The method of development of deposits of solid minerals
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of ore, gravel, coal, oil-shale deposits of construction rocks, construction materials and some other solid minerals. The method includes operating the intelligence division of the rock mass within each working horizon career field operational units, drilling operational blocks horizontal or slightly inclined wells, loosening rocks short-delay and dispersed blasting downhole, crosshole and miradero explosive charge under damping shelter, selective mining blown blocks, preparation and processing of minerals. The drilling operational blocks producing wells, the diameter of which is in the range of 50-150 mm, with the grid set to ensure the selective crushing of rocks. Well charge nizkobyudzhetnoy explosive mixture and initiate the laser pulse through the intermediate piece by means of the laser system of initiation. Perceive the released kinetic energy of the explosion and Obrajuelo on excavation device, used when performing excavation and loading and auxiliary work and when loading of the rock mass in progruzochnye capacity. Progruzochnye capacity is placed on the upper platform of the working bench. Drilling rig, a device for charging wells, the laser system initiation, the damping device excavation the device, the device energy conversion, storage device and peregruzochny capacity are part of the mobile unit. The invention is aimed at improving the completeness of the explosion energy, the efficiency of the explosive destruction of rocks and the development of solid mineral deposits in General. 2 Il.
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of ore, gravel, coal, oil-shale deposits of construction rocks, construction materials and some other solid minerals.
Known conventional methods development of solid mineral deposits, composed of rock and half-rock rocks, loosening which is carried out using large-scale explosions and nutrition which is only 3-6%, as well as negative environmental impacts , .
In recent years began to appear technology development of solid mineral deposits and mining operations, based on the use of blasting rocks with subsequent use energy explosion.
In particular, there is a method of destruction of rocks by explosion , including the sinking of wells or bore-holes, the charging of explosives and blasting with blasting horizontal layers. Before blasting compresses the ledge on the side of the slope and the top and framing compressed volume of rock under a given angle method deliverative. Perform sequential blasting from the top down. The capacity of each of the next exploding layer of rocks increases proportionally to the mass prigruzki blown from the overlying layers. For the implementation of the method is used blasting unit, incorporating the equipment for drilling, charging and blasting holes (holes), and a device for crimping the ledge and to absorb the energy of the explosion.
In this way part of the explosion energy is used for crushing objetych rock ledge, however, the remaining energy is repaid underride devices and, basically, not iusi operational intelligence, differentiation by quality, by drilling holes of a certain diameter and choice of power charges depending on conditionnot minerals, blasting wells for mobile shelter and selective excavation processing blocks.
The disadvantage of the prototype is incomplete, the energy of the explosion.
Thus, to the General disadvantage of all of these technologies mining operations with explosive destruction of rocks can be attributed to the low energy of the explosion.
The technical result of the invention is to improve the completeness of the explosion energy, the efficiency of the explosive rock breaking, mining of solid minerals in General and the various construction activities associated with the destruction of natural and artificial hard material by blasting.
This technical result is achieved in that in the method of development of deposits of solid minerals, including operational intelligence division of the rock mass within each working horizon career field operational units, drilling operational blocks horizontal or slightly inclined wells, loosening MgO explosive charge under damping shelter, selective mining blown blocks, preparation and processing of minerals, drilling operational blocks producing wells, the diameter of which is in the range of 50-150 mm, with the grid set to ensure the selective crushing of rocks, wells charge nizkobyudzhetnoy explosive mixture and initiate the laser pulse through an intermediate piece through a system of laser initiation perceive the released kinetic energy of the explosion and the resulting dust and gas emissions damping device, convert and transmit it through accumulating device on excavation device used when performing excavation and loading and auxiliary work and when loading of the rock mass in progruzochnye capacity, which is placed on the upper platform of the working bench, with use of mobile plant including a drilling rig, a device for charging wells, the laser system initiation, the damping device excavation the device, the device energy conversion, storage device and progruzochnye capacity.
A comparable analysis with the prototype of the differences is in on a particular net, charged with their explosive mix of low presentati and initiating charges laser pulse, as well as in the use of the mobile unit, which includes almost everything needed for field development design elements, such as for drilling and charging wells for initiation, for the perception of the energy of the explosion and its further use.
Thus, the inventive method development of solid mineral deposits corresponds to the condition of novelty. In the study of other solutions in this field of engineering not identified the features that distinguish the invention from the prototype and aimed at achieving the claimed technical effect, and therefore they provide the requirement of inventive step.
The method is illustrated by drawings, where:
in Fig.1 schematically depicts a universal unit used in the development of the field;
in Fig.2 - power-transforming device.
