The way to prevent the spread of fire in peatlands
The method relates to forestry and can be applied to prevent the spread of fire in peatlands. This method of preventing the spread of fire in peatlands can improve the efficiency of wetting peat crumb and reduce the amount of mineral soil for the formation of the veil. The way to prevent the spread of fire in peatlands device includes a vertical curtain. The curtain is formed in the form of a hollow slit, padded across the prevailing slope, and in its upper part perform trench, which is filled with filter from water-resistant non-combustible material. Extracted from the trench and cracks the ground occiput in the form of a roller below the cracks on the slope. 1 Il.
The present invention relates to the field of forestry and can be used when fighting fires on peatlands.
Known way to prevent the spread of fire in peatlands, including vertical screens of non-combustible material at the depth of the peat. (Guidance for the development of the section “environmental Protection” as part of the project of land reclamation. - M., 1981, including infrastructure, USSR, S. 11.)
This method involves the development of a career with miserunt the entire depth of the peat layer.
The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of importation of large amounts of mineral soil for the formation of the veil.
The closest analogue of the proposed method is a method of preventing the spread of fire in peatlands, including the implementation of the veil in the form of a trench filled with peat crumbs, moistened with water (U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 219044 AND 62 WITH 3/02, BI No. 28, 2002). This method involves performing the trench by milling peat to a depth of its occurrence and the simultaneous spraying loosened peat crumb water before returning it into the trench. This method allows you to create a veil of soft peat with a moisture content slightly above the humidity of the surrounding peatland.
The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency due to the inability significant wetting peat crumb with intermittent spraying it at the time of development of the trench.
To eliminate the mentioned disadvantages allows the proposed method to prevent the spread of fire in peatlands, including vertical curtain, according to the invention veil shape in the form of a hollow slit, padded across the prevailing slope and at the top of the hour from the trench and cracks the ground occiput in the form of a roller below the cracks on the slope.
Vertical curtain in the form of a hollow slit, across the prevailing slope, and filling the upper part of the filter from a non-flammable water-resistant material filling the roller from the extracted soil below the cracks on the slope allows you to delay the winter-spring precipitation and expense to form a curtain of peat-rich moisture to the entire depth of the peat. When this filter landfilling provides a capillary gap current and prevents the expenditure of accumulated moisture to evaporation.
The essence of the proposal is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a diagram of the vertical curtain in the section.
In the discontinuous lane 1 perform hollow slit 2, the top of which tear the trench 3 with a width of 0.4-0.6 m and a depth of 0.15-0.20 m with the dumping of the roller 4. Trench 3 is filled with the filter 5 from non-flammable water-resistant material, for example expanded clay.
Implementation of the proposed method of preventing fire in peatlands is carried out in the following order. Frangible strip 1 are laid in autumn across the prevailing slope. As a tool for laying gaps, it is desirable to use bar saleres, the advantage of which is the cutting of roots. After the laying of the slit 2 on it, transport the areas with the forming roller 4. After excerpts trench fill non-flammable water-resistant material to form the filter 5.
In the spring when snow is melting and the formation of surface runoff water flows in the direction of the prevailing bias. The platen 4 prevents further flow of water along the slope. The water seeps through the filter 5, fills the gap 2, due to the presence of a gap absorption of the peat starts from the bottom up where the most desiccated layers of peat, as its saturation with moisture, the rate of absorption decreases and the level of the slit 2 is gradually increased. Thus for the summer period is formed in the area of hydration 6, widening at the bottom. The presence of the trench 3 with a width of 0.4-0.6 m and a depth of 0.15-0.20 m, filled with filter 5 from water-resistant non-combustible material with a size of 5-20 mm, breaks capillaries after the termination of the spring flood and therefore dramatically reduces the evaporation of moisture stored in zone 6. The width of the trench 3 depends on the depth of gaps 2: the deeper the crack, the smaller the width of the trench. In case of fire on peat combustion front gradually approaching damp areas b & e due to the high moisture content of the peat in this area is the process of burning fades out. With most water-holding capacity of peat in the presence of opasnogo period, even in the absence of significant precipitation.
Thus, the proposed method of preventing the spread of fire in peatlands allows you to create a strong vertical curtain, preventing spread of fire, while significantly reducing cost of non-combustible material and the use of natural moisture generated during snowmelt.
The way to prevent the spread of fire in peatlands, including vertical curtain, wherein the curtain is formed in the form of a hollow slit, padded across the prevailing slope, and in its upper part perform trench, which is filled with filter from water-resistant non-combustible material, when removed from the trench and cracks the ground occiput in the form of a roller below the cracks on the slope.
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly for localizing fire appeared in process orifices, for instance during coloring large articles or on stage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves using elastic fire barrier formed as dropping curtain device for fire localization. Device for above method implementation performs curtain movement in several modes. Device structure is so that device protects maintenance staff or actors present in working area from injuries during heavy curtain motion. Screen has door located in lower part thereof to evacuate people from dangerous area by rescuers or for people self-evacuation.
EFFECT: possibility of injury prevention, prevention of hazardous products escape from fire site, provision of seal between screen and frame when process opening is fully closed.
