Improved systems and methods for the production and storage of liquefied under pressure natural gas

 

A system for receiving and storing liquefied under pressure of natural gas includes the installation of natural gas processing, suitable for receiving liquefied under pressure natural gas, and at least one tank suitable for the storage of liquefied under pressure natural gas. The tank contains a load bearing vessel made from a composite material containing a resin with a shear modulus of at least about 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures, and not bearing a load of the lining in contact with the vessel. This lining creates an impenetrable barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas. In the manufacture of the tank develop implemented on a computer project. Then make the lining and put it on the mandrel. Then impregnate with resin multiple fibers and wound them around the cladding by means of computer controlled winding machines. The use of the invention will reduce the cost of the tanks and improve their operational indicator. 8 N. and 18 C.p. f-crystals, 12 tab., 1 PL.

The invention relates to improved systems and to such systems and methods in which synergistically combines the advantages of installing a natural gas processing intended for obtaining liquefied under pressure of natural gas, with the advantages of the new tanks for storage and transportation of liquefied under pressure natural gas. More specifically, the present invention relates to such improved systems and methods that use a reservoir containing a load bearing vessel made from a composite material, and essentially impermeable not bearing the load of the lining in contact with the vessel.

Various terms are defined below. For convenience, the list of terms is immediately before the claims.

In published International application no WO 98/59085 entitled "Improved system for processing, storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (application relates to liquefied under pressure natural gas) described the tanks and transport vessels for storage and transportation by sea of liquefied under pressure natural gas in a wide range of pressure, comprising from about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa, and in a wide range of the temperature is written in the application related to liquefied under pressure natural gas, made of heavy-duty low-alloy steels containing less than 9% by weight of Nickel and having a tensile strength of more than 830 MPa and temperature of the transition from plasticity to fragility (TPP), i.e. a measure of the fracture, defined in the list, less than about -73C. As shown in the application relating to liquefied under pressure of natural gas at the preferred operating pressures and temperatures specified in this application, the steel containing 3% by weight of Nickel can be used in the coldest areas of the plant for producing liquefied under pressure of natural gas, which is where the process piping and equipment, whereas for the same equipment in a conventional device for producing liquefied natural gas (LNG) typically requires more expensive steel containing 9% by weight of Nickel, or aluminum (i.e., in the device for producing liquefied natural gas at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of about -162C). Preferably, in order to obtain an economic advantage compared to conventional installation of DL and the fracture toughness at operating conditions of the plant for producing liquefied under pressure natural gas is used for the manufacture of pipeline and associated components (e.g., flanges, valves and fittings, pressure vessels and other equipment of the plant for producing liquefied under pressure natural gas. In published International application no WO 99/32837 called "Technological components, tanks and piping, suitable for holding and transporting low temperature liquids" (application relates to technological components) described technological components, tanks and piping, suitable for holding and transporting low temperature liquids. More precisely, in the application related to the technological components of the described technological components, tanks and pipelines, which are made of heavy-duty low-alloy steels containing less than 9% by weight of Nickel and having a tensile strength of more than 830 MPa and temperature of the transition from plastic to brittle below -73C.

According to the application relating to liquefied under pressure natural gas, and the application related to the technological components of high-strength low-alloy steel is used when implementing the connection of the installation to obtain liquefied under pressure natural is the use of steel for the manufacture of tanks is not possible to obtain cost-effective means of storing and transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas on ships, any usage of steel in plants does not make sense, because there is no remedy for economical transportation of liquefied under pressure natural gas produced at the facility. Conversely, when the use of steel in the device for producing liquefied under pressure of natural gas leads to some reduction in cost compared with a conventional device for producing liquefied natural gas, due to significant simplification of the installation retrieves the most significant economic benefit and, therefore, lower costs. Due to the relatively simple construction of the device for producing liquefied under pressure of natural gas is considerably cheaper than a conventional device for producing liquefied natural gas similar performance. In addition, when the use of steel in the system of transportation of liquefied under pressure natural gas is economically feasible and provides a cost reduction compared with a conventional device for producing liquefied natural gas, the weight of steel tanks is large compared to the mass of the cargo - zijenah is ELU (EP) cargo capacity. Operating rate of the storage tanks of compressed fluid connected with the pressure (P) generated by cargo volume (V) of the tank, and weight (W) of the tank by the equation VC=PV/W. At present in the whole system (i.e., installing and handling), made of steel, there is no combination of settings for receiving liquefied under pressure of natural gas, with low cost and high operating rate, with the transport system on the basis of the tanks, which can hold liquid under pressure natural gas.

In U.S. patent No. 3830180 (Bolton) disclosed the use of composite cylindrical vessel with two walls, designed for normal transportation of liquefied natural gas, i.e., liquefied natural gas at atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of about -162C. the Cylindrical configuration of the vessel is preferred because it allows maximum use of the available space on the shipping vessel. However, load bearing internal wall of the vessel Bolton is designed for a maximum pressure of from about 345 to 414 kPa and therefore the vessel Bolton h, the hile cylindrical vessel Bolton theoretically can improve operational measure of cargo capacity when transporting certain fluid compared with the specified index for steel tanks, as described in the application relating to liquefied under pressure natural gas, construction of Bolton has certain economic and technical limitations regarding the size, method of manufacture and reliability. The use of a welded homogeneous material for a separate load-bearing walls reduces the potential for reducing the weight in connection with the use of composite vessel. In addition, the use of two of the walls leads to an excessive increase in the effective wall thickness, complicates the overall production technology that reduces the technical and economic feasibility of designs and finishes a poor use of space available on the ship for the transportation of cargo. Further, for the construction of Bolton need to use homogeneous material that can be welded for formation of load-bearing internal walls of the vessel, which consists of two domes welded to the cylindrical sekm to protect the welding seams by using complicated, prestressed reinforcement seams. Finally, welds in vessels Bolton are potential sources pitting and therefore cause premature destruction.

As in U.S. patent No. 5577630 (Blair et al.), and in U.S. patent No. 5798156 (Mitlitsky et al.) described is made with lined composite pressure vessels for the storage and transportation of compressed natural gas. In the first patent (Blair et al.) considered pressure vessels intended for use on ships for the transportation of compressed natural gas, manufactured by wrapping cladding layer of a composite material using methods of winding yarns, collapsing into a roll, the automated placement of fibers and other methods, well known to experts in the field of technology to which the invention relates, to obtain the shape of vessels approaching rectangular. In U.S. patent No. 5499739 (Greist, III et al.) described thermoplastic lining made of nylon-6 or nylon-11, intended for use in the pressure vessel to prevent the penetration of gas and allow operation at low temperatures, the lower limit is on process vessels according to this patent (Greist, III et al.) manufactured by a method of winding the yarn in a predetermined configuration around a thermoplastic lining. In U.S. patent No. 5658013 (Bees et al.) described fuel tank for vehicles intended for retention and distribution of both liquid and gaseous fuels, and suggested the possibility of using his designs are pure composite or glass fibre-reinforced composite material. Liquid fuel is discussed in the patent, is a conventional liquid fuel, which is at temperature and ambient pressure. In this patent, and in U.S. patent No. 5798156 (Mitlitsky et al.), previously discussed, the proposed good lining on the polymeric base with a metallic coating, which provide additional performance enhancements tanks/vessels. However, the complexity and, hence, the high cost of the deposition of metal and process of manufacturing cladding make tanks/vessels of these patents (Bees et al. and Mitlitsky et al.) suitable for use mainly in those areas where the main objective is to achieve maximum payload capacity, and therefore a small mass tanks/vessels aberer, in which the packaging material used for the formation of such a tank, attached to the layered structure, and a layer of aluminum foil is located on the layered structure or between its layers. However, none of the tanks considered in these publications, are not designed to accommodate liquids as at cryogenic temperatures (below -40C) and at high pressures, such as temperature and pressure liquefied under pressure natural gas.

