The method of formation, produced directly in orbit, the mirror-lens optical system and formed mirror-lens optical system on the basis of flexible mirrors
The invention relates to television technology, in particular applied to television systems in the far IR range. The technical result is the ability to create on-orbit space telescope with a large diameter of the mirror is equal to several tens of meters, with a slight mass of source material, which facilitates delivery of the telescope into orbit. The invention consists in that the segments connecting the support ring, install the brackets, a small mirror, a correcting lens and television unit. Further regulate the pressure in the volume formed by panels of film attached to the supporting ring. 2 AD. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.
The present invention relates to television technology, in particular applied to television systems in the far IR range.
The aim of the invention is to provide a method of forming, manufactured directly on the orbit, the mirror-lens optical system for the wavelength range of 8-14 microns and mirror-lens telescope system based on flexible mirrors to implement this method.
The increase and the sensitivity of the telescope depends on the input aperture of the optical system and rozstanie the performance of any telescope is affected by the optical characteristics of the earth's atmosphere . Therefore, all astronomical Observatory located in the mountains, at a considerable height. The last decade telescopes appear in the space on a stationary orbit. In the case of inference on stationary orbit are of great importance as the mass and the dimensions of the telescope. As the precision manufacturing of optical parts must be not worse than1/4wavelength operating range, typically all optical parts are manufactured by specialized companies and the entire ship into orbit. All of the above limits the size of the “big mirror” space telescope.
It should be noted that the size of the “big mirror” even ground-based telescope reach only a few meters (e.g., “large mirror telescope Observatory in Byurakan - 6 m).
As a prototype adopted lens / mirror lens Churrasco-Ross , shown in Fig.2. The lens consists of two spherical mirrors 1, 2, afocal compensator 3 and the television unit conversion and signal processing 4. Using the mirror part of the lens (mirror 1 and 2) is formed optical image on a target Converter light/the television signal conversion unit and processing Signoria is the possibility of creating a space telescope with the diameter of the “big mirror”, equal to several tens meters.
The technical result of the claimed is that the large part of the space telescope “big mirror” is created on the orbit, and the mass of the starting materials of this mirror is very small, which facilitates delivery of the telescope into orbit. Known variants of the formation of antennas for radio telescopes directly on the orbit of the items to be delivered into space when folded (for example, disclosed umbrella”). However, the resulting accuracy of forming thus a large telescope mirror is low and allows the use of this method for wavelengths of 1 mm or more. This is explained not only by the accuracy of the docking individual sectors and segments of the antenna, but also the fact that the radius of these antennas is not a continuous function. For operation in the far IR range and shorter-wavelength bands is proposed a method of forming the antenna (or mirror of a telescope) using a mirror on a flexible film.
The proposed method of formation, produced directly in orbit, the mirror-lens optical system for the wavelength range of 8-14 microns, consisting in the fact that the design is delivered folded and put p the mi to them two glued around the perimeter of the round panels polyimide (or any other transparent to the selected wavelength range) film, on the inner side of one of the panels caused the mirror for the selected range of wavelengths floor. Simultaneously with the ring segments to the place of Assembly take the brackets, a small mirror, a correcting lens and television unit, and on command from the Ground, an automatic Assembly of the telescope, consisting in the fact that the segments connecting the support ring, stretching, thus, glued cloth tapes, installing brackets, a small mirror, a correcting lens and television unit, adjust the pressure in the closed volume, transforming the surface with a mirror coating to the spherical surface, and working segments and alignment system is provided by the design, and the large curvature of the mirror is ensured accurate maintenance of differential pressure within the closed volume and space.
Implementation of the aforementioned method is telescopic system based on flexible mirrors for use in space, containing a spherical mirror, a correcting lens and television conversion unit and a signal processing, which introduced a flexible spherical mirror, a support ring and the mounting brackets, and the most basic part is a bearing ring, the cat is th lens and television unit conversion and signal processing, and to the supporting ring attached to the perimeter of the part, formed by two circular sheets of film, hermetically connected along the perimeter of the working area (with the exception of the Central part) of one of the sheets printed mirror coating, and the required curvature of the first mirror is obtained by creating a pressure difference at the boundary between media, shared film by pumping with a pump received in the amount of neutral gas having low absorption in the wavelength range of 8-14 microns, and the exact magnitude of this pressure difference is controlled by pressure sensors located in these environments, and the mirror and the correcting lens are arranged in such a way that their optical axes aligned, and rest periods guaranteed by design tolerances.
