Drilled a mechanical packer

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and is designed to overlap the annulus of oil and gas wells and implementation of technology isolation of bottom water. The technical result - the reliability of the overlap of the annulus. Packer contains stem from the expansion cone body with metallic sealing element, provided with outer and inner annular projections, the anchor, the latch mechanism of the landing. The barrel is further provided with a bore cone and warmisham connected through a power strip ring, with the clutch. The adapter in the axial channel of the extension tube is fitted with lateral Windows in the front part and the sleeve, forming a movable connection with the barrel. The anchor is made in the form of blocks that are installed in the Windows of the housing with a possibility of interaction with a landing cone of the barrel. The latch is made in the form of a split locking rings mounted in annular bores of the housing and facing in the direction of the response of the grooves on the barrel. The mechanism of the landing is made in the form of a camshaft of the cone at the lower end of the barrel with the spring-loaded crackers that are installed on the inner annular protrusion of the sealing element. The body is equipped with a spring centralizer, al shaft is connected with the hollow bore of the radial channels and provided with a check valve. 7 Il.

The invention relates to the mining industry and is designed to overlap the annulus of oil and gas wells while waterproofing plantar water.

Known pokerwise device (see and.with. No. 1118760, M CL E 21 In 33/12. Publ. 15.10.84,, bull. No. 38), consisting of a barrel that has a cylinder with a sealing element supported on the support sleeve and the retainer and the stopper retainer with a bore clutch comprising a casing string, and the latch is made in the form of a spring relative to the pivot bushing threaded nut associated with the barrel splined connection and having on the outer surface threaded for engagement with threaded boarding clutch.

For overlapping annulus pokerwise device Assembly is lowered into the borehole to the location of the threaded boarding clutch and sits on the ledge of the support sleeve. Right-hand rotation of the pipe string, enter a threaded nut in engagement with the mating thread boarding clutch. When the design axial force arising from the interaction of threaded boarding clutch and inform the sealing element, the latter loses its stability in the init landing surface of the coupling.

The disadvantages. The device can only be applied to new wells during the descent and equipping of the barrel casing, in which is inserted a threaded boarding clutch.

The seal is made of a plastic material capable of plastic deformation.

In the old wells, the device can not be applied, since there is no way to equip casing special matching clutch.

The device is intended for use mainly in the newly drilling steam wells in conditions of cyclic effects of temperature and pressure.

In the case of mechanical particles landing on the surface of the threaded bushing can be problems associated with hermetic fit seal.

Transfer rotation of the threaded nut from the surface to deformation of the seal in the radial direction is not possible to control the torque, and hence the axial force.

Known heat-resistant packer (see and.with. No. 1548405, M CL E 21 In 33/12. Publ. 07.03.90,, bull. No. 7), containing a hollow shaft, the fixing unit of the packer, the saddle with a ball in the axial bore, the body with a fixed sealing element, Rethimno cone and spacer retainer elements - Sha with the extensions node in the form of balls, interacting with the inner surface of the shell and the surface of the camshaft cone.

Planting packer is done by creating excess pressure above the expansion cone clipshow and transmission of pressure on the cone of node expansion with simultaneous rotation of the casing pipe of the packer and rolling (extension) bulbs cylindrical metal shell to contact with the inner surface of the casing. Slips Acaryadeva node engages with the casing and retain the packer in the initial position when the transmission of torque to the barrel during radial deformation of the seal.

The release of the axial bore of the packer from the saddle with the Orb is carried out by the pressure of the working fluid in comparison with the pressure of landing and reset the seat with the ball on the face.

The deficiencies in the design of packer: if you need to have a large enough axial bore of the packer comparable to the size of the axial channel pipe tubing string, when the small diameter of the casing, it is difficult to place the structural elements of the packer, in particular, Rethimno cone, landing anchors to create a sufficient force to ensure implementation of the teeth of the anchor into the wall on the fluid. But after the landing of the packer and release the axial channel of the saddle with the Orb, you must create a higher pressure to cut bagged pins, which leads to a sufficiently large hydraulic shock and its negative impact on the design of the packer, in particular, the sealing element, which loses its integrity even with a slight movement relative to the wall of the casing.

