Composition for the normalization of the radiation situation

 

The invention relates to the field of protection of the environment from radioactive contamination. The inventive composition for the normalization of the radiation environment, including film-forming substance on the basis of water or water-alcohol solution of polyvinyl alcohol or water-alcohol solution of polyvinyl butyral, or organic-based solution perchlorovinyl resin, plasticizer and filler. As the plasticizer composition comprises industrial, or castor oil, or low-soluble corrosion inhibitor, and as filler contains titanium dioxide and/or lead oxide. The composition has the following ratio of components, wt.%: film-forming substance - 5,0-18,0; plasticizer - 0,5-1,0; filler - 3,0-5,0; solvent - rest. Advantages of the invention lie in the fact that the composition is multifunctional and provides a constant physico-chemical and physico-mechanical properties of the formed coating. 8 C.p. f-crystals, 6 PL.

The invention relates to polymeric compositions for normalizing the radiation environment (NRA) natural and man-made objects in terms of contamination with radioactive substances is kaleseramik and decontamination compositions. Normalization of the radiation environment is the process of applying technologies of decontamination, isolation and containment, carried out with the use of polymer coatings (films). Polymeric coatings allow for technological processes of the NRA with a real decrease in the doses of the personnel, the further proliferation of radioactive contamination.

Depending on the target destination classify three main groups of polymeric coatings (films), namely: decontamination, isolating and localizing [A. D. Simon, C. K. Pikalov "Decontamination", M, Izdat, 1994, S. 186]. This classification is based on the relationship of films to radioactive contamination. Insulating film and a non-removable cover perceive radioactive contamination, screen surface unlike the confining that are already contaminated surface. The decontamination action films is the penetration of radionuclides in the material film and removing the film together with held it radioactive contamination.

The choice of material for the films is determined by the characteristics of the facility, state of aggregation and isotopic composition of radioactive contamination. As films for various purposes is Ohm and sorbent, in the form of suspensions, pastes and gels.

Known film-forming composition for decontamination water resistant coating, as described in.with. The USSR №1688714, CL G 21 F 9/34, published in 2000, on the basis of metallpoliererei resin, ethanol and ammonium chloride. Surface material - stainless steel, duralumin; pollution - aqueous solutions of cesium-137 and strontium-90. Ingredient ammonium chloride increases decontamination ability of the composition. However, this film-forming composition is applied only for decontamination.

Also known film-forming composition for decontamination of painted surfaces (patent RF №1271267, CL G 21 F 9/16, publ. 1998) containing polyvinyl alcohol, potassium hydroxide and water. The reason for restricting its use, is a narrow region of destination.

There is a method of protecting surfaces of equipment and premises described in the patent of Russian Federation №2039778, CL 09 D 129/04, 5/20, publ. 1993, EN, used for the temporary protection of surfaces of equipment and premises NPP film-forming composition based on polyvinyl alcohol with the addition of glycerin, water, ethyl alcohol. Surface pre-coated with a primer composition with a reinforcing material (gauze). Material pavlidi. For reasons that hinder the wide application of the aforementioned film-forming composition, is the need for reinforcement, the limited lifetime of the formed coating (smoothshaven less than 1 month).

Known application of Japan No. 8573210, CL G 21 F 9/00, publ. 1996, describes a method of preventing radioactive contamination of premises where work with radioactive materials. In the room the floor is covered with a film of polyvinyl butyral with a degree of butylanisole 62-68 mol.%, thickness of 0.03 to 0.2 mm After working soiled, remove the film. In this case, the film is used for isolation of radioactive contamination only at the time of application and cannot be used for long-term protection of surfaces.

Famous PCT application No. 92/18984, CL G 21 F 1/10, 09 D 133/06, publ. 1994, describes a method of reducing background radon indoors. Contaminated surface is covered with an aqueous solution of a copolymer of ether vinylidenechloride acid, also containing non-ionic surfactant is a copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and antifoam. The coating is dried. This coating is used as the confining and only to reduce background radon indoors.

Investrade radioactive dust and other substances. Film for obkleivanie the floor and walls of the premises of the plant during maintenance and repair to protect them from radioactive contamination and then removed and destroyed, contains the basis in which the front and back sides of the formed adhesive layers with a certain adhesive force. Such film is used as the confining and can not be used neither in the decontamination or isolation of surfaces contaminated with radionuclides.

