Nuclear reactor

 

The invention relates to the field of nuclear energy and can be used in boiling nuclear reactors or in once-through nuclear reactors overheated steam. Nuclear reactor contains fuel assemblies, each of which is made in the form free of charge from microtalon inside vertical case with the lower, middle and upper perforated sections, the lower of which has the form of a truncated pyramid and its cavity is connected to the inlet manifold of the heat carrier. Inside cover longitudinally mounted guide tubes for regulators, evenly distributed over the cross section of the cover. Each fuel Assembly is equipped with inlet and outlet areprobably for microtalon, and at least one intermediate manifold for coolant. Lead Sharapova connected to the upper part of the cavity of the upper section of the case. Discharge Sharapova performed with the cutting device and connected to the lower part of the cavity of the lower section of the case. The intermediate reservoir formed by the lower and middle sections of the cover, the latter of which is made in the form of an inverted truncated pyramid, and similar parts of the covers adjacent fuel assemblies. Reactor, which increases its technical and economic indicators. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to the field of nuclear energy and can be used in boiling nuclear reactors or in once-through nuclear reactors overheated steam.

Known nuclear reactor containing the fuel assemblies, each of which has a perforated cover, inside which is placed a filling of microflow and longitudinal guide tubes for regulators, and backfilling of microtalon separated by perforated partitions on the installed one above the other sections, each of which is connected to the input and output manifolds coolant (see FR 2807563 A1, M CL 7 G 21 C 3/07, 12.10.01).

In such a nuclear reactor input manifold of each fuel Assembly is made with a tapering reduced cross section for the coolant. This provides the least uneven distribution of the heat carrier at the height of the filling microtalon and minimum pressure loss in the manifold. However, due to the large transverse dimensions of the cavity of the heat carrier in the distributing manifold of possible burst of neutron flux and correspondingly large losses of neutrons.

In addition, the transverse perehara is peregruzka of microtalon.

The present invention is the closest technical solution is known nuclear reactor containing the fuel assemblies, each of which is made in the form free of charge from microtalon inside vertical case with the lower, middle and upper perforated sections, the lower of which has the form of a truncated pyramid and its cavity is connected to the inlet manifold of the heat carrier, and the inside of the cover longitudinally mounted guide tubes for regulators, evenly distributed over the cross section of the cover (see Ponomarev-Stepnoi N. N. and other prospects of application of microflow in WWER Nuclear power, I. 86, vol.6, June 1999).

In such a nuclear reactor fuel assemblies do not have transverse partitions inside the covers, the rigidity of the latter is provided with internal spatial elements, which simplifies handling microtalon.

In such a nuclear reactor in a fluidized mode or in continuous mode with superheat the fuel assemblies have a large unevenness of energy and a large thermal-hydraulic irregularity.

The irregularity of the energy release is associated, first, with overload fuel. Assembly with burnt microtu the NW periphery of the active zone of the reactor. After the overload of energy in the newly loaded Assembly is much greater than the energy in assemblies that are not replaced in the last overload. This so-called effect of “fresh” build. Hence the curvature plot of the power density on the cross section of the active zone of the nuclear reactor.

Another irregularity is related to the fact that for boiling water reactors and especially for reactors with steam overheating characterized by a strong decrease in the output power of the active zone due to the reduced density of the coolant-moderator.

Third, the uneven power production is related to the fact that microtube in the backfill are in different conditions: one is located in the centre of the fixed charge, the other on the periphery of the Assembly, in its case or in the immediate vicinity of the guide pipe regulators, which runs relatively cool coolant.

To the non-uniformity of energy deposition in the fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor is added hydraulic irregularity. The fact that for once-through reactor superheat is characterized by a very large increase in enthalpy in the active zone and, accordingly, a very high sensitivity to non-uniformity of energy deposition and to the result that the maximum temperature of the heat carrier and microtalon in hot jets” may significantly exceed (hundreds of degrees) nominal srednesrochnuyu temperature and may be higher than the allowable temperature. Then a protective sheath microtalon will not be able to retain fission products within itself due to the increased corrosion rate in a pair of high temperature. To avoid this, reduce the temperature of the coolant at the reactor outlet. Thus worsen its economic indicators.

Thus, the lack of a nuclear reactor, accepted the application as a prototype, is its low technical and economic indicators.

An object of the invention is to improve technical and economic performance of nuclear reactor.

In a nuclear reactor containing the fuel assemblies, each of which is made in the form free of charge from microtalon inside vertical case with the lower, middle and upper perforated sections, the lower of which has the form of a truncated pyramid and its cavity is connected to the inlet manifold of the heat carrier, and the inside of the cover longitudinally mounted guide tubes for regulators, evenly distributed over the cross section of the case, the technical problem is solved by the fact that each fuel Assembly is equipped with inlet and outlet areprobably for continuous overload microtalon, and at IU and the cavity of the upper section of the case, discharge Sharapova performed with the cutting device and connected to the lower part of the cavity of the lower section of the cover, and an intermediate reservoir formed by the lower and middle sections of the cover, the latter of which is made in the form of an inverted truncated pyramid, and similar parts of the covers adjacent fuel assemblies.