The proposed mirror-telescopic lens system shown in Fig.1. Structurally it consists of a rigid ring 1, which by means of a rigid cross-shaped brackets 5 are mirror 2 and the afocal correcting lens 6. This ring 1 is attached to the part made of the polyimide film. This item is a two round sheet of polyimide film thickness from a fraction to several tens of ICRI and transparent in a selected range of wavelengths film (for example, Mylar or polypropylene). When injected into the internal volume 3 of the neutral gas with minimal absorption coefficient in the wavelength range of 8-14 microns, these sheets will take a spherical shape. On the surface of the polyimide film 4 deposited aluminum mirror finish (except for the Central part). The curvature of the mirror depends on the pressure difference at the boundary between media, separated by a polyimide film. The pressure is monitored by pressure sensors 8 and 9, the signals from which are received on a special computer 11, which is the control device of the pressure control 10 in volume 3. Thus the proposed design is formed in the lens / mirror lens. The diameter of the spherical mirror 4 can be quite large (for example, several tens of meters). Telescopic system consists of a lens / mirror lens (mirrors 2, 4 and lens 6) and television conversion unit and a signal processing 7. The thus created telescopic system for use in space can be two to three orders of magnitude more fast than its counterpart, made on existing technology. Element 2 can be performed also on the basis of flexible, e.g lens (POS. 4, 2, 6) forms an optical image on the target Converter radiant energy/signal that passes the necessary processing in the TV unit conversion and video processing 7. The signals from the pressure sensors 8, 9 are received on a special computer 11, which by results of the analysis of these signals regulate the pressure in the vessel 3 by means of the control device pressure 10.
Mirror-lens optical system for the wavelength range of 8-14 microns, and the method of its creation can be widely used for highly sensitive telescopes, environmental monitoring systems and space exploration. The technological level of modern technology makes the embodiment of the method described above is very real.
1. Handbook of infrared technology. - M.: Mir, 1995, I. 2.
2. Volosov D. C. Photographic optics. - Art, 1978, page 345.
1. The method of forming the mirror-lens telescope system, consisting in the fact that the design is delivered folded and lead in working condition directly in orbit, characterized in that the design is delivered in the form of ring segments with attached two glued surface of one of the panels of the film applied mirror for the selected range of wavelengths floor, brackets, small mirrors, corrective lenses and television unit, on command from the Earth is manual or automatic Assembly of the telescope, consisting in the fact that the segments connecting the support ring, stretching glued cloth tapes, installing brackets, a small mirror, a correcting lens and television unit, adjust the pressure in the closed volume formed by glued around the perimeter of the panels of the film, turning the cloth with a mirror coating to the spherical surface of a large mirror, and working segments and alignment system is provided by the design, and the large curvature of the mirror is ensured accurate maintenance of the pressure difference inside a closed volume and space.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that all of the cloth is made of polyimide film.
3. Mirror-lens telescope system formed directly on orbit for use in space that contains the first spherical mirror, a correcting lens and television unit conversion and signal processing, characterized in that introduced support ring and the mounting brackets, two pressure sensor, the transmitter and the control unit of pressure, the most basic is the second spherical mirror, corrective lens and television unit conversion and signal processing, and to the supporting ring attached to the perimeter of the first spherical mirror, is made flexible in the form of two round films, hermetically joined at the perimeter, on the working surface, except the Central part, one of the films deposited mirror coating, and the required curvature of the first spherical mirror is obtained by creating the pressure regulating differential pressure environments shared by the films, and the exact magnitude of this pressure difference is controlled by pressure sensors located in these environments, and the first spherical mirror optically connected to the TV unit conversion and signal processing through the second spherical mirror and a correcting lens, and a pressure sensor connected to the transmitter, the output of which is connected to the volume formed by two round films, hermetically connected along the perimeter, through the pressure regulation.
parabolic and planar antennas;
flat reflectors of sunlight for illumination of individual sections of the Earth's surface at night;
flat reflectors of solar energy for transmission to the Ground as more environmentally friendly energy sources;
solar sails to provide moving SPACECRAFT) and their interplanetary travel
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: at least two dielectric layers are produced with preset thickness. Layers are disposed one onto the other to form pack of layers. Thickness of layer packs is subject to reduction and thicknesses of separate layers are similarly reduced by means of deforming layer packs to keep relation of thicknesses or relation of thicknesses of layers. Layer pack is disposed between two carrying layers before subjecting the layers to deformation. At least one carrying layer is formed from several separate layers, which are supposed to be disposed subsequently at the end of process of partial deformation at any previous layer of carrying layer. Separate layers of carrying layer can be overlayed onto previous separate layers of carrying layer.
EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; improved reflection factor.
FIELD: mirror systems of observation.
SUBSTANCE: coordinates of point of driver's eye and reference point at object to be observed in the driver mirror are measured by rule as well as reference point at mirror of transportation vehicle. Angles of inclination of mirror to coordinate planes are found from relations mentioned in formula of invention. Inclination of driving mirror to coordinate planes is determined. Random point at object of observation is preset and its coordinates are measured by means of measuring tape. Coordinates of point in mirror are calculated where the light beam reflects from the mirror and enters driver's eye. Procedure repeats many times for many random points at object of observation and coordinates of corresponding points of reflection at plane of mirror are found. Shape and sizes of mirror are determined by end points of reflection.
EFFECT: simplified determining of shape and sizes of mirror; improved precision of orientation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: optical instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for wide-band light reflecting. Reflecting surface has dielectric layers A, B and C. A layer is made of material having low refractivity, B layer is made of material with average refractivity and C layer is made of material having high reflectivity. Optical thickness of layers equals to λr/4, where λr is wavelength of middle part of interval having high refractivity. Sequence of layer alternation looks like (CDCABA)KCBC, where K>=and has to be integer. Spectrum range with high reflectivity is widened due to shift in adjacent bandwidths at opposite sides along wavelength scale.
EFFECT: widened spectrum range with higher refractivity.
FIELD: optical industry.
SUBSTANCE: mirror can be used when producing optical reflecting systems in lasers and experimental physics. Mirror has transparent dielectric base. Metal coating is applied onto the base. Coating has to nanoparticles, for example, silver nanoparticles, which have plasma resonance at electromagnet radiation frequency. The mirror intends to reflect the radiation. Linear dimensions are far smaller than the radiation wavelength. Nanoparticles are applied uniformly onto surface of the base to cover 15% of its area. Thickness of mirror is reduced to minimal size; size of spot of reflected radiation in focus is reduced.
EFFECT: reduced thickness of mirror; improved precision.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: integral micromechanical mirror has substrate to place four electrodes onto it. Four additional electrodes of capacitive movement converters are disposed onto the substrate in such a manner to form flat capacitor with mirror element. One additional fixing plate is disposed under mirror element directly onto substrate. There are torsion beams placed in such a way that they connect mirror element with fixing plate. Mirror element, torsion beams, electrodes of electrostatic drives and capacitive converters as well as fixing plate are made of semiconductor material. Area of substrate used for placing integral mirror is reduced. Position of mirror element is subject to control relatively the substrate.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation.
FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.
EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical observation devices for use on automobiles and other vehicles. proposed system of mirrors contains rear view mirror 7, outer side mirrors 8, 9 and inner side mirror 5, 6, additional mirrors 10, 11, 12 and front mirror 4. Front mirror 4 and inner side mirrors 5, 6 are arranged in driver's field of vision. Front mirror 4 consists of separate adjustable parts 4а, 4б, 4в and it reflects panorama of spaces behind and at both sides from driver from rear view mirror 7 and outer side mirrors 8, 9. Inner side mirrors 5, 6 reflect directly parts of spaces arranged at both sides from driver which are not seen in outer side mirrors 8, 9.
EFFECT: provision of safety on the road owing to panoramic reflection of rear and side spaces around vehicle.
5 cl, 25 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical devices of automobiles, particularly, to front view mirrors. Front view device for automobiles with steering wheel at right side contains two mirrors installed inside automobile at angle relative to each other with possibility of providing periscopic effect and reflecting front part of road. Like sizes of mirrors and distance between mirrors and between mirrors and driver are in following relationship: B1:B2=(L1+L2):L2 where B1, B2 are like sizes of reflecting surfaces of first and second mirrors, respectively; L1, L2 are distances from first mirror to second mirror and from second mirror to driver, respectively.
EFFECT: improved quality of picture and reliability of front view device.
4 cl, 3 dwg