All-wheel drive wheeled machine
The invention relates to a self-propelled wheeled vehicles, in particular for four-wheel drive wheeled machines with hydrostatic transmission. The machine has a frame with cab, front and rear driven wheel and the middle wheel, hydrostatic transmission for driving all wheels. The transmission consists of two pumping stations, and six motors, located along the frame between the side members. Each hydraulic motor fixed to the body of the initial gearbox with spur gear external gear, equipped with a driven toothed clutch. Driven shaft with the initial gear through the drive transmission connected to the driving shaft side gear is installed on the brake disc. With the driven shaft side gear through the drive transmission is connected to the wheel shaft of the gearbox. The technical result consists in providing ease of installation and maintenance of motors and gears. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.
This invention relates to a self-propelled wheeled vehicles. It concerns all-wheel drive machines with hydrostatic transmission.
In patent documents describes various meganie application No. 86/04306, IPC 60 To 17/10; 91/01899, IPC 60 To 17/356 issued in Finland patent # 75308, the IPC 60 17/10).
Published in great Britain application No. 2073684, the IPC 60 17/10 presents all-wheel drive articulated wheeled machine with hydrostatic transmission consisting of front and rear four-wheel trucks with Centerpoint suspension unmanaged wheels, one of which in each cart at each of its sides has a direct drive from the motor, and the other wheel has a chain drive from the motor. However, in such a wheeled machine, it is difficult to provide a reliable supply of fluid under pressure to the motors located on the back of the truck.
Closer to the technical essence is all-wheel drive multi-purpose wheeled machine with hydrostatic transmission, are presented in the description of the issued U.S. patent No. 4600069, NCI 180-24.02, IPC B 62 D 61/10. This machine has at least six unmanaged wheels, evenly spaced along the frame on the opposite side, on the frame on the front, a passenger cabin, cabin across the machine placed the engine and pump station, consisting of a matching gearbox and two hydraulic pumps, with which the pipes are connected by two axially Porsche is ORT of the machine, and with another motor also chain transmission connected to the drive shafts of the wheels located on the other side of the machine. The rotation of this machine is made by rotation of wheels of different boards with different frequencies or by braking wheels from one of the sides. However, when driving off-road on weak soils that can cause significant damage to vegetation due to the shift of the ground wheels.
Task - the creation of an ecologically reliable multi-purpose four-wheel drive wheeled off-road vehicles equipped with hydrostatic transmission drive all wheels, ensuring ease of installation and maintenance of motors and gear mechanisms arranged in the kinematic chain between the motors and the wheels.
The solution to this technical problem is provided by the fact that all-wheel drive wheeled machine that contains the frame and the cab, front and rear driven wheels and located in between the middle wheel has a hydrostatic transmission for driving all wheels, consisting of a pumping station installed on the side members of the frame along the frame hydraulic motors, each hydraulic motor mounted on the housing separate initial reaosn with the shaft of the motor, and the driven gear is placed between the pinion and the side member, which is fixed to the gearbox housing, a driven shaft with the initial gear through the drive transmission connected to the driving shaft side gear and driven shaft side gear through the drive transmission is connected to the wheel shaft of the gearbox, with the initial gear provided on the kinematic chain gear coupling with a spring actuator for opening and pneumatic drive circuit and the drive shaft side gear is offset from the wall of the side member on the driven shaft of the starting gear and set the brake disk.
When such a set of features characterizing created four multiwheel machine, in which each wheel has a separate drive from a separate motor through a kinematic chain composed of placed separately start, onboard and wheel gearboxes connected by a cardan transmissions, provided the ease of installation and maintenance of its units, which increases the reliability of the machine. This technical result is achieved due to the modular construction of the transmission machine.
Pump station this wheeled machine sossego gear, and hydrostatic transmission has three hydraulic circuits, uniting each main pump with two axial-piston adjustable hydraulic motors drive the pair of wheels of the vehicle, located symmetrically on opposite sides of the frame, and the transmission is equipped with valves with manual operation, informing the hydraulic circuit used to drive the middle wheels of the vehicle, with hydraulic circuits serving to drive the front and rear wheels. This increases the ease of management of transmission units when conditions change, the movement of the machine, in particular during its movement over rough terrain.
The figure 1 shows a wheeled machine with hydrostatic transmission, side view.
The figure 2 shows a portion of a wheeled machine located behind the cab, top view.
The figure 3 shows a wheeled machine in a perspective view.