Known pokerwise device (see and.with. No. 1153040, M CL E 21 In 33/12. Publ. 30.04.85,, bull. No. 16). Pokerwise device includes mounting the coupling with the supporting ledge and packer, containing the barrel installed on it sealing head, on which is placed a seal in the form of a cylindrical shell, a latch cooperating with a support ledge installation of the coupling, restrictive nut associated keyed with the sealing head. The latch is made in the form of an annular protrusion on the seal, which is provided with a restrictive ring and the sealing head is made with a by-pass valve blocked by the check valve.

Work pokerwise device.

Sliding sleeve is part of the production string during its descent into the well.

Packer on Klanovice clutch. Loading weight of tubing string pipes destroy shear element and move the barrel to lock the nut to the end surface of the sealing head and move it inside of the seal with the expansion in the radial direction until the contact ring lug with locking chamfer installation of the coupling.

Disadvantages:

- the need to transmit torque to the packer to ensure deformation of the sealing element in the radial direction, which makes it difficult or even not possible to control the landing, because when you increase the load on the shaft as the diameter of the rolling seal element is elastic twisting of the tubing and its engagement with the casing wall;

- if you need to drill packer there is a need to eliminate the rotation of the structure during the interaction with her cutter, because the anchor can bear axial loads, but packer, resting on the balls can rotate together with presom that can increase the working time spent on the drilling device; and

- packer may not be used for carrying out the process of waterproofing installation screen under him and perception of excessive pressure tamponirovanie packer consists of a hollow cylindrical body, with the screw thread on the outer surface, above the sealing element. Above the set upper slips in the form of circular sectors with radial grooves and hooks associated shear screws with the upper leg. Above the upper slipcase posted by top pusher with longitudinal grooves on the outer surface, in which is placed and secured the upper ends of the retaining elements in the form of straps with hooks on the side surfaces, the lower ends of the bars placed in the radial grooves of the upper clipshow. At the lower end of the body is placed lower slips in the form of annular sectors. Under slipcase installed on the housing of the lower plunger rigidly connected with the nozzle, and the latter with the shank, which is placed between the shear ring.

The upper and lower plungers provided with detents in the form of a split ring, with the screw thread on the inner and outer surfaces, installed interoperable with similar cuts on the body and the pushers.

The operation of the packer.

For understanding the operation of the packer must be turned through 180° from the positions shown in the description, because the landing tool is connected with the packer in the location of the retaining ring and is connected to the Elevator columns the charging instrument. When creating an axial force from the fluid pressure force is reported at the top of the plunger, resulting in deformation of the sealing element and the upper and lower slips come into contact with the inner surface of the casing, and when the design effort is the shear ring and detach the landing tool from drillable packer.

Known packer (see U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2162137, M CL 7 E 21 33/12, publ. 20.01.01,, bull. No. 2), consisting of a pipe made of easily expanding material, placed on the outer surface of the sealant in the form of an elastic membrane extending Seating cone associated with the cylinder and with each other calibrated shear elements of the switch mechanism of the landing (of the drive).

Planting packer is carried out by feeding the excess pressure in the actuator, which contributes to enter extending Seating cone under seal, and its extension in the radial direction, ensuring tight contact with the casing wall. With increasing pressure on the switch is cut calibrated shear element and the extraction of wells actuator with cylinder and casing pipes.

The disadvantage of the design is that is large enough axial force, which is created by the perception of excessive pressure of the working fluid by the piston of the actuator. For wells with small diameter casing is difficult to have a sufficiently large diameter piston of the actuator, or it is necessary to increase the pressure of the landing of the packer, and hence the pressure, which should be destroyed calibrated shear element, which in turn will cause water hammer under the packer.

Thus, there are conditions under which the packer may be frustrated with the installation location of the shock wave, and therefore would violate the integrity of the sealing element.

Known drillable packer and landing instrument (see U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 1747674, M CL E 21 33/12, publ. 15.07.92,, bull. No. 26), taken by the authors for the prototype. Drillable packer includes a hollow shaft with radial holes, the upper and lower subs, casing mounted on the shaft and forming with the latter an annular chamber, a piston with a locking knot, sealing element on the hollow body between the top plate of the upper sub and the piston, the secondary piston with the locking node in the annular chamber of the casing under the radial holes of the hollow shaft, the locking node of each piston is made in the form of a collet, someseni in opposite directions. The bottom sub is made in the lower part with a mounting thread on the inner surface.