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly for extinguishing forest fires.
SUBSTANCE: method involves burning combustible materials in direction from control line to fire propagation line with the use of remote operated robotic system. Remote operated robotic system includes flame thrower and rotary screw drive, which provides system movement simultaneously with digging control line.
EFFECT: reduced time of fire service response, increased efficiency of fire localization and operational safety.
FIELD: forestry, particularly for fighting fires in high-capacity and medium-capacity peat beds.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system includes a number of water drainage channels with control-and-shutoff valves, manifold with drain lines connected thereto and intercepting channel located above drained peat bed and communicated with water inlet. Intercepting channel is provided with control-and-shutoff means to accumulate surface water flow and to create water reserve. Intercepting channel is connected with manifold head part by means of pipeline having valve gate. Manifold is provided with movable partition. Intercepting channel has antifiltering shield.
EFFECT: possibility of fire localization without operation stoppage and without underflooding surrounding territories and, as result, reduced economic losses.
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly for extinguishing/localizing large-scale and powerful fires, including forest and forest-steppe fires, difficult-to-access fires, namely steep mountains, impassable taiga, jungle or fires close to risk areas (explosive environment or high-temperature areas).
SUBSTANCE: method involves exerting influence of air-blast wave on fire site and applying high-speed jet of air-dispersed fire-extinguishing mixture formed during fire-suppression device explosion. Fire-suppression device comprises vessel with fire-extinguishing composition and dispersing charge. Vessel is provided with structural members providing device operation in service conditions. Structural members are separated from vessel until dispersing charge blasting.
EFFECT: extended range of technical means for fire-suppression device delivery to fire site, reduced time of their preparing to use, prevention of device fragments spreading after device blasting.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly for peat fire spread prevention.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming intermittent strips; supplying water to intermittent strips and forming wetted area. Wetted area is formed by arranging mole drains along intermittent strip lengths and supplying water to them to moisture peat bed through the whole thickness thereof. To perform preventive water conservation intermittent strip surfaces located above mole drains are loosened for 0.15 - 0.2 m depth and 1.0 - 1.5 m width and intermittent strip surfaces above mole drains in fire vicinity are rolled up. Fire inhibitors are added to water before supplying thereof in mole drains.
EFFECT: increased fire-protective efficiency regardless of peat bed thickness.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fire fighting equipment with the use of helicopters with rotary propellers, which create powerful descending air flow, particularly to extinguish forest fires.
SUBSTANCE: method involves suspending conical case with fire-extinguishing devices under helicopter and using powerful descending air flow produced by helicopter propellers. If necessary air flow may be mixed with mechanical particles (sand) or chemical additives for extinguishing fires. The case is produced of high-strength and light-weight material to provide case weight of not more than 2 tons.
EFFECT: possibility to use air flow going from helicopter propeller, reduced fuel consumption due to prevention of helicopter usage in shuttle mode, possibility of continuous fire extinguishing, increased helicopter park.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting means, particularly to extinguish ground and crown forest fires and to prevent spreading thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying fire-extinguishing gas from turbojet plant compressor nozzle to fire site, wherein gas is directed to burned-out and unburned matter along with simultaneous blowing off thereof in burned-out areas. Gas is delivered through removable compressor nozzle head flattened from both sides thereof. Nozzle head may rotate through 90° to divide fire front into parts to be separately extinguished.
EFFECT: increased efficiency along with reduced danger when extinguishing fire.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly to combat large-scale fires, including forest and steppe ones, fires in difficult-to-access areas (steep mountains, impassible taiga, jungle) and fire sites located near high-risk objects (highly explosive or high-temperature ones).
SUBSTANCE: device comprises stabilizer and vessel, both formed of thermoplastic material, as well as dispersing charge and fire-extinguishing substance located into vessel. The device also has explosive means and suspension system including cover plate with eyes and members enclosing vessel. Suspension system is connected with stabilizer bottom by means of flexible tie and is provided with releasing mechanism and with members providing forced detaching thereof from vessel.
EFFECT: prevention of scattering fragments of fire-extinguishing device after its operation, increased surface of fire-extinguishing substance contact with burning matter.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fire protection means, particularly to protect peat beds against fire or to prevent burning of compacted loose combustible materials, particularly pulp and paper industry waste materials.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming channels in peat bed surface in fire-risk areas during winter period; filling the channels and depressions with water; freezing thereof in the channels and depressions to moisten peat bed during water ice thawing. To protect ice against the influence of direct sunlight ice is covered with heat-insulation material, particularly with ground or peat layer. Water is fed from underground horizons located under the peat beds.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
FIELD: fire fighting, particularly movable fire-extinguishing devices.
SUBSTANCE: robotic apparatus comprises system to provide self-defense thereof against fire hazard and means to prevent twisting of fire-extinguishant delivery hose connecting fire-extinguisher with nozzle over the full circular operating range when nozzle is aimed at fire site.
EFFECT: possibility to operate in extreme conditions, increased reliability and simplified structure.
2 cl, 2 dwg