The figure 4 presents a perspective view of the units hydrostatic transmissions for machines.
The figure 5 shows the placement of units hydrostatic transmissions on the frame of the machine.
The figure 6 shows the kinematic diagram of the drive wheel.
In figure 7 is given a simplified hydraulic circuit hydrostatic transmissions for machines.
Wheeled machine (figure 1) contains a frame 1 comprising the s side of the frame 1 along the rails 2 and 3 symmetrically arranged wheels 4, 5, 6. Moreover, the front wheels 4 and rear wheels 6 is controlled by means of the steering actuator 7, and in the middle between the wheels 4 and 6 are unmanaged secondary wheel 5. All wheels have independent torsion suspension on the frame on the transverse lever 8. On the frame 1 on the front, a passenger cabin 9. Behind the cab 9 along the machine placed the engine 10 internal combustion, closed the hood 11. Under the hood 11 in its rear wall 12 are fans and heat exchangers cooling fluid hydrostatic transmissions of the machine. The hood 11 is equipped with a metal frame covered with removable panels 13 (figure 3) to allow access to the engine and heat exchangers for maintenance. The said cage is a cage that protects the engine and heat exchangers from accidental damage. In the side wall 14 of the hood 11 has a ventilation window with mesh grating 15, split counter, on which are fixed the handrail 16. Below the grating 15 has a step 17 under which to access it between the front wheel 4 and the secondary wheel 5 is a staircase 18. Ladder 18 is separated from the front wheel 4 wheel wing 19, and from the middle of the wheel 5 it from tanzia 21 hydrostatic transmissions, consisting of matching gear 22 (figure 4), having a motor-driven machine through the drive transmission 23, and three fixed on the gear housing 22 a reversible axial piston hydraulic pumps 24, 25, 26 adjustable performance with remote electrical control. Case matching gear 22 has the shape of a narrow boxes resting on the top shelf 27 (figure 5) of the side members 2, 3. The pumps 24 and 25 mounted on the housing 22 from the side of the cab 9 on the back of the hood 11. The third pump 26 is placed in the middle on the back side of the housing 22. The pumps 24, 25, 26 are driven from the input shaft of the reduction gear 22 through a gear transmission gear which is located inside the housing of the gearbox.
All pump station 21 is covered by the body of the camper (not shown) placed on the frame 1 behind the hood 11 with providing access to the pumps from the body, which increases the convenience of their service in the cold and rainy weather.
With the pumps 24, 25, 26 pumping stations 21 pipes 28 are connected in pairs axially adjustable piston motors 29 and 30, 31 and 32, 33 and 34 separate drive wheels of the vehicle placed along the frame 1 between its side members 2 and 3. Motors installed the toron, United with the wall 39 of the spar between the upper and lower shelves. Moreover, the motors 31 and 32 medium drive wheels 5 and the hydraulic motors 33 and 34 of the rear wheels 6 are located between the boxes forming the brackets 35, 36.
The brackets 35, 36 serve not only to support the motors, but also as a body, gear, forming the initial gear 40 (figure 6) in the drive wheel from the motor. The gear 40 is composed of a leading cylindrical gear 41, which is located coaxially with the shaft of the motor and driven cylindrical gear 42, is placed between the gear 41 and the nearest wall of the spar on which is fixed the gear housing. Driven gear 42 is freely mounted on the driven shaft 43 of the gear with the possibility of connection with him toothed coupling 44. Clutch 44 with a spring actuator for opening and pneumatic actuator for a circuit using device 45 management. With the driven shaft 43 primary gear 40 through the drive transmission 46 is connected to drive shaft 47 on-Board gear 48, containing angular gear with bevel gears. Moreover, the driving shaft 47 of the onboard gear is offset from the wall 39 of the side member on the driven shaft 43 primary gear 40 and establish Ichigo spar has connected therewith a tubular section, in which are the bearings of the driven shaft 50 of the gear 48. Driven shaft with 50 onboard gear through the drive transmission 51 is connected to the wheel shaft of the gearbox 52 placed inside the rim 53 of the wheel having a relatively small diameter. On the rim 53 is set large, elastic tires 54 with adjustable air pressure in them lower when driving on soft soil to a small value to prevent damage to the soil and improve cross machine.