In the design of drillable packer applied known the fixing unit deformed sealing element in the form of the teeth on the inner surface of the hollow body, which are entered into cooperation with mating annular grooves. The design drawbacks:

- with a small diameter casing is difficult to perform the annular piston sufficiently large cross section to provide the necessary force landing of the sealing element and to create the necessary contact voltage with the casing wall;

- the presence in the construction of a large number of calibrated shear elements connecting with each other a number of parts, requires precise execution and coordination of the efforts of their operation - cut, preserving the sequence of their destruction, which is very difficult to implement in practice.

- the necessity of special landing valve, mounted in the axial bore with the use of cable technology, requires additional staff time. After landing, drillable packer axial bore exempt from landing KLA and the Elevator column pipe.

In the event of various technological operations in podvecerni area, for example, the operation of the isolation of bottom water, injection of the insulating composition under the packer, when the current design does not preclude it from entering into the cavity beneath the pistons, which ultimately will make it more difficult in the future dismantling of the packer from the place of its installation; the absence in the axial bore of the check valve after pressure relief, in which was stored the insulating composition, the latter can easily fill the axial bore and the tubing string of pipes that will also make it difficult, or even make impossible the conclusion of the axial bore of the landing tool.

Known Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2164587, M CL 7 E 21 In 34/06 “Device for overlapping columns tubing” (publ. 27.03.01,, bull. No. 9). The device consists of a housing with a longitudinal Windows in the lower part, saarialho node with the drive mechanism containing the core associated with the plunger calibrated shear element, a set of one shoulder levers connected by a ring, the heads of which are located at the level of the external annular groove of the housing. The core and the casing telescopically connected to each other. The fixing unit includes a collet, the coverage is halogen on the collet under the ring one shoulder arms with the opportunity to interact with the capture. Rethimno cone is rigidly connected with the core and the lower end of the collet.

The operation of the device.

At the required depth transmit tension through the plunger to the housing with the input head one shoulder levers in the first bottom pipe joint coupling joint with mechanical contact. Then carry out a supply of cylindrical section under the head one shoulder arms, preventing them from coming out of engagement with the pipe end.

The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the present invention, is as follows:

- the possibility of mechanical planting packer with reliable overlapping annulus combined rubber seal through the tubing string tension tubes;

- ability to transfer torque to the packer when disconnecting the tubing string of pipe with mechanical planting-fixation of the packer by typing in the pipe joint coupling connection tabs;

- ability radial deformation of the sealing element due to the interaction camshaft cone on the barrel with crackers covered the lower end of the sealing element;

- ability to detach and extract from the well adapter with spring centralizer after injection yeski the result is achieved by that drilled a mechanical packer, comprising a housing, a barrel, Rethimno cone, sealing element, the anchor latch and mechanism of planting, according to the invention the shaft is further provided with a bore cone and warmisham connected through a power strip ring, with the clutch in the axial channel which has an adapter is fitted with lateral Windows in the front part and the sleeve, forming a sliding connection with the shaft, the anchor is made in the form of blocks that are installed in the Windows of the housing with a possibility of interaction with a landing cone of the barrel, the retainer is made in the form of a split retaining rings, installed in the circular bores of the housing and facing in the direction of the response of the grooves on the barrel, the mechanism of the landing is made in the form of a camshaft of the cone at the lower end of the barrel with the spring-loaded crackers that are installed on the inner annular protrusion of the sealing element, in this case with a spring centralizer covering extension with ring, with the option of establishing with him a telescopic connection, and the axial bore is connected with the hollow bore of the radial channels and provided with a check valve.

When conducting patent research on scientific, technical and PA is sustained fashion element is in tension barrel with the transfer of axial loads through the intermediate element on the composite metal seal with the provision of its radial plastic deformation before the formation of hermetic contact with the inner surface of the casing string.

When conducting patent research on the scientific and technical literature we have not found designs of mechanical packers, in which the landing-deformation of the sealing element through the breadcrumbs, covered by the sealing element and mounted for engagement with the expansion cone on the packer when the tension on the pipe string.

