Nuclear reactor

 

The invention relates to the field of nuclear energy and can be used in high temperature nuclear reactors with helium coolant. In a nuclear reactor graphite blocks have channels to accommodate microtalon. These channels are made in the form of coaxial annular cavities in which MICROTEL posted by free filling. Layer microflow in cavities made sufficiently thick for resonance neutrons, i.e. the product of the layer thickness of microtalon on average uranium density in the layer must be in the range of 2.5-5 g/cm2. Holes for the passage of gaseous fluid are arranged radially and pass through the cavity with the filling microtalon. In the reservoir the coolant effectively mixed. By mixing eliminated the uneven heating of the heat carrier after the passage through the layer of microtalon. Such a device of a nuclear reactor allows to make the active zone is considerably more heterogeneous. Heterogeneous active area is more profitable (less uranium enrichment, less graphite in the core, more loading of uranium). Layer microflow contains relatively little of graphite and can be made sufficiently thick for resonance Natale-break-before:always;">

The invention relates to the field of nuclear energy and can be used in high temperature nuclear reactors with helium coolant.

Known nuclear reactor containing the fuel assemblies, each of which is made of vertical graphite block with filling of spherical fuel elements and a channel for passage of a coolant (see B. N. Smetannikov and others - M.: Energoizdat, 1981, S. 73-74, Fig.3.1.).

Such a nuclear reactor is characterized by complexity profiling the energy deposited in the active area, the complexity of the formation of the initial download and implement the transition from the initial state to the steady-state mode continuous overloads.

The present invention is the closest technical solution known (prototype) is a nuclear reactor containing the fuel assemblies, each of which is made of vertical graphite blocks are installed one above the other and are made with through-holes for passage of the gaseous fluid and a channel for placement of microtalon, with each Assembly hole for coolant installed below the unit is connected to the corresponding holes of the adjacent block, as stated above (see L. E. Kosterov. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1983, S. 30-31, Fig.2.11.).

Placing fuel in this reactor clearly definitely. You can approach the optimal form of the distribution of energy release in height due to initial profiling using different concentrations of fuel in different blocks in the fuel assemblies.

The disadvantage of a nuclear reactor is a large amount of graphite in relation to the amount of uranium in fuel assemblies. In fact, in almost homogeneous active zone (graphite matrix, which is relatively evenly dispersed MICROTEL) is very high absorption of neutrons in the resonance uranium-238 due to smaller block these resonances. Therefore, this area requires more retarder on one core of uranium. As a result, the size of the active zone increase several times. The large size of the active zone unambiguously lead to large dimensions of the reactor, when it is impossible to produce metal case and you have to use for this purpose an expensive case of prestressed concrete. This increases the cost of a nuclear reactor.

Moreover, in known nuclear reactor sophisticated security due to the large poljubac steam generator. Expensive security systems also increase the cost of a nuclear reactor.

One can also note the high cost and fuel fabrication in the form of microtalon dispersed in a graphite matrix methods of pressing, extrusion or injection with a subsequent heat treatment for the formation of the fuel rods.

In known nuclear reactor fuel rods are installed in the channels made in the graphite blocks. Between the rods and the block is inevitably formed by mounting the gas gap. Therefore, a known nuclear reactor characterized by a low efficiency of heat exchange in its fuel assemblies due to the large thermal resistance from microtalon to coolant (graphite matrix of the fuel rods, referred to Assembly of the gas gaps and graphite block). The consequence of this is the relatively high temperature of microtalon to ensure the required temperature of the coolant at the exit from the active zone. It is necessary to operate the reactor at low loads, so the temperature of microtalon did not exceed the allowable values. This reduces the efficiency of a nuclear reactor.

Thus, the lack of a nuclear reactor, accepted the proposal as about the increase of technical and economic indicators of a nuclear reactor.

In a nuclear reactor containing the fuel assemblies, each of which is made of vertical graphite blocks are installed one above the other and are made with through-holes for passage of the gaseous fluid and a channel for placement of microtalon, with each Assembly hole for coolant installed below the unit is connected to the corresponding holes of the adjacent block, as stated above, the technical problem is solved by the fact that each graphite block holes for passage of the gaseous coolant are arranged radially and are passed through a channel to accommodate microtalon, and the last made in the form of coaxial annular cavity in which MICROTEL posted by free filling moreover, on both sides of said annular cavity in each graphite block is made of the inner and outer reservoirs, through which the holes for coolant installed below the unit is connected to the corresponding holes of the adjacent block, as stated above.

In addition, each of the Assembly units can be in the form of a truncated pyramid and inverted truncated pyramid with alternating through one height of the Assembly, and in each block outer manifold m is the placement of microtalon in the form of free filling in the cavity, done in graphite block, and education channel for the fluid, as described above, allows you to make an active area substantially more heterogeneous. Heterogeneous active area is more profitable (less uranium enrichment, less graphite in the core, more loading of uranium). Layer microflow contains relatively little of graphite and can be made sufficiently thick for resonance neutrons. The decrease in the number of graphite reduces the dimensions of the fuel Assembly, and hence the active zone, composed of such fuel assemblies. This reduces the size of the reactor, it is possible to use a metal case, which will reduce capital costs.

