Device for the separation of diamond-containing materials

 

The invention relates to the field of mineral processing, containing y under the influence of radiation minerals. The technical result of the invention is to improve the selectivity of the separation process due to the use of differences in the kinetics of rentgenolyuminestsentnye of the separated minerals. For this purpose, the device comprises a conveying mechanism, a pulsed excitation source, the photodetector, determined by the incident x-rays or the side opposite to the incident x-ray radiation, the output of which is connected to the input of the signal processing unit luminescence intensity, the unit production teams actuator. It is equipped with a unit for computing the ratio between the component of luminescence, one input of which is connected to the output of the pulsed excitation source, an output connected to the input unit production teams actuator, and a second input coupled to the output signal processing unit luminescence intensity, made in the form of a logarithmic amplifier. 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of mineral processing, containing Lumine, The C-D-4-04, LS-20-05-2M) containing the transport mechanism, the pulsed excitation source, the photodetector, the unit threshold separation unit production teams actuator. Work separators based on pulsed x-ray irradiation of the stream of material flowing into the radiation zone, usually on the inclined tray. Passing through the exposure zone grain enriched material in moments of action of the x-ray pulses are subjected to exposure under the influence of which a number of minerals, including diamonds, lumines cent. Materials for the study of the nature of the luminescence of diamonds is known that the processes of rise and decay of the luminescence is characterized by at least two components of illumination, different time constant. The decay time of the short components of the afterglow does not exceed 10-7C, the time constant of the decay of long components reaches (1-10)10-3C. Evaluation of the intensity of rentgenolyuminestsentnye minerals is not in moments of excitation pulses of x-rays, but with some delay after the end of the x-ray pulse. Thus is realized izmerenii. Moreover, the registration of these signals can be carried out by irradiating x-rays from the opposite side (so-called mode x-ray absorption) (see Manual of the separator fluorescent LS-D-4-03, St. Petersburg, 1997, S. 7-8; S. 10; S. 13-15; C. 17-21, copies attached).

A disadvantage of the known device separation is the low selectivity during enrichment diamond ores, especially with increased content in fields such associated minerals, such as zircon, feldspar, plagioclase, etc. the fact that diamonds range luminescence intensity, including its long-term components of the attenuation is very wide and depends on many factors: the size and color of crystals, surface smoothness, presence of cracks and chips on their faces, the spatial orientation of the diamond at the moment of crossing the x-ray exposure, the content of impurities in the crystal lattice of diamond, etc. At the same time subaluminous diamond signals a long components commensurate with the level of "noise" optical and electronic circuits of the Desk. For reliable extraction of diamonds requires a large amplification of the electrical signals and uroven the same time, a large part of the accompanying minerals, especially zircons with bright luminescence has a significant amount of signals long-term components of the afterglow, exceeding the threshold of separation. As a result, such associated minerals are perceived by the separator as diamonds and retrieved in the concentrate. Increasing the threshold level of separation in order to prevent registration of accompanying minerals leads to loss subaluminous diamonds, i.e., to decrease the extract.

It is also known a device for separation containing transporting mechanism, the pulsed excitation source, the photodetector, the unit stabilize luminescence intensity, the unit measuring the rate of change of the intensity of the afterglow luminescence, unit threshold separation unit production teams with the Executive mechanism (see and.with. 1459014, 03 At 13/06, 1995, bull. No. 25, prototype).