Thus, the technical result achieved due to the unknown properties of the parts of the device and connections between them.

The invention is not obvious from the prior art, that is, meets the criterion of "inventive step".

The design of the device for blocking the annulus is intended primarily for wells with small diameter casing, where it is necessary to conduct insulation works from receipt plantar water when using tubing string of pipe, the diameter of the axial channel which is comparable to the diameter of the axial bore of the packer.

The design of drilled mechanical packer is illustrated by drawings, where:

in Fig.1 shows the mechanical design of the packer in the source (transport);

in Fig.2 - design of mechanical pace - design of mechanical packer in position preparation for planting (stoppers introduced into the pipe joint coupling joint of casing);

in Fig.4 - the locking mechanism of the packer retaining rings;

in Fig.5 - design of mechanical packer in position landing deformation of the metal gasket;

in Fig.6 - design of mechanical packer at the end of produce insulating solution (the moment of landing the top cementing plugs);

in Fig.7 - mechanical packer in position of operation after disconnecting spring centralizer, extension cable and adapter sleeve.

Mechanical packer consists of a housing 1 connected through the adapter 2 with the sealing element 3 made in the form of thin metal shell. In the axial channel 4 of the housing 1 has a shaft 5, provided with the expansion cone 6, at the lower end passing into the annular protrusion 7 and check valve 8 in the axial channel 9, is performed stepwise. On the outer side of the shaft 5 is made of a notch 10 with calculation step and the cylindrical groove 11 with a bore cone 12. The housing 1 is provided with radial Windows 13, which is installed with the stoppers 14 included inside cylindrical grooves 11 of the barrel 5. The sealing element 3 samolotu well. The shaft 5 is equipped with warmisham 17, which is connected through the extension 18 and the sleeve 19 with the Elevator column pipe.

On the outside of the housing 1 is mounted a spring centralizer 20 fixed thereon shear element 21. The extension 18 provided with a ring 22 forming with the housing a spring clamp 20 of the telescopic connection. In the axial channel of the extension 18 is installed, the adapter 23, provided with a sleeve 24 with a support ledge 25 member into the bore in the barrel 5 and resting on the end of wertish 17. On the upper end of the adapter 23 is made of a longitudinal window 26 for axial connection of the channel 9 of the shaft 5 with the annular gap between the extension 18 and the adapter 23. The adapter 2 of the housing 1 contains a separation plate 27, between which there is a spring retaining ring 28 with the bevel facing toward the barrel 5. The orientation of the stoppers 14 with respect to the landing cone 12 on the shaft 5 is accomplished by clamps 29 installed in the holes of the housing 1 and received in the longitudinal grooves 30 of the stoppers 14.

The annular gap between the shaft 5 and the housing 1 is overlapped sealing sleeves 31. The annular gap between the sleeve 24 and the shaft 5 is overlapped with the sealing ring 32.

The work to be drilled mechanical packer.

Elevator column pipes poda is in constant contact with the inner surface of the casing string.

Right-hand rotation of the tubing string of trumpets to announce the extension 18, is implemented by its twisting of the housing 1 with speed control. The tension of the tubing string, reported through wertish 17 to the shaft 5, is implemented by its movement relative to the housing 1 until it stops boarding cone 12 in response to the bevels of the stoppers 14 from moving in the radial boxes 13 of the housing 1 to contact with the inner surface of the casing. Further tension up the whole layout bring the stoppers 14 to the location of the nearest junction of the pipe coupling joint of the casing and enter into between the ends of the tubes (see Fig.3). While the stoppers 14 are displayed outside of the housing 1 and the shaft 5 occupies a position in which the groove 11 is located above the stoppers 14. In this position of the structural elements is fixing mechanical packer in the pipe joint.