In the drawings, the following notation:
1 - mastering the horizon,
2 - operational blocks,
3 - well,
4 - drilling rig,
5 - mobile unit,
6 is a device for loading wells
7 - damping device,
8 - eksk 11 - related flywheels,
12 - clamping of the friction plate,
13 - the bottom plate,
14 - the bottom peregruzochny capacity,
15 - peregruzochny capacity,
16 - damping cover,
17 - upper (moving) plate,
18 - ballast mountain mass.
Method development of solid mineral deposits is as follows.
Carry out operational intelligence, on the basis of which we distinguish, within each working horizon 1, operational (development and production) blocks 2.
Operational intelligence can perform consistently in three stages.
In the first stage - leading operational intelligence, which is done by drilling and sampling workings special purpose furrows, ditches, wells, or perebor blastholes are working and the overlying horizons, resulting geological information used for allocating operational blocks 2 within the array of rocks to be mined or planned development horizon 1.
In the second stage, carry out the current operational intelligence that accompanies mining operations using operational drilling wells and sampling traditionnels excavation and loading and formation of internal transport flows of mineral raw materials, consisting in establishing operational mine geologist spatial position of morphologically altered blowing items of minerals, for example, ore bodies, or portions thereof, based on the parameters and the form of the collapse of using nomograms, the contour of the ore body or coal seam, in the collapse of the set of landmarks that serve as the reference point for the operator excavating device.
After separation of operational blocks their amerivault horizontal or slightly inclined wells 3, the diameter of which is in the range of 50-150 mm, This range allows you to divide all of the wells in diameter into three groups 50-70, 70-105, 110-150 mm
During development, depending on the occurrence of ore bodies or their individual elements, properties of rocks and other geological and mining technical features working units, it is possible to use a combination of wells of different diameters and tilt in a row or between rows.
Drilling is carried out using a drilling rig 4 mobile unit 5, including applied in mining drilling equipment rotary, percussion-rotary or roller types, each of which is used, depending on Burevestnik rocks clarify on the basis of information operatively received in the process of drilling wells.
Drilled charge nizkobyudzhetnoy explosive mixture, when using the device for a loader 6, mounted on a mobile unit. Device for loading 6 can be based on the equipment charger machine operated mines.
Exercise loosening rocks short-delay and dispersed downhole blasting and miradero charges of explosives (e) under the damping cover 16, thus initiating the explosive charge laser pulse transmitted through the intermediate piece by means of the laser system of initiation, which is also mounted on the mobile unit.
Released after initiation of the kinetic energy of the explosion and the resulting dust and gas emissions perceive campfireusa-power unit 9 consisting of a damping cover 10 that has a damping device 7, which, in turn, is mounted on the damping of the cover 16, which provides selective blasting mining blocks. Part campfireusa-power unit 9 includes a device to convert energy 10.
After conversion and accumulation Eni performing excavation and loading and auxiliary work and when loading ballast rock mass 18 in progruzochnye capacity 15.
In Fig.2 shows the device energy conversion 10 campfireusa-power plant 9, including a system of interconnecting the flywheel 11, the system pressure of the friction plates 12 fixed on the bottom plate 13, through which the kinetic energy of the explosion is released in the form of a motion blasted rock and dust and gas emissions, perceive and transmit system interconnecting the flywheel 11, the promotion of them, where the energy is accumulated in the form of mechanical; the basic design of the flywheel and the principle of their action, and their use in a number of machines and mechanisms, refer to the source . The kinetic energy stored in the flywheels, convert to the cumulated energy of compressed air (or other, less safe and cheap gas) through a system of movable rods mounted on the upper (moving) plate 17, and a system of cylinders attached to the bottom 14 peregruzochny capacity of 15.
Hold the cylinder campfireusa-power unit 9, which is formed and accumulates the energy of compressed air in a relatively fixed position when the blasting of rocks is carried out using peregruzochny tank 15 filled with ballast rocks 18-and is movable relative to the set over it the second plate, carrying ballast mountain mass, vertical walls, the front of which is pivotally secured in the upper part of the vessel and, if necessary, using it to form a discharge gap for exemption from ballast rock.
However, as described above, the drilling unit 4, the device for charging wells 6, the laser system initiation, the damping device 7, excavation device 8, the device energy conversion 10, a storage device and peregruzochny capacity 15 are part of the mobile unit 5.