The report Ladkany, S. G., entitled "Composite aluminum-fiberglass epoxy pressure vessels for transportation of LNG at intermediate temperature", published in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering Materials, volume 28 (Proceedings of the 4-th International Cryogenic Materials Conference, San Diego, California, USA, 10 Aug 14 Aug 1981. 1981, reviewed the design of pressure vessels for the transportation of liquefied natural gas at the temperature and pressure between the critical conditions, 191, 4,69 MPa, and atmospheric conditions, 106 K, 0.1 MPa. In this report (Ladkany) indicated that contains liquid nitrogen aluminum-composite vessel with a thin metal cladding, completely surrounded by and coupled with the upper winding covering her, was successfully tested in the Beech Aircraft Corporation. However, the use of welded aluminum vessel high pressure is the atur, having a large diameter of 6 m and a thickness of 47 mm This aluminum vessel is reinforced around the circumference of layers of high strength fiberglass polymer thickness 17 mm or layers of the upper winding of a thickness of 51 mm of oriented along one axis of polyester fibers, which to avoid forming given rigidity by means of cylindrical brackets, spaced at intervals of 2.16 meters which add rigidity to the bracket is also used for structural support and fixing freestanding vessel during transport and operation.

Despite the above advances in technology, there are still no systems and methods for receiving and storing liquefied under pressure of natural gas, which synergistically combines the benefits of installing a natural gas processing intended for obtaining liquefied under pressure of natural gas, with low cost of tanks, with a significantly increased operating rate intended for storage and transportation of liquefied under pressure natural gas. It seems advantageous to have such systems and methods.

Therefore, the task of this invention is blowing descriptions.

This task according to the first aspect of the invention is solved by a storage tank for liquefied under a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With natural gas, comprising: (a) load bearing vessel made from a composite material containing a resin with a shear modulus of at least 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures, and can withstand pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With; and (b) essentially no bearing capacity of the lining in contact with the vessel, creating an essentially impermeable barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas.

It is preferable that the vessel was made of many fibers of a material having a specific modulus of elasticity in tension is greater than about 6105cm and a specific tensile strength greater than about106see where the values are normalized relative to the density of the fibers.

It is advisable that the vessel was made of a multitude of filaments is mnia, (vi) boron filaments, (vii) polyethylene ultra-high molecular weight or (viii) mixtures thereof.

It is desirable that the vessel was made of a binder resin having the ability to absorb energy, at least about 65 j/m3.

It is possible that the vessel contained a composite matrix made of a resin selected from the group consisting of (i) multi-functional and bi-functional epoxy resins based on diglycidylether ester diphenylpropane, (ii) tetrachloroaniline epoxy resins, (iii) resin-based amine, (iv) polyester, (v) vinyl ether and (vi) furan.

It is useful to lining was made from a material selected from the group consisting of (i) a metal foil, (ii) a synthetic polymer film, (iii) metal foil on a thin polymer substrate, (iv) a polymeric substrate coated with a metal, and (v) a layered material containing metal liner disposed between the polymer layers.

It is preferable that the cladding has a thickness up to 1 mm

It is advisable to cladding was made of layered, containing at least one sheet of aluminum foil located between at least two sheets of Mylar.

It is desirable that the cladding Olga.

It is possible to veneer contained seamless aluminum.

This task according to the second aspect of the invention is solved by a storage tank for liquefied under a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With natural gas, comprising: (a) load bearing vessel made from a composite material containing a resin with a shear modulus of at least 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures, and can withstand pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With; and (b) essentially no load bearing metal liner in contact with the vessel, having a thickness up to about 1 mm and creates essentially impermeable barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas.

This task according to the third aspect of the invention solved through a tank containing essentially no bearing capacity, essentially impervious cladding and load bearing composite upper winding containing resin with a shear modulus of at least 3 GPA at krogenar suitable for storage of liquefied under pressure of natural gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62C.

This task according to a fourth aspect of the invention is solved by a method for manufacturing a tank for storing liquefied under a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With natural gas, containing a stage at which: (a) develop and implemented on a computer project of the tank by means of calculation by the finite element method, performed with the focus on optimizing the strength of the tank; (b) make the lining of the essentially impermeable material; (C) placed facing the mandrel; (d) impregnating resin multiple fibers made of materials having a specific modulus of elasticity in tension is greater than about 6105cm and a specific tensile strength greater than about 6106see where the values are normalized relative to the density of the fibers; (e) wound multiple fibers around the cladding by means of computer controlled filament winding machine, which is made with the possibility of being implemented on a computer project for obrabotala manufacturing a tank for storing liquefied under a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With natural gas, containing a stage at which: (a) develop and implemented on a computer project of the tank by means of calculation by the finite element method, performed with the focus on optimizing the strength of the tank; (b) make the lining of the essentially impermeable material; (C) placed facing the mandrel; (d) impregnating resin multiple fibers from materials selected from the group consisting of (i) glass, (ii) aramid, (iii) carbon, (iv) Kevlar (v) silicon carbide, (vi) boron filaments, (vii) polyethylene ultra-high molecular weight, or (viii) mixtures thereof; (e) wound multiple fibers around the cladding by means of computer controlled filament winding machine, which is made with the possibility of being implemented on a computer project for the education of carrying the load of the vessel.

It is preferable to stage (b) forming a cladding of a material selected from the group consisting of (i) a metal foil, (ii) a synthetic polymer film, (iii) metal foil on a thin polymer substrate, (iv) a polymeric substrate coated with a metal, and (v) a layered material containing a metal cladding, Radu, at least two sheets of Mylar, (vii) at least one layer of composite material and at least one sheet of aluminum foil.

This task according to the sixth aspect of the invention is solved by a method of storing liquefied under a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With natural gas containing phase space liquefied under pressure of natural gas in at least one tank, with at least one reservoir contains (i) load bearing vessel made from a composite material containing a resin with a shear modulus of at least 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures; and (ii) is, essentially, not bearing the load of the lining in contact with the vessel, and the cladding creates an essentially impermeable barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas.

This task according to the seventh aspect of the invention is solved by a system for the receipt and storage of liquefied under pressure natural gas, comprising: (a) the installation of a natural gas processing designed dpri a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With; and (b) at least one vessel suitable for storage of liquefied under pressure of natural gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With containing (i) load bearing vessel made from a composite material containing a resin with a shear modulus of at least 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures; and (ii) is, essentially, not bearing the load of the lining in contact with the vessel, and the cladding creates an essentially impermeable barrier for liquefied pressurized gas.

Although it is preferred that the system include: (C) a means for transporting at least one tank holding liquid under pressure natural gas import terminal.

It is advisable to carrying load the vessel withstand pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of about -123With up to about -62C.

It is desirable that the installation of a natural gas processing contain at least one technological component, fabricated and the e more than about 830 MPa and temperature of the transition from plasticity to the fragility of lower than about -73C.

It is possible to install a natural gas processing essentially consisted of: (a) equipment for the reception of the injected gas, suitable for removal of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas; (b) dewatering equipment suitable for removing water from natural gas; (C) equipment for liquefying suitable for the liquefaction of natural gas.

This task according to the eighth aspect of the invention is solved by the method of preparation and storage of liquefied under pressure natural gas containing phase, according to which: (a) receive liquid under pressure natural gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With by processing natural gas, using the installation of natural gas processing, suitable for receiving liquefied pressurized gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With; and (b) pumping sidin tank suitable for storing fluid at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62And contains (i) load bearing vessel made from a composite material containing a resin with a shear modulus of at least 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures; and (ii) is, essentially, not bearing the load of the lining in contact with the vessel, and the cladding creates an essentially impermeable barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas.

It is preferable to further: (C) transported specified, at least one tank holding liquid under pressure natural gas import terminal.

It is advisable to carrying load the vessel performed withstand pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of about -123With up to about -62C.

It is desirable that the installation of a natural gas processing include at least one technological component, made of heavy-duty low alloy steel containing less than 9% by weight of Nickel and having a tensile strength greater than about 830 MPa and temperature of the transition from plasticity to the fragility of lower than about -73C.

Perhaps todo about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With using the installation of a natural gas processing included the stages on which: (a) removing liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas in the equipment for reception of the injected gas; (b) removing water from natural gas dewatering equipment; (C) szhizhajut natural gas equipment for liquefaction.