Further tension shaft 5 lead Rethimno cone 6 in engagement with mating cone crumbs 15 and make their move in the radial direction. This radial force is communicated to the sealing element 3, which plastically deforms and increases its diameter to a diameter equal to the inner diameter of the casing OBR is the position of the retaining rings 28 in the adapter 2, what causes them to enter into the notches 10 and the fixing shaft 5 relative to the housing 1. Radial channels 16 are arranged between the sealing sleeves 31, which leads to the cessation of hydraulic connection of the axial channel 9 of the barrel 5 from the cavity well after the landing of the packer. In this position in the axial channel of the tubing string pipes carry out the installation of separation tube (not shown), and then in the axial channel of the tubing string of pipe serves the estimated volume of the chemical composition and dropping squeezing the tube. Served under the pressure of the working fluid and move squeezing the tube down. When moving the separating tube for axial channel tubing string buffer fluid through the check valve 8 opens in podarennuyu cavity and then into the reservoir. Dividing the tube under pressure moves down and enters the axial channel adapter 23 (see Fig.6). The calculated pressure in the open channel in the separation tube and carry out the injection of the insulating composition in podarennuyu zone. The control process is finished injection - jump in pressure at the mouth during landing and squeezing the tube separation tube (see Fig.6). Relieve pressure in the tubing string of pipe. Excessive years podarennuyu area from nadakarni.

Right-hand rotation of the tubing string of pipe communicated through the extension 18 on wertish 17, remove it from engagement with the barrel 5. The tension of the tubing string carry out the movement of the extension 18 with the ring 22 relative to the spring clamp 20. Wertish 17 interacts with the supporting ledge of the sleeve 24, and outputs it from engagement with the barrel 5. In this position formed the hydrodynamic coupling of the axial channel tubing string of pipe through a longitudinal window 26 in the end face of the adapter 23 and the annular gap between it and the extension 18 with the annular space of the well to ensure leakage of working fluid from the tubing string of pipe when lifting from the well of the extension 18, the adapter 23 and the spring clamp 20. Separation and squeezing the tube remains in the axial channel adapter 23 and retrieved to the surface together with the extension 18 and the adapter 23 (see Fig.6, 7).

In this position shall equip the well downhole equipment for development and production of formation fluids.

Design of mechanical packer is, if necessary, to carry out its drilling.

Claims

Drilled a mechanical packer, comprising a housing, is further provided with a bore cone and warmisham, connected through a power strip ring, with the clutch in the axial channel which has an adapter is fitted with lateral Windows in the front part and the sleeve, forming a sliding connection with the shaft, the anchor is made in the form of blocks that are installed in the Windows of the housing with a possibility of interaction with a landing cone of the barrel, the retainer is made in the form of a split locking rings mounted in annular bores of the housing and facing in the direction of the response of the grooves on the barrel, the mechanism of the landing is made in the form of a camshaft of the cone at the lower end of the barrel and the spring-loaded crackers that are installed on the inner annular protrusion of the sealing element, in this case with a spring centralizer covering extension with ring, with the option of establishing with him a telescopic connection, and the axial bore is connected with the hollow bore of the radial channels and provided with a check valve.

 

Same patents:

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The invention relates to the field of oil and gas industry, namely, devices for sealing the wellbore between the casing and the column tubing

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Packer // 2245986

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: packer has body in form of pipe, whereon collar compactors are placed with limiting washers, saddles for locking tool dropped from surface, cover, upper and lower fixing elements, made in form of anchoring assemblies, upper conical bushing, rigidly connected to pressing bushing and movably to the body, lower conic bushing, made rigidly together with body, guide of this conic bushing made in form of plate spring, placed by one end moveably in guiding groove in lower portion of lower die with teeth, and by other end fixed rigidly on greater diameter of this conic bushing, auxiliary pipe, placed inside the body. Packer in lower portion is provided with check valve, placed inside recess of body, concurrently being also the body of valve. Oppositely to valve saddle on same axis stepped locking bushing is placed with possible sliding inside body recess with limited drive and possible overlapping of radial grooves made in body, which, in its turn, is rigidly connected to auxiliary pipe via shear pin. Between stepped locking bushing and saddle compression spring is placed. Fixing elements of collar compactors are made in form of comb with inner teeth and outer conic generators in nose portion. On the side of collar compactors these are enveloped by inner conic portion of compression bushing, in its turn rigidly connected to upper conic bushing, and on the other side combs with inner teeth are placed sliding-moveably in radial grooves of guiding bushing placed between ends of upper conic bushing and inner conic portion of compression bushing with possible engagement by inner teeth of comb to slanting walls of body groove and interaction to all elements of this assembly.

EFFECT: higher reliability.