Hydrostatic transmission has three hydraulic circuits 55, 56, 57 (figure 7) connecting the pump 24 with the hydraulic motors 29, 30 driving the front wheels 4, the pump 25 with the motors 31, 32 medium drive wheels 5 and the pump 26 with the hydraulic motors 33, 34 of the rear drive wheels 6. This hydrostatic transmission provided with valves 58 and 59 from the handheld remote control that tells hydraulic circuit 56, which serves to drive the secondary wheel 5 of the machine, with hydraulic circuits 55 and 57 serving to drive respectively the front and rear driven wheels. Recharge the hydraulic circuit of the working fluid is a special pumps which are not shown.
When driving it the engine 10 through the drive transmission 23 through a gear is that pipeline 28 serves the working fluid under high pressure to an axial piston hydraulic motors of the drive wheels of the vehicle. From pump 24, the working fluid in the hydraulic circuit 52 is supplied to the hydraulic motors 29 and 30 drive the front wheels 4, the pump 25 through the hydraulic circuit 53 is fed to the motors 31, 32 medium drive wheels 5, and from the pump 26 it is delivered to the hydraulic motors 33, 34 of the rear wheels 6.
From motors torque through the cylindrical gears 41, 42 with the outer toothed gear and the clutch 44 primary gear 40 and through the drive transmission 46 is fed to the driving shaft 47 on-Board gear 48, containing angular gear with bevel gears. From the driven shaft 50 on-Board gear 48 torque through the drive transmission 51 and wheel gear 52 is applied to the wheel of a car.
If you want to change the torque on the wheels of the vehicle produced by means of the microprocessor control system on-Board computer control performance of the pumps 24, 25, 26, resulting in a change created them working fluid pressure supplied to the hydraulic motors of the drive wheels 4, 5, 6. This also regulate the working volume of the hydraulic motors.
Load balancing on the units and transmission mechanisms hydrostatic transmissions, to ensure the same period draulically the contours of the pressure of the working fluid created simultaneously by three pumps, becomes the same even when the difference in the performance of pumps, resulting due to inevitable inaccuracies in their regulation.
On a hilly area when lifting the machine forward on steep slopes with poor soil, when the reduced load on the front wheels due to its redistribution to the middle and rear wheels, there is a risk of slippage of the front wheels and, accordingly, the machine is stopped due to the pressure drop of the working fluid in the hydraulic circuits. To avoid this, before lifting the machine hydraulic circuit 55 supply of operating fluid to the hydraulic motors driving the front wheels 4 is disconnected from the hydraulic circuit 56 and valve 58, ensuring conservation of thrust on the middle and rear wheels 5, 6 in case of slippage of the front wheels 4. After overcoming the hillside hydraulic circuit 55 is again connected to the hydraulic circuit 56 in the same valve 58 and the pressure of the fluid in it again equalized with the pressure in the other circuits. Similarly act, if necessary, driving up the slippery slope in reverse, for example, to exit back out of the ravine. In this case, the pick-up time off the genius of the machine on uneven terrain with poor waterlogged soil, when any wheel slip, the valves 58, 59 alienate all the hydraulic circuits 55, 56, 57. So do on rough terrain before moving the machine through the ditches, ditches and trenches.
If necessary, towing vehicle, each hydraulic motor is disconnected toothed coupling 44 from the drive wheel by stopping the supply of compressed air to the pneumatic cylinder device 45 management of this coupling. Then tooth clutch 44 under the action of a spring device 45 managing, moving, opens the kinematic chain between the motor and the wheel.
Braking action if necessary to reduce its speed or stop, and when the Parking lot is produced disc brakes with brake pads against the brake discs 49.
When working hydrostatic transmission cooling fluid is produced by heat exchangers located under the hood 11. The heat exchangers are blown by fans air flow circulating through the window in the hood 11, equipped with mesh grating 15.
For maintenance and repair of the engine or the fan and heat exchanger hydrostatic transmissions service personnel on the ladder 18, holding onto the handrail 16, rises naemam units.
The ease of maintenance, repair or replacement of motors or gearboxes, located on the frame in the kinematic chain between the motors and wheel gearboxes, provided that they are conveniently located between the side members of the frame separately and, if necessary, can be easily removed from the machine after their separation from the drive gear.
Created all-wheel drive wheeled machine multi-purpose due to the modular construction of its hydrostatic transmissions has rational design, which ensured manufacturability of its industrial production and ease of maintenance of its units. Thanks to continuous and smooth supply of torque to the wheels through the use of hydrostatic transmissions to drive all six wheels equipped with large elastic tyres, the machine is able to work reliably in rough terrain, snow, sand, wetland and woodland, tundra, grassland with waterlogged soil without irreversible damage to the soil. It can be used for search and rescue operations, performed by rescue forces during liquidationists of oil spills from pipelines, for delivery to remote destinations for exploration, as a self-propelled chassis for mounting special equipment when working in complex terrain, as well as all-terrain truck.