The advantages of the present invention are explained below with reference to the drawings, in which

Fig.1 - overview illustration of the systems and methods of the present invention; and

Fig.2 is a view with the local section of the tank according to the invention; and

Fig.3 is a cross-section of the tank according to the invention having a spherical geometry;

Fig.4 is a cross-section of the tank according to the invention, having a flattened spheroidal geometry with variable size;

Fig.5 is a cross-section of the tank according to the invention, having a flattened spheroidal, dome part, attached to a relatively short cylindrical section;

Fig.6 is a vertical section of the hull of a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas, illustrating the placement of two tanks according to the invention having a tapered spheroidals the invention, with the spherical geometry and located in the hull of the vessel for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas;

Fig.7B is a side view in section of a layout of several tanks according to the invention having a spherical geometry, in the case of a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas;

Fig.7C is a top view in section of a layout of several tanks according to the invention having a spherical geometry, in the case of a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas;

Fig.8 is a vertical section of the hull of a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas containing multiple tanks according to the invention, having a cylindrical geometry with different height;

Fig.9 is a vertical section of the hull of a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas containing multiple tanks according to the invention, having a cylindrical geometry with the same height;

Fig.10 is a front view in section of a layout of horizontal tanks according to the invention, having a cylindrical geometry, in hull for transparently located tanks according to the invention, with cylindrical geometry, in the case of a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas;

Fig.10C is a top view in section of a layout of horizontal tanks according to the invention, having a cylindrical geometry, in the case of a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas;

Fig.11 (prior art) is a schematic illustration of a typical installation for receiving a conventional liquefied natural gas;

Fig.12 is a schematic illustration of a typical installation according to the present invention for obtaining liquefied under pressure natural gas.

Although the invention will be described with reference to preferred options for implementation, however, the invention is not limited to them. Conversely, the invention assumes covers all alternatives, modifications and equivalents, which may be within the essence and scope of the invention defined in the attached claims.

In accordance with the objectives of this invention has developed a system for the receipt and storage of liquefied under pressure natural gas. The system includes: (a) the installation of a natural gas processing, prirodno is up to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62With; and (b) at least one vessel suitable for storage of liquefied under pressure of natural gas, with at least one reservoir contains (i) load bearing vessel made from a composite material; and (ii) is, essentially, not bearing the load of the cladding, which is in contact with the vessel, with lining creates for liquefied under pressure natural gas, essentially impermeable barrier. Carrying load a vessel capable of withstanding pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of about -123With up to about -62C. Preferably, the system of this invention includes (C) means for transporting at least one storage tank, preferably at the import terminal (specified in the list attached at the end of the description). In addition, a method for the production and storage of liquefied under pressure natural gas. The method comprises the stage of: (a) the construction of natural gas processing, suitable for receiving liquefied pressurized gas at a pressure of from �D/chr/176.gif">With; (b) obtaining liquefied under pressure natural gas using reprocessing facilities; (C) pumping liquefied under pressure of natural gas in at least one tank, and in this way, at least one vessel suitable for storing fluid at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of about -123With up to about -62And contains (i) load bearing vessel made from a composite material; and (ii) on the merits, not bearing the load of the cladding, which is in contact with the vessel, while the cladding creates an essentially impermeable barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas. Preferably the method of this invention also includes a stage (C) transporting at least one storage tank, preferably at the import terminal (specified in the list attached at the end of the description).

Used in this application, the term "composite" or "composite material" refers in the broad sense of structural material containing fibers embedded in the adhesive. For example, without limitation this invented the CI and/or metals; and (ii) the adhesive may include resins, such as epoxy resin, particularly a low-temperature epoxy resin. Used in this application, the term "natural gas" means a gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons, source formed under the earth's surface, which contains mainly methane and may also contain ethane, propane, butane, and higher hydrocarbons and/or impurities, including without limitation this invention, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and helium. Used in this application, the expression "facility for processing natural gas, suitable for receiving liquefied under pressure natural gas" encompasses all activities necessary to prepare the unit for receiving liquefied under pressure of natural gas, including without limitation this invention the conversion of an existing installation or construction of a new installation.

The present invention is economical because it synergistically combines the advantages of installing a natural gas processing intended for obtaining liquefied under pressure of natural gas, with the advantages of the new tanks for storage and transportation of siranosian without limiting this invention, according to which natural gas produced from a field of 200 natural gas, is pumped into the installation 205 natural gas processing by means of well-known experts in the field of technology to which the invention relates, for example, by pipeline 210 natural gas. Achieving the benefits of installing 205 natural gas processing performed as a unit for the production of liquefied under pressure natural gas according to the present invention consists, mainly, of the equipment for receiving the injected gas, equipment for dewatering and equipment for liquefaction. Preferably the installation 205 for receiving liquefied under pressure of natural gas are located close to the export terminal 215 having one or more tanks 220 for storage. In one embodiment of the invention liquefied under pressure natural gas from the unit 205 for receiving liquefied under pressure natural gas serves in one or more tanks 220 for storage and export terminal 215. Then one or more tanks 220 for storing, containing liquefied under pressure natural gas, is placed in another embodiment, liquefied under pressure natural gas from one or more reservoirs 220 for storage and export terminal 215 is pumped into one or more tanks 220 to be stored on a marine transport vessel 230, for example, the pressure pipe (not shown in Fig.1) coming from one or more reservoirs 220 for storage and export terminal 215 to one or more reservoirs 220 to be stored on a marine transport vessel 230. In yet another embodiment, liquefied under pressure natural gas from the unit 205 for receiving liquefied under pressure of natural gas is pumped either simultaneously in one or more tanks 220 for storage and export terminal 215 and one or more reservoirs 220 to be stored on a marine transport vessel 230 or only in one or more tanks 220 to be stored on a marine transport vessel 230. Preferably any composite tank 220 for storing includes load bearing vessel made from a composite material, and, in fact, not bearing the load of the cladding, which is in contact with the vessel, in accordance with the present invention cladding creates an essentially impermeable barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas. After one or more tanks 220 to be stored on a marine transport vessel the deposits are transported by sea 232 to the import terminal 235 and unload at the import terminal 235 for use by consumers; or alternatively, without limiting this invention, the consumers use liquefied under pressure natural gas from one or more reservoirs 220 in a slightly different way, for example, by direct pumping of liquefied under pressure of natural gas from one or more reservoirs 220 on the marine transport vessel 230 in one or more tanks 220 on the import terminal 235 or in the pipeline (the means for pumping and piping of Fig.1 is not shown). Thus, using this invention, natural gas from remote fields 200 natural gas economically converted into liquefied under pressure natural gas and transported for use by consumers.

Tanks for liquefied under pressure natural gas

Developed tank suitable for the storage of liquefied under pressure of natural gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62C. This tank contains: (a) load bearing vessel made from a composite material, and the vessel �/176.gif">With up to about -62With; (b) essentially, not bearing the load of the cladding, which is in contact with the vessel, while the cladding creates an essentially impermeable barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas.

Carrying load vessel

Preferably the bearing load of the tank vessel of the present invention are made of a composite material containing high-quality fibers having the following properties: dimensional stability, structural integrity, high tensile strength, high modulus of elasticity in tension or high rigidity and, in addition, the low cost, which will become apparent from this description of the invention. Although it is preferred that these high-quality fibers were made from materials having a specific modulus of elasticity in tension is greater than about 6105cm, and a specific tensile strength greater than about 6106see, the values are normalized relative to the density of the fibers.

Fiber, which without limiting this invention can be used in the manufacture of load-bearing vessels for vessels of this Isover, in addition to other options, such as silicon carbide, boron filaments and polyethylene ultra-high molecular weight (PSVM), with the specified polyethylene ultra-high molecular weight preferably has a molecular weight of more than about 106.

Preferably the vessels tanks of the present invention are made using resin, preferably thermotherapies resin for formation of the matrix and provide largely uniform distribution of the load on the fibers. Preferably the binder resin has the following properties: provides good adhesion between matrix and fibers and easily impregnates the fiber; low viscosity and good wetting characteristics of the fibers, high modulus of elasticity in tension and satisfactory shear modulus in terms of cryogenic temperatures; good characteristics of energy absorption and high resistance to fracture or plasticity to maximize resistance to destruction. Preferably the resin has a shear modulus of at least 3 GPA and the ability to absorb energy, at least about 65 j/m3.