5 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

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EFFECT: simplified construction, broader functional capabilities.

3 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: stand has imitators of casing and lifting columns with packer between them, means for heating casing column imitator, main hydraulic cylinder for axial loading and unloading of packer, pumps to create pressure. Stand is provided with additional hydraulic cylinder with hollow rod and cylinder, connected to rod of min hydraulic cylinder. Additional hydraulic cylinder is encased in the body, rigidly connected to main hydraulic cylinder and imitator of casing column. In additional hydraulic cylinder a ring-shaped piston is placed with conical skirt, interacting with keys with possible periodical supporting against the body through windows in said cylinder and below keys spring-loaded ring-shaped pusher is moveably mounted. In hollow of imitator of lifting column a floating piston is positioned, this hollow and hollow of the hollow rod are interconnected and also connected to hollow above ring-shaped piston.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher efficiency.

7 dwg

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EFFECT: higher reliability, durability and lower cost.

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EFFECT: higher reliability.

2 cl, 4 dwg

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FIELD: oil and gas industry.

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EFFECT: higher reliability.

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FIELD: oil and gas industry.

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EFFECT: lower costs and simplified maintenance.

6 dwg

Packer // 2251614

FIELD: oil production industry, particularly means for dividing an annular space and a tube space in flowing, gaslift, and beam wells.

SUBSTANCE: packer includes shaft with outer bored surface and bead and sealing members supported by the bead. Packer also has air cylinder forming annular cavity together with packer shaft. Cavity is connected with shaft interior through radial channels. Packer includes anchoring means. Lower anchoring means includes cone with slips and slip holder having bored inner orifice and threaded orifices. Lower anchoring means rests upon the bead and is connected to the shaft by shear screws installed in threaded orifices of slip holder. Shaft defines inner bored diameter and includes sliding bush located inside shaft. Shaft is provided with lower and upper grooves for sealing rings receiving and with outer grooves for cams and additional shear screws installation. Outer grooves are located between lower and upper ones. Slots are formed below bead on outer shaft surface for installing cams with limited radial travel. Threaded orifices are formed on outer shaft surface above inner groove thereof. Arranged into groove are additional shear screws to secure sliding bush in its initial position. The slip holder is freely installed on shaft or is spring-loaded. Support-moving bush is installed in inner bored orifice of slip holder between shear screws and cams. Support-moving bush is provided with facet formed from cam side and contacts with cams along mating facets upon shearing of shear screws. Free travel between cams and end of support-moving bush exceeds shear screw diameters to provide shearing thereof. When sliding bush is installed in fixed position cams extend above an outer shaft surface generator to provide displacement of support-moving bush and cut of shear screws. When sliding bush is located in operating position cams are located below outer shaft surface generator and move in radial direction into outer groove of sliding bush to provide free cam movement under support-moving bush and shear screws.

EFFECT: reduced number of lowering and lifting operations and breakdowns in the case or packer separation or during packer pulling out of well.

18 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has body, made in form of branch pipe with elastic collar mounted on it, expanding assembly with cone, shear element, gear, lowered on pipes column into additional casing column and interacting with expanding assembly from above. Expanding element is positioned in upper portion of branch pipe and locked with its cone directed downwards, gear is made in form of pusher in lower portion and anchor assembly in upper portion. Pusher is made in form of hydraulic cylinder, made with possible pressure from above on expanding assembly and provided with piston and hollow rod, which is connected to piston rigidly, and to pipes column - hermetically with possible upward axial displacement. Anchor assembly is made in form of dies, mounted on hollow rod with possible radial movement outwards during movement of hollow rod upwards relatively to pipes column. Shear element holds hollow rod relatively to pipes column during lowering into well.

EFFECT: simplified construction, lower costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has packer, mounting tool and anchor assembly. Packer expander is mounted in upper portion of body, and anchor assembly - above hydraulic chamber of mounting tool. Hydraulic chamber cylinder is mounted with possible displacement relatively to rod and hydraulically connected to inner space of device. Body of anchor assembly is provided with sockets, in which spring-loaded dies are mounted, which are activated by hydraulic effect formed in tubing pipes column, on which device is lowered into well.

EFFECT: simplified construction, higher reliability, higher efficiency.

1 dwg

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