full height and capacity of the pile.

The first stage begins with the trenches (ditches) at the slope on the place of displacement of the blade 1 at strain of 2, liquefaction rocks 3 (density of rock mass=min) due to the melting of snow in it, liquid precipitation, groundwater and flood waters, and going before the prism of emphasis 4 before the collapse of the 5 blade.

In the second stage, this part of the protruding blade down an embankment 6 to create prigruzki on a rock body dumps and its slopes for pressing and outflow of water through drainage ditches 7.

On the 3mstage occiput IIthtier blade, 4mstage - III-thtier blade, and at the final stage at the level of the upper tier by removal of water from the body of the blade IIthtiers and reducing lateral pressure on tier III occiput tier I and then tier IV.

This method of forming the stacked blade provides stabilization of dumping on the slope prevents the collapse of the dumps and contributes to improving the nd part of the slope with the formation of harbouring slope “b”, starts peregruzatela by dumping rocks with a mechanism (for example, dragline), set on a rocky base, and forms a new slope of the blade, which develops with continued dumping rocks to position “g”, when the resistance of the layers, pour on the flat portions FSPwill not exceed the shear strength FBD. When this is achieved stabilised the condition of the blade with the termination of its deformation. This is evidenced by the smaller values of shear strength FBDand the sliding resistance FSPthat is approximately equal with the deformation of the blade compared with their value at the prigruzki blade.

While the total shear strengthFBDsignificantly less than the total resistance forcesFSP

FBD<FSP

The capacity of the blade is increased by 2-3 times or more during the high steep slopes compared with the traditional method of forming piles on the slopes.

In Fig.6 shows the blade “And” at offset it on the flat part of the slope before reaching the ultimate state. It prigruzku carried out from the sides of the original site by conducting ramps “B”, to dump on the gently sloping plot will not have the force of resistance, more energy shift. The overall contour of a slope on the bottom will take the position “G” and the path pridruzenog blade will not move to position “D”.

This invention provides stabilization of dumping on the slope, preventing its collapse and increasing the capacity of the dump.

Sources of information

1. USSR author's certificate No. 829940, CL E 21 C 41/26, 1983.

2. USSR author's certificate No. 987102, CL E 21 C 41/30, 1983.

3. Dumps on the mountain slopes / E. B. Krasnosel'skii, G. C. Kalabin, B. K. ovodenko and other Leningrad: Nauka. - 1975. - 152 C.(prototype)

Claims

1. The method of forming piles on the slopes in mountainous terrain, including the sequential filling of the rock layers on atalina field, characterized in that the stacking is performed by draining the body of the blade, protruding on a sloping part of the slope with melting snow and razzhizhayuschiesya breed by creating prigruzki the top of the site and slopes (tier II) with side walls, applied along the hillside, and the carrying out of drainage openings - trenches, ditches, with an emphasis on the disposal site before caving to collect water, and subsequent landfilling are initially lower (tier III), then I layer and in the last step, at the level of the upper and prigruzku layers of the blade, shifting to the base of the blade, carried out using an unloading mechanism, such as a dragline, installed at the edge of the slope to the rocky ground, and are filling up until the deformation of the blade will not decrease to minimum values when creating a best supporting layer on the flat part of the slope.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the mound laterally from deforming blade carried out from the top of the slope with a slope as congresses to create the initial unloading areas, from which lead prigruzku protruding layers of rocks in the middle and lower zones of the deformable blade to attenuation of its deformation during compaction of the rock mass and the formation of the retaining slope on the steep part of the slope.

 

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FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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