Thus, the well-known domestic and foreign compositions for decontamination, isolation and localization of radioactive contamination of the surfaces of equipment, rooms, etc. However, all known compositions are applied to a single task: or decontamination or isolation, or containment, and do not solve the complex task.

The basis of the invention is the composition for the normalization of the radiation situation, which would be universal and cover varied solve the NRA.

The closest technical solution to the claimed compositions for the normalization of the radiation situation on the essential features and achieved technical result is information about polymer coatings, detect, The .186], which is selected as a prototype. In the proposed prototype indicated that, as a polymer base such compositions used water and water-alcohol solutions of polymers, including polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl butyral, dispersion latexes, polyvinyl acetate emulsion, etc. To make the films physico-chemical properties (elasticity, strength and adhesion) in the polymer composition is injected plasticizers (glycerol, tributyl phosphate and others) and fillers (surfactants, pigments, less sorbents). For radionuclide in accordance with the properties of the films and their purpose in the polymer compositions injected chemical reagents, which include mineral and organic acids, oxidizing agents, complexing agents and other in spite of different functional purpose, a wide range of materials for films, is the identity of physico-chemical processes of deposition, formation and removal of films and their interaction with radioactive contamination.

The essence of the proposed technical solution is to normalize the radiation environment due to the versatility of the composition, which simultaneously dozvolennogo composition within a single composition. This ensures consistency of physico-chemical and physico-mechanical properties of the formed coating for the entire period of operation. Also of note is the absence of liquid radioactive waste. Generated solid radioactive waste compact fold up and prepared for burial. Application of the claimed composition can be carried out using spray equipment manufactured in Russia.

This technical effect of the invention is achieved in that the composition for the normalization of the radiation environment, including film-forming substance on the basis of water or water-alcohol solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), or a water-alcohol solution of polyvinyl butyral (PVB), or organic-based solution perchlorovinyl resin (PVC resin), a plasticizer and a filler, characterized in that the plasticizer contains industrial, or castor oil, or low-soluble corrosion inhibitor, and as filler contains titanium dioxide and/or lead oxide in the following ratios, wt.%:

film-forming substance of 5.0-18,0

the plasticizer 0,5-1,0

the filler of 0.5-1.0

the solvent else

P is acidic cobalt in amount of 0.2-0.5 wt.%; nitric or phosphoric acid in an amount of 0.1-0.4 wt.%; the sulfonic acid in an amount of 0.1-0.3 wt.%; polymethylsiloxanes liquid (permanent residence) in an amount of 0.1-0.4 wt.%; rhodamine 6g in an amount of 0.01 to 0.05 wt.%; citric or oxalic acid, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in an amount of 0.2 to 0.8 wt.%; the glycerol in the amount of 1.0 to 3.0 wt.%.

The characteristics described in the claims, are necessary and sufficient to achieve the technical result, they are significant.

Conducted by the applicant-level analysis of techniques, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the applicant is not detected similar, characterized by signs, identical to all the existing elements of the claimed invention. The presence of distinctive features in relation to the selected prototype demonstrates compliance of the claimed technical solution to the criterion "novelty" by applicable law.

To verify compliance of the claimed invention to the requirement of inventive step, the applicant conducted an additional search of the known solutions in order to identify the ppsr is that of the prior art are not identified solutions, similarly solving a task.

Therefore, the claimed technical solution to meet the requirement of "inventive step".

Information confirming the ability of the invention to provide the above technical result are illustrated by examples.

The list of components used to prepare the proposed composition:

Polyvinyl alcohol - GOST 10779-78.

The butyral - GOST 9439-85.

Polyvinyl chloride resin in the form of a varnish XB-784 - GOST 7313-75 or enamel XB-124 GOST 10144-89.

Industrial oil I-20A - GOST 20799-88.

Castor oil - GOST 6990-75.

Soluble corrosion inhibitors:

Additive AKOR-1 - GOST 15171-78, slamin THE 38401753-89, mincor-2 TU 38401753-89.

Titanium dioxide GOST 9808-84.

The lead oxide GOST 19151-73.

Aluminum oxide (ProCalTM) - THE 1711-040-00196368-98.

Nitrate cobalt GOST 4528-78.

Nitric acid - GOST 4461-77.

Phosphoric acid - GOST 6562-80.

The sulfonic acid THAT 6-01-1001-75.

Polymethylsiloxane liquid PMS-100 GOST 13032-77.

Dye J THE 6-09-2463-82.

Citric acid - GOST 3652-69.

Oxalic acid - GOST 22180-76.

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid THE 6-09-2356-75.