Resin, which without limiting this invention can be used to obtain the matrix for bearing load, the AK multifunctional epoxy resin and the bifunctional epoxy resin based diglycidylether ether or diphenylolpropane, tetrachloroaniline (TGMD-) epoxy resin and aromatic/heterocyclic glycidamide resin. Preferably the resins are low-temperature epoxy resin. Hardeners for resins can be basic (e.g., based on the amine) or an acid (for example, based on the anhydride, polyphenol or politial) reagents. In addition, the hardeners can be a catalyst, such as tertiary amines. Further, the binder resin may include thermotherapies resin reinforced thermoplastic resins, such as, for example, polysulfonamide, polyetheramine or polyalanine. These resins may be based on the amine, polyester, vinyl ester, or furan. Preferably the composite material used in the manufacture of the vessel of the present invention is mainly non-metallic, and more preferably, when it is completely non-metallic.

As is known to experts in the art, the composite vessel is usually made by impregnation of the selected fibers selected glue and winding impregnated fibers over a mandrel of the desired diameter. The winding continues until, until you get the tank wall thickness. It is up to the mandrel before the winding is impregnated fibers for the formation of a composite vessel by wrapping lining.

Not bearing the burden facing

Preferably the lining of the tanks of the present invention have a relatively thin wall and not have any ability to withstand load. The lining is made from essentially impervious material, preferably having the following properties: high impact strength at cryogenic temperatures, high resistance to tearing, the rate of penetration of gas in relation to helium, which is preferably less than 10-5cm3/C and mechanical integrity among other preferred properties, which will become apparent from this description of the invention.

Essentially impervious materials, which, without limiting the invention, can be used in the manufacture of linings for reservoirs of the present invention include, for example, at least one sheet of metal foil, synthetic resin film, metal foil on a thin plastic strip or on a substrate coated metal polymeric substrate, or a laminate comprising a metal inner layer located between the polymer layers. Without limiting the invention suitable metal foil includes, for example, aluminum which I am acting as a barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas; the lining should have a thickness sufficient to solve this problem. In addition, the cladding must be strong enough to be able to turn without danger of rupture, especially during the initial stage of winding the composite material.

In one embodiment of the tank according to this invention, seamless aluminum cladding is used as a barrier that prevents ingress of cargo, such as liquefied under pressure natural gas. In this embodiment, seamless aluminum cladding preferably has a thickness of only up to about 1 mm, and more preferably, if only from approximately 0.5 mm to approximately 1 mm To substantially reduce the amount of welding for this invention is particularly preferable to use, seamless, metal facing. It is preferable to seamless metal cladding used in the tank according to this invention, did not need welding. The exception of the welding seams in the lining is preferred to prevent the formation of shells and result in other difficulties associated with them. However, for known processes thermoabrasion seamless aluminum and thereby limiting the diameter of the tank, with seamless aluminum lining according to this invention. In addition, due to the predilection of aluminum foil to rupture difficulties in handling thin seamless aluminum cladding increases with increasing diameter of the cladding. In an alternative embodiment of this invention, which largely eliminated restrictions on the dimensions, the lining is made of layered made of (i) at least one sheet, essentially impenetrable material, which functions primarily as a barrier to the penetration of the cargo; (ii) at least two sheets, at least one prolivajushhih material having a higher strength and/or resistance to tearing than, essentially impenetrable material to cover, essentially impenetrable material. With regard to liquefied pressurized gas does not create restrictions example (i) a suitable, essentially impenetrable material is aluminum foil, (ii) a suitable material of the outer layer with the corresponding density is polyethylene terephthalate, and (iii) a suitable material of the outer layer with the corresponding resistance to tearing is woven and, concluded between at least two layers of polyethylene terephthalate or at least one layer of polyethylene terephthalate and at least one layer of Dacron, can be used instead of seamless aluminum as a lining to prevent the penetration of gas. In one embodiment, the layered cladding made of at least one sheet of aluminum foil, which functions primarily as a barrier to penetration. Preferably aluminum foil has a thickness of only from about 0,0127 mm to about 0,0254 mm Two sheets of polyethylene terephthalate, each of which preferably has a thickness of about 0,0127 mm, is used to cover the aluminum foil that increases the strength of the final laminate. If desired, to facilitate handling at least one sheet or layer of Dacron impose on at least one of the sheets of polyethylene terephthalate as a reverse layer of the multilayer material providing resistance to tearing.

In some applications of the present invention, it is desirable to use at least one sheet of aluminum foil as a barrier to penetration. However, due to certain difficulties, with catarino on top of aluminum foil for the formation of bearing the load of the vessel is not feasible. Variant of the principle of layered material in which, in addition, excluded these difficulties, is to minimize at least one initial layer of composite material together with at least one sheet, and preferably at least two sheets of aluminum foil. The edges of the aluminum foil are connected to each other, for example using an appropriate adhesive or a method of joining by fusion. Structural layers of a composite material consistently increasing for aluminum, wrapped, at least one layer of composite material. This implementation enables the initial winding of composite material over the aluminum film on the mandrel without breaking the aluminum. Preferably in the case of a typical composite tank for liquefied pressurized gas, the thickness of the initial layer of composite material is about 0,16 mm

In another embodiment of this invention, the cladding of the tank according to this invention includes, without limiting the invention, at least one layer of the coating, such as coating, consisting of essentially 100% solids polyurethane, nanesena the WMD invention. Such coatings consisting mainly of 100% solid polyurethane, issued by the industry and is currently used as barriers to moisture on the outer surface of the steel or composite tanks. In epoxy, used to connect the fibers to form a composite material construction for a tank according to this invention, typically formed microcracks. In epoxy microcracks increase the permeability of the composite material, while facing requirement perform the function of barrier penetration. Unlike epoxy resin composed mainly of 100% solid polyurethane microcracks essentially not formed. So, essentially, continuous polyurethane coating, in which cracks do not occur at cryogenic temperatures, performs the function of the lining.

The construction of tanks

Preferably the reservoir according to the present invention has the advantage, due to the use of the latest achievements in the design and manufacture of composite tanks and perform analysis with high intensity calculations on the basis Temperatury epoxy resins, allow the use of finite elements (AMCA) to determine the exact configuration of the coil winding of the fibers to obtain the necessary strength and rigidity with a very accurate quantitative estimates in all directions (axes) of the tank according to this invention. This is important because the strength of composite anisotropic reservoir, and an exact knowledge of the weak spots in the geometry of the structure allows optimal use of the material. Preferably the configuration of the coil winding fibres are estimated using finite elements, and the manufacturer carried out using a computer controlled equipment, including without limitation this invention, the filament winding machines and other process equipment. A direct link between the finite elements, the output of machine design (MP) and the winding process controlled by a computer, improves accuracy, minimizes subjective errors and results in substantially reproducible and consistent with the requirements of the products, as well as the optimized characteristics of the reservoirs. In combination with the automation of the manufacturing process retabulate is provided a computer analysis of the rate of receipt of data and control of technological modes when performing operations with the resin, and with the fibers.

More specifically, the tanks of this invention is preferably manufactured using advanced winding process using a machine for winding on many axes, so that in case of use of a particular composite material to obtain the exact configuration of the coil winding with optimized strength. In the exact configurations of the coil winding are combined cylindrical or hook winding and helical or polar winding, and the winding angles determined by analysis by the finite element method, to optimize the strength of the tank is also performed in the area of transition from the cylinder to the dome. In addition, the corners of the windings expect to avoid the sliding of the fibers during manufacture of the transition region from the cylinder to the dome without the need for additional support. Preferably the filament winding machines controlled by computer, allowing you to achieve a high degree of automation and precision winding. Using the computer to control the exact placement of the fibers at predetermined curved surfaces. To further reduce the time of winding, in the case of a winding, preferably consisting of a large number of threads, fibers, Napili liquefied under pressure natural gas

As described above, the tanks for storage and transportation of liquefied pressurized gas according to the present invention preferably contain carrying load the vessel, as for example, the winding of the composite material and generally not bearing capacity, essentially impermeable lining.