1. All-wheel drive wheeled machine that contains the frame and the cab, front and rear driven wheel and located between the middle wheels, hydrostatic transmission for driving all wheels, consisting of a pumping station installed on the side members of the frame along the frame hydraulic motors, each hydraulic motor mounted on the housing separate landing gear with cylindrical pinion with external gearing, of which the leading gear is located coaxially with the shaft of the motor, and the driven gear is placed between the pinion and the side member, which is fixed to the gearbox housing, a driven shaft with the initial gear through the drive transmission connected to the driving shaft side gear, driven shaft with which through the drive transmission is connected to the wheel shaft of the gearbox, with the initial gear provided on the kinematic chain of gear couplings is the fountain roller is offset from the wall of the side member on the driven shaft of the starting gear and set the brake disk.
2. Wheeled machine under item 1, characterized in that the pump station consists of three reversible axial piston pumps variable capacity, fixed to the body matching gear, and hydrostatic transmission has three hydraulic circuits, uniting each axial plunger pump with two axial-piston adjustable hydraulic motors drive the pair of wheels of the vehicle, located symmetrically on opposite sides of the frame, and the transmission is equipped with valves with manual operation, informing the hydraulic circuit used to drive the middle wheels of the vehicle, with hydraulic circuits serving to drive the front and rear wheels.
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle contains frame 1 with cab 9, front and rear steerable wheels 4, 6 and middle wheels 5, engine placed behind the cab along vehicle and covered by hood 11. hydrostatic transmission contains pumping station 21 consisting of matching reduction gear driven by engine placed behind the cab, and three pumps connected by pipelines with hydraulic motors providing separate drives of wheels. Hydraulic motors are arranged along frame 1 between sidemembers on solid brackets made in form of boxes with flanges connected with wall of side member between its webs. Invention makes it possible to create ecologically clean and reliable multipurpose all-wheel-drive vehicle of high cross-country capacity with hydrostatic transmission to drive all wheels.
EFFECT: provision of convenient mounting and servicing of transmission units.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.
FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles with positive displacement hydraulic drive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission includes constant-capacity guided-vane hydraulic pump mechanically connected with vehicle engine communicating through pressure, drain and suction hydraulic lines through hydraulic distributor enclosing pressure and drain hydraulic lines and playing the part of reversor with at least one constant-capacity reversible guide-vane hydraulic motor to transmit torque to one or two driving wheels of automobile. Spaces of suction and drain hydraulic lines communicate with space of hydraulic tank. Suction hydraulic line passes through adjustable hydraulic restrictor whose control lever is mechanically coupled with automobile accelerator pedal.
EFFECT: simplified design of transmission, reduced fuel consumption and weight of transmission and its cost, and increased efficiency of automobile.
18 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; machine building hydraulics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used on vehicles and machine-and-tractor units operating under unsteady conditions of movement. Proposed device contains planetary train 1, reactive link 3 connected with drive gear of oil pump 5. Planetary train is connected through carrier shaft with gearbox 9 and is set into operation by engine 11. Two-step adjustable restrictor 12 is installed in pressure main line of pump. Safety valve 14 and control cock 15 are connected to input of adjustable restrictor, being also installed in pressure main line of pump pneumohydraulic accumulator, being end member of pressure main line, is provided with three spaces. It consists of hydraulic cylinder, free piston, piston with rod, piston position regulator, oil line and oil channel. Space between pistons is filled with oil which regulates volume.
EFFECT: reduced influence of vibrations of external traction load onto functioning of machine-and-tractor unit.
FIELD: transport engineering; hydrostatic transmissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrostatic transmission contains pumping unit consisting of main and makeup pumps driven by vehicle engine, hydraulic motors connected by main hydraulic lines with pumping unit and forming circulating hydraulic circuit, and electrically driven self-contained pump whose delivery space is connected with hydraulic circuit formed by main hydraulic lines. Hydrostatic transmission is furnished additionally with sealed hydraulic tank with device for charging its air space with compressed air from vehicle pneumatic system and containing shutoff cock, compressed air pressure regulator in sealed hydraulic tank with safety valve and vacuum manual control valve to discharge compressed air from sealed hydraulic tank, two-position manual control valve for alternate hydraulic coupling of suction space of self-contained electrically-driven pump with hydraulic tank and with device for charging the tank with working liquid, check valve arranged in drain hydraulic line at inlet of sealed hydraulic tank, and manually controlled shutoff valve in suction hydraulic line at outlet of sealed hydraulic tank.