The disadvantage of this device is the low selectivity of the separation process. This is due to several reasons. As for diamonds and associated minerals are characterized by the diversity of shapes of the curves of the luminescence decay described by complex mathematical expressions, i.e. for most of the samples luminescent minerals curves decline dliteljnosti afterglow even among the same type of minerals (for example, feldspars) in a given fixed time interval will have a very wide spread. This same conclusion is also valid for other types of minerals, and diamonds. Thus, the predefined boundary values of the velocity dispersion, which must satisfy the decay rate of long-term components of the luminescence of a useful mineral, must have a fairly wide range. If this is unavoidable, as measured by the above method, the values of the velocity decay of luminescence for a significant portion of related minerals will be contained within the boundaries of the speed range selected for the useful mineral. As a result, these minerals will be recorded as diamonds. The narrowing of the range of boundary values of the velocity in order to increase the selectivity inevitably leads to a decrease extract the desired mineral. In addition, the need to adjust the signal amplitude to the same level (device stabilization amplitude) introduces additional distortions in the process of computing the decay rate of long components.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the selectivity of the separation process due to the use of differences in the kinetics of rentgenolyuminestsentnye Sep transporting mechanism, the pulsed excitation source, the photodetector, determined by the incident x-rays or the side opposite to the incident x-ray radiation, the output of which is connected to the input of the signal processing unit luminescence intensity, the unit production teams with the Executive mechanism, which is equipped with a unit for computing the ratio between the component of luminescence, one input of which is connected to the output of the pulsed excitation source, an output connected to the input unit production teams actuator, and a second input coupled to the output signal processing unit luminescence intensity, made in the form of a logarithmic amplifier.

The basis of operation of the device incorporated experimentally established difference in the kinetics of rentgenolyuminestsentnye diamonds and associated minerals. At the moment of impact pulse x-ray radiation the intensity of the luminescence of many minerals, including diamonds, is the sum of short J1and long J2component rentgenolyuminestsentnye, the contribution of which depends on the physical properties of minerals, but also from time rise (decay) long components luminescently luminescence J2minerals to the level of reliable reception. At the end of the pulse x-ray radiation with regard to tightening the back front short component luminescence of minerals1fades out for no more than 150 μs.

In the proposed device when exposed to a pulse of x-rays by measuring the total intensity of the short and long luminescence component1+J2and then with a delay selectable in the range of 0.5 to 3.0 MS after pulse of x-rays, measuring the intensity of the long-term components of the luminescence of J2. The decision Almaz - associated mineral” is carried out after the calculation of the ratio:

where (J1+J2- the amplitude of the total signal intensity short and long-term component of luminescence at the time of the pulse x-ray radiation;

J2the amplitude of the signal intensity long-term components of the luminescence.

To ensure device operation in this mode is entered, the unit for computing the ratio between the component of the luminescence, and the signal processing unit luminescence intensity is made in the form logarithmical is 0.5 MS, and the repetition period of the pulses to 4.0 MS, numerous experimental studies have established the following:

I. In the embodiment, measurement of the intensities of luminescence (J1+J2and J2by irradiating the material the following relations are true:

To<28 - for 99,83% of the studied diamonds;

To>26 - luminescent minerals, represented by the largest percentage in the accompanying ores (zircon, feldspar, picroilmenite, plagioclase, etc.)

II. In the embodiment, measurement of the intensities of luminescence (J1+J2and J2opposite to the direction of irradiation of the material, the following relations are true:

To<34 for diamonds;

To>32 - related minerals.

However, the definition of the value To each luminescense mineral under the existing scheme the solutions used in separators with pulse mode x-ray radiation, in some cases, impossible. This is due to the very large dynamic range of the intensities of luminescence (J1+J2and J2the magnitude of which have a difference of up to three orders of magnitude, and depend on the physical properties of luminescent objects, their size, spatial orientation at the moment of exposure, the MSE of the coefficients J2in e-path reception separator with a linear gain characteristic is required to establish a significant gain. This bright signals in the measurement of the total intensity (J1+J2to cause a saturation of the gain stage, the signals are limited in amplitude, the magnitude of the electrical signal does not correspond to the true intensity and, as a consequence, the inevitable distortion when determining the value of K.

Structural diagram of the device shown in the drawing.

The device comprises a hopper 1, feeder 2, the transporting mechanism 3, the pulsed excitation source 4, a photodetector 5 (6), mounted either side of the incident radiation, or the side opposite to the incident light, the processing unit 7 signals luminescence intensity, made in the form of a logarithmic amplifier, a first input connected to the photodetector 5 (6), the computing unit 8 the ratio between the component of luminescence, made on the basis of operational amplifiers, a first input connected to the pulsed excitation source 4, and the output from the block 9 production teams with the Executive mechanism.