This ensures high-quality crushing rocks, selective excavation practicing blown production unit and divide it up into homogeneous mini-blocks and selective vnutrikabinnoe the recess of the rock mass within the mini-blocks; notisable and mezzanine averaging of different sorts of mineral raw materials on a separate grade, but excluding the averaging of different types of mineral raw materials; averaging career, preceramic and preparing warehouses and piles, preparation and processing of minerals.
Thus, the inventive method of development of deposits of solid minerals enhances the completeness of A. The method can be used, in particular, when developing chinea deposits of vanadium bearing titaniferous magnetite ore represented by the rocks of the rock types, ore bodies of the complex structure and material composition.
Sources of information
1. Open pit mining. The Handbook. M: Mining, 1994.
2. Rzhevsky centuries Processes of surface mining. M.: Nedra, 1978, 543 S.
3. Patent RU NO. 2039253, E 21 37/00.
4. Patent RU No. 2181834, E 21 41/00.
5. New Polytechnical dictionary. - M.: Great Russian encyclopedia, 2000, S. 115, 165, 182, 288.
The method of development of deposits of solid minerals, including operational intelligence division of the rock mass within each working horizon career field operational units, drilling operational blocks horizontal or slightly inclined wells, loosening rocks short-delay and dispersed blasting downhole, crosshole and miradero explosive charge under damping shelter, selective mining blown blocks, preparation and processing of minerals, characterized in that the drilling operational units Chechenia selective crushing of rocks, well charge nizkobyudzhetnoy explosive mixture and initiate the laser pulse through an intermediate piece through a system of laser initiation perceive the released kinetic energy of the explosion and the resulting dust and gas emissions damping device, convert and transmit it through accumulating device on excavation device used when performing excavation and loading and auxiliary work and when loading of the rock mass in progruzochnye capacity, which is placed on the upper platform of the working bench, with use of mobile plant including a drilling rig, a device for charging wells, the laser system initiation, the damping device excavation the device, the device energy conversion, accumulating device and progruzochnye capacity.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has screw, having transporting spiral ribbon held on the shaft. Equipment is provided with U-shaped chute and perforated drum with armature in form of screw ribbon, having curvilinear shape in cross-section, arched in the direction of movement. Drum is mounted in upper portion of U-shaped chute. In its lower portion a screw is mounted.
EFFECT: higher productiveness.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly for open-cut steeply dipping or inclined deposit development.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating pit up to design depth reaching by sliced benches; moving the benches as ore deposit is developed; cutting ore and debris; loading thereof on conveyance means to move ore to ground surface, wherein as pit is deepened conveyer systems are used; on reaching the design pit depth deposit is divided into slices and the slices are developed with minimal ore losses in triangular zones with negligible interaction in peripheral face by developed slot raise technology usage; reinforcing slopes with anchors and metal mesh at deep horizons where berm cleaning is difficult; performing slice cutting though the full ore body thickness at design pit bottom and conveying the cut ore to surface by steeply inclined conveyers and combined transportation means. In the case of ore development in slices having lesser thickness below pit bottom steeply dipping and vertical side part are built, concrete wall and metal mesh adapted to hold wedge-like lumps in the presence of potential caving, wherein in this case mining equipment is used and ore cut from underground layer is crushed in crushing mills located on main loading and transportation horizons and delivered to ground surface by conveyer or skip shaft. Mined-out space is filled with rock refuse at terminal stage.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of mineral extraction, reduced cost of deposit development.
8 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, as well as hydraulic, road, agriculture and other building, particularly to perform open cast mining and other woks by rock loosening.
SUBSTANCE: method involves obtaining information concerning main and structural-and-strength rock properties on the base of estimation of data of primary and post-authorization prospecting, as well as production prospecting; detailed rock zoning to separate production blocks and unit blocks characterized by uniform rock at borders thereof; writing computer program; automatically loosing rock of each unit block by most effective method, namely by mechanical, pneumatic, blast drilling or physical one performed with the use of all-purpose mobile rig tools. Above rig includes computer system, device provided with one, two or three replaceable teeth, with plate-like metal pins and with hydraulic cylinders. The rig also has device adapted to create holes in unit block and wedge out thereof, drilling device and charging device, laser charge initiation system, local shelter with damping means, device for rock cutting by applying pressurized air and impacts to rock and auxiliary excavation device.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of rock preparation for further cutting and loading and for solid mineral field development as a whole.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop watered placer deposits and technological mineral deposits under permanent negative temperatures of ambient air.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing preparation and production works, mineral processing and refuse stacking operations. To implement above method dam is built around mining equipment and deposit to be developed prior to air temperature reduction to negative value; installing sled-mounted hangar having transparent heat insulated roof over the dam and performing all above mentioned works and operations inside the hangar.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of production and processing equipment.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, particularly for co-developing salt and platinum deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves detecting presence of platinum in non-soluble salt residue salt during salt deposit development; performing geological mapping of salt-bearing cavity and determining sand distribution in stratum above salt layer; drilling wells and bore pits and taking samples to determine platinum content; contouring sand deposits bearing platinum with concentration suitable for industrial development; cleaning surface; blocking out and excavating platinum-bearing sand; directing above sand to gravity separation plant; tying thereof with water in gravity separation plant to separate platinum therefrom.