In Fig.2 depicts an implementation option of the tank 5 according to the invention, which contains a composite vessel 12 made of fibers, such as carbon, glass, or mixed, of carbon and glass embedded in low-temperature epoxy matrix, and the lining 10 made of, essentially impenetrable material, such as seamless aluminum, which creates a barrier for liquefied under pressure of natural gas contained in the tank 5. It is preferable for the formation of the epoxy matrix fiber immediately before the winding is impregnated with a resin, preferably termotorgmash resin. Composite vessel 12 can withstand structural loads, including the load of the internal pressure of the tank 5. The lining 10 is completely surrounded by a composite vessel 12. Preferably, the reservoir 5 is protected outer coating 14 made of acestei adverse environmental effects. For example, without limiting this invention, the outer coating 14 may be made of polyurethane. In addition, the reservoir 5 may include a mounting device. For example, as shown in Fig.2, the reinforcing bulge 16 is made at the lower end of the tank 5 to pair with mounting enclosure (not shown in Fig.2). The design of the fixing fences may be of any typical construction well known to specialists in this field of technology. In the tank 5 enhancing the thickening 16 is wound in one piece with a composite vessel 12. This is done to obtain substantial economic benefits, but also for improving the structural strength and integrity of the junction between the mounting device and the reservoir 5. In those applications where it is desirable for additional reinforcement of the tank 5, for example in the case of transportation of liquefied under pressure natural gas through a particularly turbulent seas, provide additional fastening means. In one embodiment, the vertical straps (not shown in Fig.2) made of a material appropriate for the application of strength, for example from fiber-reinforced plastic, prikra strengthen the outer surface of the tank 5. These vertical straps can be, for example, from the structural elements forming the roof of the tank 5, the carrier vessel for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas. Preferably at the upper end of the tank 5 is made nozzle 20 to provide access to the tank 5, for example, for loading and unloading of liquefied under pressure natural gas. In one embodiment, the nozzle 20 is derived from a metal thickening (not shown in Fig.2) installed before winding the composite material of the composite vessel 12. Metal thickening wrapped composite material, ensuring a tight and high-strength boundary in continued access to the tank 5.

Without limiting this invention, the composite vessel 12 may be made from any combination of fibers and resin, including glass, aramid, carbon, boron fibers, fibers of silicon carbide and the polymer matrix composites.

The table provides a comparison of key parameters for a typical steel tank and a typical tank according to the invention (referred to in the table "composite tank") and identified the main, have a diameter of 4.6 m and a length of 45.7 m the table shows that thermal conductivity of a composite material used for the manufacture of composite tank, better than the conductivity of steel, more than an order of magnitude. In addition, the weight of the composite tank less than 30% of the weight of comparable steel tank. Therefore, due to the lighter weight of the composite tank sludge typical vessel for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas, carrying a specified load in composite tanks, compared with a draft of the transport vessel carrying the same cargo in steel tanks of comparable size. Accordingly, reduced requirements for steel hull of a vessel carrying liquefied under pressure natural gas. In addition, operating indicator (EP) for the composite tank more than 3 times higher performance indicator for steel tank, for example, about 7000 m compared to about 1800 m

Variations of the geometries of tanks

Alternative embodiments of the vessel of this invention shown in figures 3-5. Options geometric perplexedly spheroid with a variable size, it is shown in Fig.4; and also shown in Fig.5 the combination of the flattened spheroidal dome parts, attached to a relatively short cylindrical section, they are all quite similar to the standard cylindrical configuration shown in Fig.2. The flexibility afforded an automated winding machine and direct computer connection process design, preparation of drawings and manufacturing allows tanks to configurations, optimizing design characteristics. As is well known to specialists in the field of technology to which the invention relates, when the spherical configuration of the steel tank is optimized using steel; similarly, when flattened spheroid configuration of the tank according to the present invention optimizes the use of composite material. In other geometric shapes, such as cylindrical, for construction usually requires more material, such as steel or a composite material, but the available space on the storage vessel is typically used more efficiently than spherical or flattened spheroid configuration. However, in case applied the pressure natural gas optimal design preferably based on technical and economic optimization of the whole system of transportation of liquefied under pressure natural gas including the tank according to this invention, a vessel for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas and attached subsystems. The optimization process includes taking into account (i) subsystems, consisting of piping, valves and fittings, (ii) other subsystems, especially necessary for the safe operation of the system, (iii) subsystems mounting structures, (iv) size of the tank (which affect the width of the transport vessel) and (v) the layout of the tanks on a transport ship.

Insulated tanks

If necessary, the tanks used in the methods and systems according to this invention, can be isolated; however, typically, isolation is not necessary, when the tanks are transported on the marine transport vessel, because the insulation is part of the mounting means of marine transport vessel. When the tank according to this invention is used without limiting this invention in certain applications, for example, (i) in the terrestrial distribution systems for refuelling vehicles with liquefied under pressure natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG) or other low temperature fluids, as russmeister pipelines for the transportation of liquefied under pressure natural gas liquefied natural gas or other low temperature fluids, as discussed in publication of the International application no WO 98/59084 called "Pipeline distribution network systems for transportation of liquefied natural gas, and (iii) storage and delivery intended for storing liquefied fuel under pressure natural gas and the delivery of on-demand fuel liquefied under pressure natural gas for combustion in the engines, as discussed in publication of the International application no WO 98/59164 called "LNG fuel storage and delivery systems for natural gas powered vehicles", it is preferable that the tanks had proper insulation. In addition, pipelines and other details of such systems made of composite materials preferably include appropriate insulation. To avoid doubt, it is possible to isolate the tanks according to this invention, which are used in Maritime transportation; however, typically, isolation is not necessary, because the insulation is part of the mounting means of marine transport vessel.

However, in certain applications, for example, in systems refuelling of vehicles referred to in the preceding paragraph and to prevent the formation of liquefied air at a low temperature of the outer surface of the tank according to this invention, piping and other components. It is preferable that the insulation was compatible with the composite material. Insulation must also have good adhesion characteristics at low temperatures to prevent cracking or breaking of the clutch, which otherwise may occur due to cyclic temperature. In addition, the insulation must be compatible with the composite material according to the characteristics of low-temperature deformation. In the case of liquefied under pressure natural gas range temperature change during cyclic temperature can be from about 60 toWith up to about 132That results in the relative deformation only due to temperature changes, component from 2.8 to 5.4 microns per millimeter. This deformation increases the mechanical deformation caused by excessive pressure in the tank or in the pipe (called liquefied under pressure natural gas). For the most part foams with closed cells misalignment or difference of thermal expansion coefficient relative to the composite substrate can be the temperature. Preferred insulating materials for tanks according to the present invention have found the difference of thermal expansion coefficient on the order of magnitude smaller than the foam insulation materials with closed cells. Insulation material should also have good dimensional stability or low shrinkage, and acceptable thermal conductivity. The preferred insulating material should have a thermal conductivity below 0,04 W/(mK). Briefly, the preferred characteristics of the insulation material are the following: constructive (tensile, shear and compression) integrity at cryogenic temperatures, compatibility characteristics of low-temperature deformation, flexibility at low temperatures and good adhesion (composite substrate at low temperatures), dimensional stability (small shrinkage) and acceptable thermal conductivity.

As the insulating material can be used for the connection of certain classes. In tanks of this invention, it is possible to use a group of foamed materials, such as polypropylene and polyethylene materials that meet the requirements is usually manifest instability in vacuum, it is not intended that the tanks according to the invention for transporting liquefied under pressure of natural gas will be exposed to vacuum. Under given temperature conditions storage of liquefied under pressure of natural gas in the tanks according to the present invention without limiting this invention, some well-known foam materials, such as polyurea, can be used in essentially unconsolidated form, for example, in the form of a honeycomb core encased between layers of polyisocyanurate for the formation of layered insulating material with optimal characteristics. For ease of use you can also use spray form polyisocyanurate and polyurethane and molded polyurethane insulation materials. After winding the composite pipeline or reservoir can be applied thermoplastic or thermotherapies resin and implement cooling to obtain the finished insulation. To meet the requirements of many applications of the resin should have a low coefficient of water absorption. Preferred resins may include CTD-620 from the firm's Composite Technology Development Inc., Duchamp is servoir.

The layout of the tanks according to the invention on a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas

Various options for the layout of reservoirs alternative configuration according to the invention on a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure of natural gas intended for use in the systems and methods of the present invention, shown in figures 6-10C. For example, in Fig.6 shows two tanks 50 and 50’ according to the invention, arranged side by side along the width of the housing 53 of the marine vessel for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas. In the embodiment shown in Fig.6, the nozzles 52, 52’ of the reservoirs 50, 50’ are directed in opposite directions. In figures 7A, 7B and 7C illustrates a typical marine transport ship designed for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas. This model of the marine vessel 60 for transporting liquefied pressurized gas attached five tanks 62 standard spherical shape. The number and size of tanks required to transport a given quantity of liquefied under pressure p is raised to the invention, from such as the density of liquefied under pressure natural gas, cargo capacity of the vessel and the power of the propulsion of the vessel, which without limiting this invention are a few examples. Fig.7A is a front view in section of a tank according to this invention having a spherical geometry and located in the hull of the vessel for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas. Fig.7B is a side view in section of a layout of several tanks according to the invention having a spherical geometry, in the case of a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas. Fig.7C is a top view in section of a layout of several tanks according to the invention having a spherical geometry, in the case of a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas.