Ethyl technical - GOST 17299-78.

Glycerin - GOST 6259-96.

The organic solution in the form of plants is slichnih materials (structural steel, stainless steel, alloys, rubber, plastic, plexiglass, glass, asphalt, concrete, surface, painted with oil, alkyd, epoxy and other coating materials, and others).

Preparation and application of a composition of:

1. In aqueous or aqueous alcoholic solution of PVA, custom electric food pot brand KPI-60-1 at a temperature of from 60With up to 80C and cooled to 40With injected sequentially with stirring components according to the recipe (corresponds p. 1 of the claims, with the subsequent addition of the components of the dependent claims).

2. In water-alcohol solution of PVB, custom electric food pot brand KPI-60-1 at a temperature of from 60With up to 80C and cooled to 40With injected sequentially with stirring components according to the recipe.

3. In the solution of a polyvinyl chloride resin-based organic solvent, in an electric food pot brand KPI-60-1, is administered sequentially with stirring components according to the recipe.

The prepared composition is applied on the surface is similar to radioactive contamination of the surface.

The quantitative ratio of the components in the composition are presented in table.1, 2, 3, where examples No. 1-24 - proposed composition.

Work on the normalization of the radiation environment

Made a composition with a viscosity to be applied on the contaminated surface using pressure atomisation method, and if necessary with a brush or roller. The formed film is removed in the case of decontamination activities. When localizing, remove the film on the basis of technological needs. When insulating the operation time of the film is 6 months.

The definition of decontamination capabilities

Decontamination capacity is determined according to GOST R 50773-95. The decontamination factor (Kd) calculated by the formula:

,

where aRef- the initial activity, AndOST- residual activity.

Definition insulating

Time of protective action of the composition is determined according to GOST R 50773-95.

During the protective action of the coating is taken as the time at which a radioactive substance penetrates through the protective coating on the substrate.

Decontamination, isolation and localization of metal surfaces produced according to GOST R 50773-95.

The composition was applied in a single layer.

Measured source is used to measure the time of protective actions for life.

With the localization of the measured time protective actions for life.

The results of tests on the special properties of the composition are presented in table.4, 5, 6.

Determination of physico-mechanical properties of

Physico-mechanical properties of coatings obtained from compositions for the normalization of the radiation situation, characterized by a tensile strength at elongationp(the film strength at break, MPa, determined according to GOST 14236-81, and film hardness by pendulum deviceTVdetermined in accordance with GOST 5233-89. The quality of Shimamoto coatings on the basis of the proposed composition was determined according to GOST 27891-88. The test results are also presented in table.4, 5, 6.

Analysis of test results

The number of PVS 5.0 to 18.0 wt.% is optimal. Reducing the number of PVS below 5.0 wt.% and an increase of more than 18.0 wt.% leads to deterioration of the entire complex of properties, in particular to the formation of very thin films and the formation of highly viscous composition, which leads to technological difficulties when it is applied, respectively.

Introduction as plasticizers industrial oils, castor oil or poorly soluble inhibitor interviewer is Zico-mechanical properties of the coating and easy removal of the film from the surface, and gives conservation properties, prevents corrosion. The decrease in the amount of plasticizer is below 0.5 wt.% leads to deterioration of physical and mechanical properties of the film, in particular the strength at break. Increasing the amount of plasticizer than 1.0 wt.% reduces the hardness of the film below the desired value.

Compositions comprising Slamin or Minor-2, PL.1 and 2 are not reflected, as the nature of their influence on the properties of the coating is the same as additives AKOR-1.

The introduction of fillers titanium oxide and/or lead oxide in the amount of 3.0-5.0 wt.% is also optimal. Reducing the number of filler below 3.0 wt.% and an increase of more than 5.0 wt.% leads to deterioration of insulating properties formed from the composition of the coating and workability during application of the composition, respectively. A similar pattern is observed in the analysis of the quantitative ratios of the components and their influence on the change of properties of coating compositions based on PVB and PVC.

The introduction of cobalt nitrate in a quantity of 0.2-0.5 wt.%, nitric or phosphoric acid in an amount of 0.1-0.4 wt.%, citric or oxalic, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in an amount of 0.2 to 0.8 wt.% according to the results table.4, 5, 6 provides r/945.gif">-active contamination increases with the introduction of these components), and with the isolation and containment protective action time is 5-8 months (with the introduction of these components protective action time increases from 4 to 5-8 months for various polymers). When the values of the following quantities of components worsen decontamination, isolating and localizing properties of coatings and above do not lead to further improvement of these properties. Adding to the composition component of the above set of components has a specific purpose, for example, with the introduction of cobalt nitrate without adding acids provides no oxidizing effect on the surface; mineral acids are entered for processing rusty surfaces, and organic acids are preferred for stainless steel surfaces; painted with alkyd, epoxy and other colors.