EFFECT: improved reliability of hydrostatic transmission of vehicle designed for operation under various road conditions.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in different vehicles and in devices and mechanisms for clashless engagement of driven shafts. Proposed torque converter contains drive and driven units of converter. Drive unit is made in form of disks 2-5 with slots freely fitted on splined shaft 1. Movable blades are fitted in said slots. Driven unit of converter is made in form of cylindrical housing 7 with driven shaft 16 and rings 11 and 12 fitted on shaft. Disks 2-5 with blades 6 of drive unit of converter are arranged inside rings. Slots in disks 2-5 of drive unit of converter are made through being arranged tangentially. Each of rings 11, 12 in cylindrical housing 7 of converter driven unit is installed for rolling on guide 13, being connected with axle-shaft 14 flush-fitted in cradle of step bearing 15 whose body is in rigid engagement with cylindrical housing 7. With drive unit rotating, summary driven torque is formed from its hydraulic and inertia components. Formulas for calculating the torque are given in description of invention.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydraulic - inertia converter, its control system, gearbox of converter and method of torque conversion.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed recuperative reversible stepless hydraulic transmission of wheeled vehicle contains drive engine 5, recuperator 20 with overrunning clutch 24, controllable reversible hydraulic machine 18 with pressure and suction and control plunger 8 communicating with hydraulic control system through pipelines, follow-up hydraulic booster with variable-capacity pump 12 of reverse capacity, four non-controllable hydraulic machines 29-32. Each of said hydraulic machines has vehicle wheel, and wheels of vehicle are in contact with road pavement. Recuperator 20 is made in form of planetary reduction gear whose carrier 19 is connected with pump 12 and with hydraulic machine 18 provided with two diametric pressure and two diametric suction spaces and connected with hydraulic machines 29-32 by pipelines. Hydraulic machine 18 contains "floating" plunger 33 with two cylindrical grooves between two end face spaces and "polar" plunger by channels of which end face spaces of floating plunger 33 are communicated, overlapped or reversed with pressure and suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Cylindrical grooves of floating plunger 33 synchronously overlap or hydraulically communicate two pressure and two suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Lever 6 of polar plunger is mechanically connected with corresponding slot of plate 3 of vehicle speed and reverse control member.
EFFECT: reduced number of control members, dispensing with brake system improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, reduced fuel consumption, reduced acceleration time, increased efficiency.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: public building structures, particularly drives for showcase rotation.
SUBSTANCE: drive to rotate showcase substantially formed as superimposed disc 4 installed on pin 5 provides force transmission from drive 12 to disc 4 by means of flexible tie having tensioning means. Flexible tie is formed as closed loop of chain 10 having rigid links. The chain passes around the disc 4 along disc surface generator. Drive has sprocket 11 of driving means. The sprocket 11 is installed on shaft of hydraulic drive 12. Hydraulic drive 12 is mounted on plate 13 moving in radial direction relative disc 4 by hydraulic power cylinder 16.
EFFECT: increased safety of the drive, improved disc position adjustment, reduced size, simplified mounting and enhanced maintainability.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises electric means for measuring working volume of pumps and hydraulic motors and pickup (60) for measuring the speed of rotation of the shaft of the pump station. The electric circuits are provided with threshold control members (67) and (80) interconnected between pickup (6) and the electric means. Between threshold control members (67) and (80) and electric means for changing working volume of pumps (67) and (80) and hydraulic motors (13), (14), (17), and (18) of the drive of end wheels are variable resistors (77), (78), (86), and (87) that are controlled by pickups (89) and (89) of pressure difference in hydraulic circuits of the drive of the intermediate wheels and the drive of each pair of end wheels.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering and may be used in production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles. The self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission contains: an input shaft 9 and an output shaft 6, a centrifugal type nonadjustable hydraulic pump 3, a gear differential unit 2 with two output shafts 5, 6 and a nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4. The hydraulic pump 3 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 5. The nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 6, which is an output shaft of the gear differential unit output shaft. Self-regulation of a torque of the output shaft is depending on a load by changing the number of revolutions per a minute of the centrifugal pump using the differential gear of the he self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission. The technical result is an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.