The orientation of the tanks according to the invention inside a vessel (ship) for the transportation of liquefied under pressure of natural gas affects the shape of the hull of the vessel and, consequently, on the hydrodynamics, for example, to drag or speed transport vessel. As a rule, in the case of use case design is ical and driving performance of the transport vessel. In the case of vertical tanks on a transport ship have to compromise between the height of the tanks and the hull shape. In Fig.8 shows that the height of the tanks 70 and 73 located in the shell 74, is made smaller than the height of the tanks 71 and 72, which are also located in the shell 74 to receive the housing 75 with sharper contours. The mounting means for the tanks 70, 71, 72 and 73 are well known to experts in the art and not shown in Fig.8. On the other hand, in Fig.9 all tanks 80, 81, 82 and 83 located in the shell 84, have essentially the same height, resulting in the housing 85 is optimal box-like shape. Mounting means for tanks 80, 81, 82 and 83 are well known to experts in the art and not shown in Fig.9. For this species in the plan (available space for tanks) marine transport vessel layout of the tanks shown in Fig.9, provides the greatest capacity at the expense of speed (or power) of the transporting vessel, compared with the layout of the tanks shown in Fig.8. Conversely, the arrangement of the tanks shown in Fig.8, compared with the layout of the tanks shown is Timothy tanks.

In an alternative embodiment, the horizontal location of tanks according to the invention on the marine transport vessel provides the greatest amount of cargo and leads to the fact that, as shown in figures 10A, 10B and 10C, the transport vessel has a hull with sharper contours. In Fig.10B shows that the length of the horizontal tank 92 is preferably selected such that each tank 92 can be supported in two places, for example in areas 93 and 94. As is well known to experts in the art, given the complex motion of a vessel carrying liquefied under pressure natural gas, simple configuration support in two places is preferred for horizontal tanks 92. As is also well known to specialists in this field of technology, supported in two places restrictions on the length of the tank 92. When, according to the transportation plan requires greater storage capacity than provided by the tanks, the length of which is allowed when using a leg in two places, a small increase in the complexity of configuration support will allow the use of the tanks of greater length.

The advantage of this from the bottom to transport tanks according to the invention, designed for transportation of liquefied under pressure of natural gas, compared with the costs associated with construction of the marine transport vessel for transporting steel tanks intended for the transportation of liquefied under pressure natural gas. Cost reduction is caused mainly by reducing the number of support tools required for tanks according to the invention compared to steel tanks for liquefied under pressure natural gas. In addition, devices that are associated with the tanks according to the present invention are less complex; and, as the transport ship easier, less steel is required for the housing, and a lower power needed to bring the ship in motion.

Installation for obtaining liquefied under pressure natural gas

New tanks of this invention make possible the process of obtaining liquefied under pressure of natural gas and the implementation of systems and transportation methods of the present invention, the use of which receive and store liquefied under pressure natural gas at gif">With up to about -62C. Preferably liquefied under pressure natural gas is produced and stored at a pressure in the range of about 1725 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature in the range of about -112With up to about -62C. is More preferable if liquefied under pressure natural gas is produced and stored at a pressure in the range of about 2415 kPa to about 4830 kPa and at a temperature in the range of about -101With up to about -79C. Even more preferably, if the lower boundary limits of pressure and temperature for liquefied under pressure of natural gas amount to about 2760 kPa and approximately -96C. Within the preferred limits of the perfect combination of temperature and pressure depend on the composition of natural gas to be liquefied, and economic considerations. Experts in the field of technology to which the invention relates can determine the influence of the composition by contacting the publications industry standards and/or performing calculations of the temperature of complete evaporation. In addition, experts in the field of technology to which Epsis to the publications industry standards. For example, one economic factor is that as lowering the temperature of liquefied under pressure natural gas energy required for cooling increases; however, at low temperature liquefied under pressure natural gas also increases the density of liquefied under pressure natural gas and, therefore, reduces the amount that must be transported. With increasing temperature liquefied under pressure natural gas pressure increases and more material is required for storage tanks and transport, but the cost of cooling is reduced and efficiency is increased.

The following description is directed primarily at identifying the economic benefits of the system of the present invention compared with the conventional system for producing liquefied natural gas. In Fig.12 schematically shows a typical system for producing liquefied under pressure natural gas according to the present invention. For comparison in Fig.11 (prior art) schematically illustrates a typical installation for an ordinary liquefied natural gas. As shown in Fig.Cavenago gas, equipment 152 for gas cleaning equipment 156 for dewatering and removal of mercury, equipment 163 for cooling, column 164 for gas washing, equipment 165 for the separation into fractions, equipment 166 for liquefaction and equipment 154 for the selection of nitrogen. Although the process unit of the present invention can be successfully used standard equipment for the liquefaction of natural gas, several stages required in a conventional device for producing liquefied natural gas, can be excluded, this significantly reduces the energy consumption required to cool the natural gas. Therefore, in the process of obtaining liquefied under pressure natural gas can to carry out the conversion of natural gas that must be consumed to provide energy to the usual process of obtaining liquefied natural gas, commodity, liquefied under pressure natural gas. In Fig.12 shows a stage implemented in the components of the system and method of obtaining liquefied under pressure of natural gas, with components preferably include (i) the apparatus 110 for receiving the injected gas, intended for the removal of liquid hydrocarbons, (ii) epidemically columns for the separation into fractions can be used for refrigerants, designed for use in the apparatus 114 for liquefaction. Alternatively, part or all of the refrigerant required for stage 114 liquefaction can be purchased and/or deliver from some other source. Well-known processes of liquefaction can be used to achieve the necessary low temperature liquefied under pressure natural gas. Such processes can be performed by, for example, a single refrigerant, multicomponent refrigerant cascade cycle cooling or a combination of these cycles. In addition, in the cooling process, you can use the turbine expansion. Compared with the conventional device for producing liquefied natural gas facility for liquefied under pressure natural gas according to the present invention significantly reduced the energy required for cooling, which leads to a significant reduction in capital costs, proportional to the reduction of operational costs and increase efficiency and reliability, resulting in significantly improved economic indicators of production of liquefied natural gas.

A comparison unit for production of liquefied under pressure Aza gives the following. In figures 11 and 12 shows that as the temperature of liquefaction in the installation of 108 for receiving liquefied under pressure natural gas (Fig.12) is higher than in a typical installation, 150 for receiving liquefied natural gas, is shown in Fig.11 (which is the usual liquefied natural gas at a temperature of about -162C and at atmospheric pressure), the equipment 152 for gas purification (Fig.11) designed to remove freezing components, such as carbon dioxide, n-pentane and heavier hydrocarbons, and benzene, which is necessary in a typical installation, 150 for receiving liquefied natural gas, is not usually required in the installation of 108 for receiving liquefied under pressure natural gas, as these occurring natural components usually will not freeze and will not cause difficulties due to clogging of the equipment to obtain liquefied under pressure of natural gas, due to the higher operating temperatures. If necessary, in the case of unusually high quantities of carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, n-pentane and heavier hydrocarbons or benzene in nature is a, you can add any equipment small capacity for gas cleaning in order to remove these components. In addition, in a typical installation, 150 for receiving the liquefied gas is necessary to remove nitrogen (equipment 154 for the selection of nitrogen, because nitrogen must not remain in the liquid phase during the normal transportation of liquefied natural gas, which is at atmospheric pressure. In the installation of 108 for receiving liquefied under pressure natural gas there is no need to remove moderate amounts of nitrogen from injected gas, because the nitrogen will remain in the liquid phase together with liquefied hydrocarbons at operating pressures and temperatures of the process of obtaining liquefied under pressure natural gas. In addition, in a typical installation, 150 for receiving liquefied natural gas is removed mercury (equipment 156 mercury removal). Since the unit 108 for receiving liquefied under pressure natural gas operates at much higher temperatures than a conventional plant 150 for receiving liquefied natural gas, there is no need to use aluminum tanks, piping and other equipment ustanovlyeniya liquefied under pressure natural gas does not require equipment to remove mercury. The possibility of exclusion of the equipment needed for gas purification, screening, nitrogen and removal of mercury in obtaining the composition of natural gas, provides significant technical and economic advantages.