Introduction in the proposed composition of aluminum oxide improves the manufacturability of preparation, prevents clumping and facilitates application of the composition (hiding power), and also imparts flame retardant properties due to the fact that with increasing temperature above 100Introduction in the proposed composition of the sulfonic acid in an amount of 0.1-0.3 wt.% allows you to apply it on a dusty surface, with traces of oils and other process contaminants. Reducing the number of sulfonic acid below 0.1 wt.% and increase more than 0.3 wt.% does not allow to achieve good wetting of the surface when applied on the surface with traces of technological dirt.

In the preparation of compositions for prepodavanija preferably the introduction polymethylsiloxane fluid (permanent residence) in an amount of 0.1-0.4 wt.%, reducing the number of permanent residence below 0.1 wt.% and an increase of more than 0.4 wt.% does not cause effect prepodavanija.

To make color which is useful for certain types of work requiring display already treated areas, the composition additionally injected dye rhodamine 6g in an amount of 0.01 to 0.05 wt.%. The introduction of rhodamine 6g in these quantities is optimal. In addition, when neenie of rhodamine 6g in amounts below 0.01 wt.% and above 0.05 wt.% leads to insufficient intensity of color and inappropriate intensity of the color, respectively.

In the case of works at low temperatures can be entered into the composition of the glycerol in the amount of 1.0 to 3.0 wt.%. The reduction of the glycerol is less than 1.0 wt.% and an increase of more than 3.0 wt.% not attached antifreeze properties and leads to deterioration of physical and mechanical properties of the coating, respectively.

The analysis of table.4, 5, 6 shows that the compositions of examples 1-24 have a fairly high degree of purification decontaminated surface, and when the insulation protective action time is 5-8 months. A prototype of such qualities is not. The examples described above as proposed composition, confirm that the use of components in amounts that do not meet the specified in the claims, leads to a decrease in time of protective action for coatings based on PVB and PVA, lower decontamination ability to coatings based on PVC resin, to reduce the physical-mechanical properties for coatings based on PVA, PVB and PVC resin. Coatings on the basis of the proposed compositions have strength and hardness, are necessary and sufficient for easy removal from the surface, as evidenced by such technological indicator of the quality of Shimamoto.

Coatings on the basis to the governing ability, localizing ability), and have only or deactivating properties or insulating properties, or localizing properties.

Thus, when implementing the proposed composition for the normalization of the radiation environment provides a high degree of decontamination, isolation and localization of surfaces from radioactive contamination at the same time, it supports the stability of physical and mechanical performance during the entire time of operation.

The composition is intended for use in nuclear technology (AT), reduces radiation exposure of personnel and prevent unauthorized distribution of radioactive contamination, which was confirmed by testing in real conditions of interest AT.

Therefore, the claimed technical solution aimed at solving the problem and thus meets the requirement of "industrial applicability" under the current law.

Claims

1. Composition for normalizing the radiation environment, including film-forming substance on the basis of water or water-alcohol solution of polyvinyl alcohol or water-alcohol RA is lytel, characterized in that the plasticizer contains industrial or castor oil, or low-soluble corrosion inhibitor, and as filler contains titanium dioxide and/or lead oxide in the following ratios, wt.%:

Film-forming substance of 5.0-18,0

The plasticizer 0,5-1,0

Filler 3,0-5,0

The solvent Else

2. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it further contains alumina in the amount of 0.5-2.0 wt.%.

3. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it further contains cobalt nitrate in a quantity of 0.2-0.5 wt.%.

4. Composition under item 1 or 3, characterized in that it further comprises nitric or phosphoric acid in an amount of 0.1-0.4 wt.%.

5. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it further comprises sultanol in the amount of 0.1-0.3 wt.%.

6. The composition according to p. 5, characterized in that it further comprises polymethylsiloxanes liquid in an amount of 0.1-0.4 wt.%.

7. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it further contains citric or oxalic acid, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in an amount of 0.2 to 0.8 wt.%.

8. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it further comprises rhodamine 6g in an amount of 0.01 to 0.05 wt.%.

9. The composition according to p. 1, otlichayas

 

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