In addition, each fuel Assembly can be provided with additional intermediate reservoir, coaxially mounted inside the case and is made in the form of a perforated septum, which has the form of a cone within the upper section of the case and inverted cone within its middle section.

In addition, each fuel Assembly can be provided with a vertical inlet pipe, evenly distributed over the cross section of the lower part of the case and the cavity of this section may be connected to the inlet manifold of the heat carrier through located in the it areas of the guide tubes and (or) mentioned inlet pipes perforated.

In addition, each fuel Assembly guide tubes within the middle and upper sections of the cover can be made with thermal insulation.

In addition, each teplovi the DOI fuel Assembly with inlet and outlet areprobably for microtalon will produce an overload of each fuel Assembly in the reactor at power: the portion of microtalon in the required quantity and with a given enrichment is served in the desired fuel Assembly and is removed from the Assembly. When this disappears completely irregularity associated with the effect of “fresh” Assembly characteristic of the prototype. Power distribution by volume of the active zone remains constant during the entire lifetime of the reactor. In addition, this portion of microtalon moving in the cavity of the case from top to bottom, the entire range of the temperature field and the neutron field. Therefore, MICROTEL are in the zone of maximum temperature in time only a small part of the campaign. When moving microtalon the case down, especially in guiding the screw, they change places with each other, there is an effective mixing of fuel, which is the main part of the campaign in the zone of moderate temperatures, which reduces the average corrosion rate of the outer cover microtalon several times and can significantly increase the temperature of the steam at the outlet of the reactor.

In the proposed nuclear reactor, the average density of the fluid at the height of the Assembly is changed stepwise. The maximum density of the fluid in the cavity of the lower section of the case, the minimum density in the cavity of the upper section. The cavity of the lower section in its material composition and temperature level corresponds to the reactor with water of the highest burnup (maximum relationship of the concentration of hydrogen and uranium, the lowest temperature of uranium and moderator). In the cavities of the middle and upper sections of the case the decrease of the density of the coolant-moderator compensated by continuous overload higher uranium content in fresh microtalk. When there is a continuous overload with the supply of “fresh” microtalon top through the supply Sharapova and unloading burned microtalon from the bottom through the outlet Sharapova provided favorable power distribution along the height of the Assembly.

Intermediate collector forms a mixing cavity with reduced cross-section, increasing within the bottom portion of the cover and decreasing within its middle section. In this gap the collector is efficient mixing of the coolant. As a result, significantly reduces the uneven heating of the heat carrier, due to the reservoir effect and other reasons. When this is mixed coolant, coming as from a particular Assembly, and related assemblies, thereby reducing hydraulic irregularity in each Assembly, and hydraulic unevenness between adjacent assemblies. Perforated partition provides effective to the success of the middle and upper sections of the cover with thermal insulation decreases heat transfer.

All this will allow to operate a nuclear reactor at a higher temperature at the reactor outlet, which increases its technical and economic indicators.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, where Fig.1 shows a General view of the fuel Assembly of Fig.2 - section a-a of Fig.1; Fig.3 - node I Fig.1.

Nuclear reactor contains fuel Assembly, each of which contains a free filling of microtalon 1 inside vertical cover, which is made with the lower perforated section 2, middle perforated section 3 and the upper perforated section 4. Inside cover longitudinally mounted guide tubes 5 to the regulatory authorities and the vertical inlet pipe 6, uniformly distributed over the cross section of the cover. The pipes 5 are arranged over the entire height of the Assembly and made perforated within the bottom portion 2 of the cover. Pipe 6 is also made perforated, but only installed within the bottom portion 2 of the cover and the top sealed. The cavity of the bottom portion 2 is connected to the input manifold 7 coolant through located in the it sections of the guide pipe 5 and the inlet pipe 6.

The lower portion 2 of the cover has the form of a truncated pyramid, and the average plot 3 che the different parts of the covers adjacent fuel assemblies (see Fig.2) form the intermediate reservoir 8 with reduced cross-section, increasing within the bottom portion 2 of the cover and decreasing within its middle area 3 along the coolant.

In addition, a fuel Assembly is provided with an additional intermediate reservoir 9, coaxially mounted inside the case and is made in the form of a perforated septum, which has the form of a cone within the upper section 4 of the cover and inverted cone within its middle area 3.

The guide pipe 5 within the middle section 3 and the upper section 4 of the bag is made with thermal insulation 10 of starpoli of the two steel pipes with thickness of 0.1 mm with a gap of 0.2 mm).

Top sites 4 covers assemblies made in the form of truncated pyramids, so lots 4 covers next set of assemblies form the output collector 11 with reduced cross-section increasing in the course of heat carrier.