The device operates as follows.

MA is current), which delivers the material in the excitation zone. The pulsed excitation source 4 produces pulses of x-rays. Light signals luminescence of minerals in moments of action of the x-ray pulses and after converted either by the photodetector 5 (in the embodiment, measurement of luminescence intensity from the incident x-rays) or a photodetector 6 (in the embodiment, measuring the intensity of luminescence from the side opposite to the incident x-ray radiation) into electrical signals. Signals from the photodetector 5 (6) are fed to the processing unit 7 signals luminescence intensity, which is made in the form of a logarithmic amplifier, which allows you to compress the dynamic range of the electrical signals produced by the photodetector 5 (6) at least three orders of magnitude, provides sufficient amplification of weak signals and prevents the amplitude limitation bright luminescence signals. In this case, the relation (1) takes the form:

ln(J1+J2)/lnJ2=ln.

From the properties of logarithms we obtain:

ln(J1+J2)/lnJ2=ln(J1+J2)-lnJ2=ln.

Thus, the ratio of component luminescence (J1+J2)/J1proportional to the total luminescence intensity of the mineral (J1+J2), in the time of the pulse x-ray radiation, remember its value for longer than the time delay of the x-ray pulse to measure the intensity of the long-term components of the luminescence of J2(for example, before the next pulse of x-rays); the measured signal U2proportional to the intensity of the J2; after that, calculates a differential signal Up=U1-U2. For decision-making “diamond - the accompanying mineral compares the magnitude of the difference signal Up to a threshold Uthreshold=ln. The criterion Up<Umeans, what happened registration diamond, in this case, the command is given to the separation of the useful mineral in the concentrate. Option when Up>Uthresholdmeans that through the reception area was associated mineral, to which the measured signals, thus electron path register is prepared for the subsequent measurements. Developed unit 8 commands to the Department of minerals on the block-making teams actuator 9, which directs useful minerals concentrated in the receiver 10. The rest of the material together with the accompanying minerals falls in the tail of the receiver 11.

The application of the proposed device for separation in comparison with the known devices can reduce the total number of nozzles in 4-6 times, to improve the condition of the concentrate in 3-5 times, to reduce the number of nozzles on one diamond in 4-5 times and bring it to a value of 1.23 cut on the diamond, i.e., to increase the selectivity of the process.

Claims

Device for the separation of diamond-containing materials containing transporting mechanism, the pulsed excitation source, the photodetector, determined by the incident x-rays or the side opposite to the incident x-ray radiation, the output of which is connected to the input of the signal processing unit luminescence intensity, the unit production teams actuator, characterized in that it is provided with a block vicis the aqueous excitation, output connected to the input unit production teams actuator, and a second input coupled to the output signal processing unit luminescence intensity, made in the form of a logarithmic amplifier.

 

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FIELD: mining industry; diamonds mining.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to mining industry, in particular, to diamonds mining. The technical result of the invention is increase of electrical safety of a separator and reliability of its operation with simultaneous decrease of weight and dimensions of a power supply source for an X-ray tube. The separator contains a device of loading of a feed stock, a chute for delivery of the feed stock in a zone of detection of a required product, an X-ray tube connected to a source of its power supply, a photomultiplier, a block of control and data processing, a device for separation of a target product and a device for separate collection of the target and the end products. The source of power supply for the X-ray tube contains a transducer of mains voltage into low-voltage high-frequency voltage, a high-voltage transformer and a voltage multiplier. At that the high-voltage transformer and the voltage multiplier and also the X-ray tube are placed in a hermetic body filled in with a high-voltage insulating substance. One wall of the body has an opening, in which there is a fixed anode of the X-ray tube, which window for pass of the X-rays protrudes beyond the limits of the body.

EFFECT: the invention ensures electrical safety of a separator and reliability of its operation with simultaneous decrease of weight and dimensions of a power supply source for an X-ray tube.

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