Direct cooling of microtalon coolant can significantly lower the temperature of microtalon to ensure the same temperature of the coolant at the exit from the active zone due to the elimination of thermal resistance of the graphite matrix of the fuel Assembly clearances and the graphite block. Now the reactor can be operated at elevated more economical capacity.

When the softening of the steam generator water vapor enters the space between microvilli, which increases the Oh slowing ability, and even small concentrations in the layer microflow to make it much more homogeneous. The increase of the resonance absorption in uranium-238 leads to the fact that the effect of reactivity in contact with water vapor in the active area becomes approximately equal to zero and even negative. This leads to simplification, and hence to reduce the cost of security.

This significantly reduces the cost of fuel, as MICROTEL not need to be atomized in a graphite matrix, as in the prototype.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows a General view of a nuclear reactor; Fig.2 - section a-a of Fig.1.

Nuclear reactor contains fuel assemblies, each of which is made of vertical graphite blocks 1...4, are installed one above the other and are made with through-holes 5...8 respectively for the passage of the gas coolant. In addition, units 1...4 are channels for the placement of microtalon 9. These channels are made in the form of coaxial annular cavities 10...13, in which MICROTEL 9 posted by free filling. Layer microflow 9 in the cavities 10...13 is made sufficiently thick for resonance neutrons, i.e. the product of the layer thickness of microtalon 9 on average uranium density in the layer Dol and pass through the cavity 10...13 with the backfilling microtalon 9.

In block 1 on both sides of the cavity 10 is made of the internal manifold 14 and outer manifold 15, block 2 on both sides of the cavity 11 - internal manifold 16 and outer manifold 17 in block 3 on both sides of the cavity 12 is an internal manifold 18 and the outer manifold 19, and in block 4 on both sides of the cavity 13 - inner manifold 20 and outer manifold 21.

The collectors 14 and 20 are respectively inlet and outlet for the coolant, the reservoir 14 has a cone shape, and the manifold 20 to the shape of the inverted cone.

Collectors 15...19 and 21 are for intermediate coolant. Collectors 15, 16 and 19 are made with increasing during the fluid passing section, and the manifolds 17, 18 and 21 from diminishing.

In each Assembly unit 1...4 have the shape of a truncated pyramid and inverted truncated pyramid with alternating through one height of the Assembly. In blocks 1...4 external reservoir 15, 17, 19 and 21, respectively, are slotted and formed with lateral surfaces of the blocks 1...4 and side surfaces of similar blocks 1...4 connecting assemblies.

Hole 5 of the block 1 are connected in series to the holes 6 of the block 2 by means of reservoirs 15 and 17, the holes 6 of the block 2 to the holes 7 of block 3 through collectorama tube 22 of the lower reflector 23 and the protective tube 24 of the upper reflector 25.

MICROTEL 9 made in the form of a ball with a diameter of 1.8 mm with a core of uranium dioxide and three-layer sheath of high temperature ceramic materials. The core has a diameter of 1.4 mm, an Inner layer of the shell is made of porous pyrolytic graphite (Rus) with a density of about 1 g/cm3. The thickness of this layer ~95 μm. The middle layer is made of a dense pyrolytic graphite (eng), having a density of about 1.8 g/cm3. The thickness of this layer is ~5 µm. The outer layer is made of silicon carbide (SiC). The thickness of this layer ~100 ám.

A nuclear reactor operates as follows.

The cold fluid through the tube 22 of the lower reflector 23 is supplied to a header 14. Further, the coolant passed through the holes 5, the collector 15, the manifold 17, the holes 6, the collector 16, the manifold 18, the holes 7, the collector 19, the collector 21, the holes 8 and the collector 20. In each of the holes 5...8 fluid crosses the ring cavity 10...13 respectively and directly contacts microvilli 9. When the coolant is heated by the fission reaction in a nuclear fuel.

Collectors 15...21 coolant effectively mixed. By mixing liquidated uneven heating Teploenergo reflector 25 leaves the fuel Assembly.

Claims

1. A nuclear reactor containing the fuel assemblies, each of which is made of vertical graphite blocks are installed one above the other and are made with through-holes for passage of the gaseous fluid and channels to accommodate microtalon, with each Assembly hole for coolant, installed below the unit connected to the corresponding openings of the adjacent block, as stated above, characterized in that each graphite block holes for passage of the gaseous coolant are arranged radially and pass through the channel to accommodate microtalon, and the last made in the form of coaxial annular cavity in which MICROTEL posted by free filling moreover, on both sides of said annular cavity in each graphite block is made of the inner and outer reservoirs, through which the holes for coolant, installed below the unit connected to the corresponding openings of the adjacent block, as stated above.

2. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that each Assembly blocks have the shape of a truncated pyramid and inverted truncated pyramid with alternating through one height of the Assembly, and each panorama assemblies.

 

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