In the installation of 108 for receiving liquefied pressurized gas, you can use the processes described in the following publications and jointly consider patent applications: (i) publication of the International application no WO 98/59206 entitled "Improved multi-component refrigeration process for liquefaction of natural gas"; and (ii) in the provisional application for U.S. patent No. 60/172548 called "Continuous expansion pre-cooling cycle for natural gas liquefaction".

In Fig.11 shows that the liquefied natural gas produced in a typical installation, 150 for receiving liquefied natural gas is stored in one or a few tanks 151 for storing near export terminal. In Fig.12 shows that liquefied under pressure natural gas produced in the plant 108 for receiving liquefied under pressure natural gas can be stored in one or more reservoirs 109 for storage according to this invention, near export terminal. In another embodiment, this invention seigen the Osia gas pressure, can be pumped into one or more tanks 109 for storage according to the invention on a ship for transporting liquefied under pressure natural gas that is described in this application.

As also discussed in the patent application relating to liquefied under pressure natural gas, and in the patent application related to the components of the process mentioned above, when the preferred operating pressures and temperatures of liquefied under pressure natural gas pipelines and equipment located in the coldest areas of the plant for producing liquefied under pressure natural gas, it is possible to use Nickel steel with a Nickel content of about 3.5% by weight, whereas for the same equipment in a conventional device for producing liquefied natural gas, you must use the more expensive Nickel steel with a Nickel content of 9% by mass or aluminum. This provides an additional reduction of installation costs for obtaining liquefied under pressure of natural gas in comparison with the cost of a conventional system for producing liquefied natural gas. It is preferable to panago gas, for the manufacture of technical components of the plant for producing liquefied under pressure natural gas used high-strength low-alloy steel with adequate strength and fracture toughness in the operating conditions of the plant for producing liquefied under pressure natural gas. As used above, the term "component" encompasses any of a number of components used for conversion of natural gas to produce technological liquified under pressure of natural gas, including without limitation this invention pipelines, heat exchangers, pressure vessels and other tanks. Technological plant for converting natural gas to produce liquefied under pressure natural gas according to the invention made of heavy-duty low alloy steel containing less than 9% by weight of Nickel and having a tensile strength greater than about 830 MPa, and the temperature of the transition from plasticity to fragility (TPP) lower than about -73C. Steel, suitable for use in the manufacture of technological komodromos gas; in published International application no WO 99/32672 entitled "Ultra-high strength steels with excellent cryogenic temperature toughness", a publication of the International application no WO 99/32670 entitled "Ultra-high strength ausaged steels with excellent cryogenic temperature toughness", a publication of the International application no WO 99/32671 entitled "Ultra-high strength dual phase steels with excellent cryogenic temperature toughness", in International application number PCT/US99/29802, entitled "Ultra-high strength steels with excellent cryogenic temperature toughness"; in International application number PCT/US99/30055, entitled "Ultra-high strength ausaged steels with excellent cryogenic temperature toughness"; and International application number PCT/US 99/29804 entitled "Ultra-high strength triple phase steels with excellent cryogenic temperature toughness", and together they form applications for steel. Steel described in applications for steel, particularly suitable for use at cryogenic temperatures, because steel has the following characteristics obtained for steel plate thicknesses of about 2.5 cm and more: (i) the temperature of the transition from plasticity to the fragility of lower than about -73With in the base steel and in the heat-affected zone during welding, (ii) a tensile strength greater than about 830 MPa, preferably greater than about 860 MPa, and most preferably greater than about 900 MPa, (iii) excellent weldability, (iv) suschestennoe high-strength low-alloy steels. These steels can have a tensile strength greater than about 930 MPa or more than about 965 MPa, or greater than about 1000 MPa.

Briefly, the advantages of the present invention are to develop systems and methods for storing and transporting liquefied under pressure of natural gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123With up to about -62C. the Tanks used in the systems and methods of the invention have significantly higher operating rate capacity compared to currently available tanks for liquefied under pressure natural gas, for example, the operating rate of about 7000 m in comparison with the operational rate of approximately 1800 m for steel tanks. In addition, the tank according to this invention satisfy other technical requirements of the present invention, considered in this application.

The choice of variables for a tank according to this invention, for example, size, geometry, material thickness, etc. depends on the operating conditions, such as internal pressure, operating temperature is to grow the progress and power of the engines and so on, what is known specialists in the field of technology to which the invention relates. More precisely, variables also depend on such factors as (i) high performance structural strength and dimensional stability of high quality fibers; (ii) the good characteristics of the impregnation and wetting of the fibers by low-temperature resins, as well as good adhesion between the binder resin and fibers; (iii) the introduction of the latest advances in computerized machine for winding of composite materials, which provide a high degree of automation and high precision in placement of the fibers during winding; (iv) the use of the latest advances on the basis of the finite element method and theory of layered structures in the methods of calculation and analysis with high computational intensity; (v) the possibility of transferring the results of the calculations directly in computerized winding machine for accurate winding configurations to optimize the strength of the final composite device.

Although the present invention has been described in one or more preferred embodiments, it is understood that other modifications may be made without deviation from the scope 183.gif">ftF) is a British unit of heat/(hftF)

MP - Machine design

LNG - Liquefied natural gas

Composite (composite material) - Structural material containing fibers included in glue

Cryogenic temperature is Any temperature below -40

TPP (the temperature of the transition from plasticity to fragility) Describes two modes of failure of structural steel at temperatures below TPP destruction occurs by low-energy separation (fracture), whereas at temperatures above TPP destruction occurs by high energy ductile fracture

AMCA Analysis finite element

HPa - Billion (109) PA

The import terminal - Any structure intended to receive or use SHPG, including without limitation this invention, a structure located in the sea

J/m3- Joule per cubic meter

KPa - a Thousand PA

Natural gas is a Gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons, usually formed under the earth's surface, which contains mainly methane, and may also contain ethane, propane, butane, brad and helium

EP - Operational indicator of the load capacity, VC=PV/W, where PV - pressure, which affects the load, multiplied by the volume V of the tank, and W is the mass of the tank

SHPG - Liquefied under pressure natural gas

Technological component Includes any one of a number of components used for the conversion of natural gas with the aim of obtaining SHPG to install to get SHPG, including without limitation this invention pipelines, heat exchangers, pressure vessels and other tanks

psi - pounds per square inch

psia - pounds per square inch, abs.

TGMD - Tetraphenylmethane

PSVM - Polyethylene ultra-high molecular weight

Claims

1. A storage tank for liquefied under pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123°C. to about -62°C natural gas, containing (a) load bearing vessel made from a composite material containing a resin with a shear modulus of at least about 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures, and can withstand a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of from about-1o essence, an impenetrable barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas.

2. The tank under item 1, in which the vessel is made of many fibers of a material having a specific modulus of elasticity in tension is greater than about 6105cm, and a specific tensile strength greater than about 6106see where the values are normalized relative to the density of the fibers.

3. The tank under item 1, in which the vessel is made from a variety of fibers from materials selected from the group consisting of (i) glass, (ii) aramid, (iii) carbon, (iv) Kevlar (v) silicon carbide, (vi) boron filaments, (vii) polyethylene ultra-high molecular weight or (viii) mixtures thereof.

4. The tank under item 1, in which the vessel is made of a binder resin having the ability to absorb energy, at least about 65 j/m3.

5. The tank under item 1, in which the vessel contains a composite matrix made of a resin selected from the group consisting of (i) multi-functional and bi-functional epoxy resins based on diglycidylether ester diphenylpropane, (ii) tetrachloroaniline epoxy resins, (iii) resin-based amine, (iv) polyester, (v) vinyl ether and (vi) puranariksha foil, (ii) a synthetic polymer film, (iii) metal foil on a thin polymer substrate, (iv) a polymeric substrate coated with a metal, and (v) a layered material containing metal liner disposed between the polymer layers.