EFFECT: increased complexity of deposit development.
FIELD: methods of surface mining, particularly for following natural stone treatment by covering or impregnating thereof with liquid or other flowable substances on surface.
SUBSTANCE: method involves gunning salt pit surface with waterproofing agent; covering salt pile surface with clay-and-salt mud layer in dry and hot season after salt pile hardening in at least 1.0-1.5 months after pile filling with salt. The clay-and-salt mud is sylvinite ore-dressing waste obtained from chemical factory. The clay-and-salt mud layer has 10-20 mm thickness and is formed by gunning salt pile surface with above mud material. The clay-and-salt mud is supplied into pneumatic pump receiver, wherein solid/liquid phase ratio is 1:2 - 1:3.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of salt pile waterproofing.
FIELD: agricultural; devices for treatment.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of clarification of water at the industrial development of the placer deposits with utilization of the wastes of the timber loggings and extraction of the finely dispersed gold from the water runoffs of the gold mining. In the bed of the diversion channel they form the firebreak out of the filtering material containing the wood sawdust mass subjected to the preliminary sorting at the vibration installation and having the ratio of the fractions from 1 to 5 mm up to the fraction from 5 up to 15 mm as 1:3 and packaged in the netted forms made out of the wire skeleton. After the water clarification the wood sawdust mass is subjected to dehydration by pressing and to drying and incineration for extraction of the fine fractions of gold. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency of the water clarification and extraction of gold.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency of the water clarification and extraction of gold.
FIELD: mining industry, possible use during extraction of natural and man-made gravel deposits of both mineral resources of high density (gold, platinum, etc), and valued minerals of low density.
SUBSTANCE: method for softening and disintegration of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits includes driving a water-feeding trench, driving a water-collecting trench in 80-100 meters along direction of fall of deposit bed in parallel to water-feeding trench, depth of water-collecting trench providing for difference of bottom levels in trenches 1,5-3 meters, filling water-feeding trench with water and recharging it to maintain constant water level by means of gate and spillway with raised spillway gate, building walling dam 1-1,5 meters high, limiting the part of deposit being processed in plan, with spillway, after that outputs of filtration flow into water-collecting trench are constructed which are fixed by wetting of upper slope for height of 1-2 meters, then spillway gate is lowered onto spillway spine, and that part of deposit is flooded with water for depth of 0,8-1,3 meters and this level is maintained for initial softening of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits, after that dredger plant is assembled, consisting of suck-in line with suction device, dredger itself and force sludge duct. At the end of force sludge duct, vortex generator is mounted together with hydrodynamic cavitator, due to which during launch of operation of dredger plant argillaceous sands of gravel deposits along the way from face and suction device of dredger to hydrodynamic cavitator are subjected to second stage of softening and disintegration, and in hydrodynamic cavitator - to third-stage final disintegration, and then are dispatched to dressing plant.
EFFECT: increased productiveness and extraction efficiency during extraction of natural and man-made gravel deposits due to efficient softening and disintegration of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits and release of valued components during hydro-transportation of sands to dressing equipment.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: said geotechnological complex incorporates a trestle with a tumbling bucket, a tumbling module with a chute located inside the closed loop of trench for disintegrated rock accumulation. The chute is directed along the rock inflow. The tumbling bucket installation provides for possibility of linear and angular displacement in the vertical plane; the bucket has slots and L-shaped rippers.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: said complex is provided with a supported trestle and an ultrasonic and mechanical tumbling module. Rotatable ultrasonic radiation module is connected to movable carriage rim by means of a hub and sliding supports. The movable carriage is provided with a drive for moving it along the trestle cross beam and a drive for turning the ultrasonic radiation module around the movable carriage yoke axis. The rotatable ultrasonic radiation module has drives for moving the ultrasonic sources in the vertical plane, a dual drive for moving the ultrasonic sources in horizontal plane, sensors to determine the rock physical and mechanical state, and communication links with functional module of disintegration process automatic control system.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.