Each fuel Assembly is equipped with inlet and outlet areprobably 12, 13 respectively for microtalon 1. Lead Sharapova 12 is connected to the upper part of the cavity of the upper section 4 of the cover, and a discharge Sharapova 13 is made with the cutting device 14 and is connected to the lower part of the cavity of the bottom portion 2 of the cover. Inside the of uranium dioxide and three-layer sheath of high temperature ceramic materials. The core has a diameter of 1.4 mm, an Inner layer of the shell is made of porous pyrolytic graphite (Rus) with a density of about 1 g/cm3. The thickness of this layer ~95 μm. The middle layer is made of a dense pyrolytic graphite (eng), having a density of about 1.8 g/cm3. The thickness of this layer is ~5 µm. The outer layer is made of silicon carbide (SiC). The thickness of this layer ~100 ám.

A nuclear reactor operates as follows.

The coolant temperature is about 290C and a pressure of 24 MPa from the input manifold 7 is supplied in tubes 5 and 6. Through a perforation in the last coolant dealt height and cross-section filling microtalon 1 within the bottom portion 2 of the cover. The coolant moves predominantly in a radial direction to the periphery of the cover, is heated in the filling of microtalon 1 to srednesrochnoi temperature of about 380With and collected in the intermediate reservoir 8. The uneven heating of the fluid within the cavity of the bottom portion 2 of the cover disappears in the process flow of the coolant in the reservoir 8 by means of mixing streams with different temperatures in a cocurrent course. Further, the coolant temperature 380C. Next, the steam enters the steam turbine or steam generator.

The flow of coolant in the lower section 2 of the case is very different from the flow in the rest of the Assembly due to the presence of a large number of pipes 5 and 6. The heat transfer medium through the perforated Central pipe 6 enters the Central part of the cavity of the bottom portion 2 of the cover, heated to srednesrochnoi temperature of about 380C. Approaching the scope of the first row of tubes 5 and (or) 6, it is mixed with the coolant also heated to a temperature of 380With that out of these pipes. This process is repeated at the approach to the scope of the placenta is online the number of pipes 5 and (or) 6. But mass rate practically does not change, as proportional to the number of pipes 5 and (or) 6 increases the flow area by filling in the radial direction to the periphery of the Assembly. The advantage of such a power Assembly also lies in the fact that the coolant parameters are changed periodically and uniformly in cross section. Most of the uneven heating of the heat carrier is eliminated, thanks to the intermediate mixing of the coolant in the reservoir 8 and 9. Studies show that due to the intermediate mixing of the coolant temperature of the coolant in the hot jets” significantly decreased to 720C. For comparison, the temperature in the “hot jets” when using the Assembly described in the prototype reaches 900C.

Harmful heat transfer is practically impossible, due to the presence of thermal insulation 10 on the pipe 5 on the middle and top sections 3 and 4 respectively of the cover.

During operation of the reactor power in the required fuel assemblies for supplying careprovider 12 serves “fresh” MICROTEL 1 and deduce from them the burnt fuel downstream careprovider 13 at the open shut-off devices 14. Peregruzka. In the cavity of the cover Assembly MICROTEL 1 roll for guiding the screw 15. After submitting the necessary portions of the fuel shut-off device 14 is closed. The device 14 is in the closed position and during installation, and also when removing the fuel assemblies.

Claims

1. A nuclear reactor containing the fuel assemblies, each of which is made in the form free of charge from microtalon inside vertical case with the lower, middle and upper perforated sections, the lower of which has the form of a truncated pyramid and its cavity is connected to the inlet manifold of the heat carrier, and the inside of the cover longitudinally mounted guide tubes for regulators, evenly distributed over the cross section of the cover, characterized in that each fuel Assembly is equipped with inlet and outlet areprobably for microtalon, and at least one intermediate manifold for coolant, and lead Sharapova connected to the upper part of the cavity of the upper section of the case, and a discharge Sharapova performed with the cutting device and connected to the lower part of the cavity of the lower section of the case, and the intermediate collector about the s, and similar parts of the covers adjacent fuel assemblies.

2. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that each fuel Assembly is provided with an additional intermediate reservoir, coaxially mounted inside the case and is made in the form of a perforated septum, which has the form of a cone within the upper section of the case and inverted cone within its middle section.

3. The reactor under item 2, characterized in that each fuel Assembly is provided with a vertical inlet pipe, evenly distributed over the cross section of the lower part of the case and the cavity of this section is connected to the input manifold coolant through located in the it areas of the guide tubes and(or) mentioned inlet pipes perforated.

4. The reactor under item 3, characterized in that each fuel Assembly guide tubes within the middle and upper sections of the bag is made with thermal insulation.

5. The reactor under item 4, characterized in that each fuel Assembly equipped with a guide screw, longitudinally placed inside the case.

 

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