7. The tank under item 2, in which the cladding has a thickness up to 1 mm

8. The tank under item 1, in which the facing is made of layered, containing at least one sheet of aluminum foil located between at least two sheets of Mylar.

9. The tank under item 1, in which the cladding contains at least one layer of composite material and at least one sheet of aluminum foil.

10. The tank under item 1, in which the lining provides seamless aluminum.

11. A storage tank for liquefied under pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123°C. to about -62°C natural gas, containing (a) load bearing vessel made from a composite material containing a resin with a shear modulus of at least about 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures, and can withstand a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of about -123° C. to about -62°C; (b) essentially no carrier is concerned, essentially impenetrable barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas.

12. The tank containing essentially no bearing capacity, essentially impervious cladding and load bearing composite upper winding containing resin with a shear modulus of at least about 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures and the ability to absorb energy, at least about 65 j/m3when this tank suitable for the storage of liquefied under pressure of natural gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123°C. to about -62°C.

13. A method of manufacturing a tank for storing liquefied under pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123°C. to about -62°C natural gas containing phase, the implementation of which (a) develop and implemented on a computer project of the tank by means of calculation by the finite element method, performed with the focus on optimizing the strength of the tank; (b) make the lining of the essentially impermeable material; (c) placed facing the mandrel; (d) impregnating resin multiple fibers made of materials having Udelny tensile more what about106see where the values are normalized relative to the density of the fibers; (e) wound multiple fibers around the cladding by means of computer controlled filament winding machine, which is made with the possibility of being implemented on a computer project for the education of carrying the load of the vessel.

14. A method of manufacturing a tank for storing liquefied under pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123°C. to about -62°C natural gas containing phase, the implementation of which (a) develop and implemented on a computer project of the tank by means of calculation by the finite element method, performed with the focus on optimizing the strength of the tank; (b) make the lining of the essentially impermeable material; (c) placed facing the mandrel; (d) impregnating resin multiple fibers from materials selected from the group consisting of (i) glass, (ii) aramid, (iii) carbon, (iv) Kevlar (v) silicon carbide, (vi) boron filaments, (vii) polyethylene ultra-high molecular weight or (viii) mixtures thereof; (e) wound multiple fibers around the cladding by means of computer controlled winding carrying the load of the vessel.

15. The method according to p. 13, in which in stage (b) form the lining of a material selected from the group consisting of (i) a metal foil, (ii) a synthetic polymer film, (iii) metal foil on a thin polymer substrate, (iv) a polymeric substrate coated with a metal, and (v) a layered material containing metal liner disposed between the polymer layers, (vi) at least one sheet of aluminum foil located between at least two sheets of Mylar, (vii) at least one layer of composite material and at least one sheet of aluminum foil.

16. The method of storing liquefied under a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123°C. to about -62°C natural gas containing phase space liquefied under pressure of natural gas in at least one tank, with at least one reservoir contains (i) load bearing vessel made from a composite material containing a resin with a shear modulus of at least 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures, and (ii) on the merits, not bearing the load of the cladding, contact with the vessel, and the lining is created, sudeste and storage of liquefied, under the pressure of natural gas, containing (a) the installation of a natural gas processing, designed to produce a liquefied pressurized gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123° C. to about -62°C; (b) at least one vessel suitable for storage of liquefied under pressure of natural gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123°C. to about -62°C containing (i) carrying load a vessel made from a composite material containing a resin with a shear modulus of at least 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures; (ii) on the merits, not bearing the load of the lining in contact with the vessel, and the cladding creates an essentially impermeable barrier for liquefied pressurized gas.

18. System on p. 17, further containing (C) a means for transporting at least one tank holding liquid under pressure natural gas import terminal.

19. The system under item 17, which carries the load of the vessel can withstand a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of about -123°C to when the in technological component, made of heavy-duty low alloy steel containing less than 9% by weight of Nickel and having a tensile strength greater than about 830 MPa and temperature of the transition from plasticity to the fragility of lower than about -73°C.

21. The system under item 17, in which the installation of a natural gas processing, consists essentially of: (a) equipment for the reception of the injected gas, suitable for removal of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas; (b) dewatering equipment suitable for removing water from natural gas; and (c) equipment for liquefying suitable for the liquefaction of natural gas.

22. The receipt and storage of liquefied under pressure natural gas containing phase, the implementation of which (a) receive liquid under pressure natural gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of about -123°C. to about -62°C by processing natural gas, using the specified installation of a natural gas processing; and (b) pumping the liquefied under pressure natural gas in at least one tank, with at least one tank suitable for storing fluid at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to use the tion of a composite material, containing resin with a shear modulus of at least 3 GPA at cryogenic temperatures; and (ii) is, essentially, not bearing the load of the lining in contact with the vessel, and the cladding creates an essentially impermeable barrier for liquefied under pressure natural gas.

23. The method according to p. 22, in which the addition (s) to transport the specified at least one tank holding liquid under pressure natural gas import terminal.

24. The method according to p. 22, which carries the load of the vessel perform withstand a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and a temperature of about -123°C to about-s.

25. The method according to p. 22, in which the installation of a natural gas processing include at least one technological component, made of heavy-duty low alloy steel containing less than 9% by weight of Nickel and having a tensile strength greater than about 830 MPa and temperature of the transition from plasticity to the fragility of lower than about -73°C.

26. The method according to p. 22, in which the stage of obtaining liquefied under pressure of natural gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123°C to PR is idgie hydrocarbons from natural gas in the equipment for reception of the injected gas; (b) removing water from natural gas dewatering equipment; (c) szhizhajut natural gas equipment for liquefaction.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to shells made of composite materials, in particular reinforced casings for high internal pressure is used as load-bearing structures or sites in the short-term or prolonged exposure to excessive internal pressure

The invention relates to shells made of composite materials, in particular reinforced casings for high internal pressure is used as load-bearing structures or sites in the short-term or prolonged exposure to excessive internal pressure

The invention relates to shells made of composite materials, in particular reinforced casings for high internal pressure is used as load-bearing structures or sites in the short-term or prolonged exposure to excessive internal pressure

The invention relates to shells made of composite materials, in particular reinforced casings for high pressure, is used as a load-bearing body parts in terms of short-term exposure to excessive internal pressure

The invention relates to cylinders for storage and transport of compressed gases under pressure, particularly to tanks for storing oxygen, hydrogen and other gases, and may find application as a necessary part of equipment for climbers, scuba divers, as well as for cars running on compressed natural gas

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely, cylinder pressure, izgotovliaemye of composite material, and can be used to create solid-propellant rocket engines, chemical engineering and other industries

The invention relates to techniques for the production of pressure vessels made of composite materials by winding the impregnated fibers on a mandrel and can be applied in winding machines, automatic lines

The invention relates to the field of gas appliances, and in particular to methods and devices for health monitoring composite high-pressure cylinders (VD), and can be used in the manufacturing process and operation of large plastic containers large capacity, intended in particular for gas consumers (settlements, gas stations, etc.)

The invention relates to the field of CNG vehicles, used for storage, transport and use of compressed and liquefied gases, and reduces the curvature of the fibers of the inner layers of the shell of the composite material when wound on the external layers and, consequently, increasing its rigidity

The invention relates to shells made of composite materials, in particular reinforced casings for high internal pressure is used as load-bearing structures or sites in the short-term or prolonged exposure to excessive internal pressure

The invention relates to shells made of composite materials, in particular reinforced casings for high internal pressure is used as load-bearing structures or sites in the short-term or prolonged exposure to excessive internal pressure

The invention relates to shells made of composite materials, in particular reinforced casings for high internal pressure is used as load-bearing structures or sites in the short-term or prolonged exposure to excessive internal pressure

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in the manufacture of buildings, containers, tanks, cylinders pressure (hereinafter capacity) made of composite materials, membranes which are made in the form of bodies of rotation

Pressure vessel // 2244868

FIELD: storing or distributing gases or liquids.

SUBSTANCE: pressure vessel has cylindrical shell made of spiral and ring layers which are made of a fiber composite material and bottoms with flanges made of spiral layers and set in openings. The thickness of the cylindrical shell uniformly decreases along the length in the direction to the bottom with greater opening due to the decrease of the thickness of the ring layers.

EFFECT: reduced weight and cost of vessels.

3 dwg

Up!