# Satellite radio navigation system for approach and landing

The invention relates to the field of landing aircraft (LA) based on satellite navigation systems (SNS) GLONASS, GPS, GNSS, and can be used to equip unequipped radiobeacon boarding means airfields and helipads, which is achievable technical result. GPSr approach and landing LA contains N navigation satellites (NISS), reference pseudo satellite (FSS), located at the end of the runway and consisting of series-connected receiving antenna, the ground receiver, transmitter measured parameters and evaluator amended, and the transmitter corrective information, triggering input connected to the output of the reference oscillator, the output connected to the input of the transmitting antenna and the installation log calculator amendments enter coordinates OPS, each of the said NESS associated information communication transmission-reception with LA and terrestrial receiver and transmitter adjustment information associated information communication transmission-reception through the antenna and LA, with additional satellites (DPS), placed at fixed locations in the runway, the transmitter optimal coordinates (wok) DPS,R, transmitter, providing through the transmitting antenna information link with LA, a distribution node is connected to the input with the output of the evaluator amendments, the first output with the first information input of the transmitter, and the other outputs are connected respectively with the first information inputs of the transmitters, the SAI includes n processors connected in series, the evaluators have outputs connected to information inputs of the transmitters DPS, and inputs connected to the output unit information parameters airport, at the entrance of the SAI entered coordinates OPS. The proposed method of approach and landing LA uses satellite navigation system landing OPS and n DPS. 2 s and 5 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

The invention relates to the field of landing aircraft (LA) based on satellite navigation systems (SNS) GLONASS, GPS, GNSS, and can be used to equip unequipped radiobeacon boarding means airfields and helipads.

To implement the approach and landing LA require high precision positioning (MO), especially in the vertical component height. GPSr in standard mode such that the modify together with navigation information, received from the navigation satellites (NISS) GPS and/or GLONASS, corrective information (CI) generated on the local control and correction station (LCCS).

To transfer KEY can be used or a special communication channels or radio channels used in the existing satellite navigation systems approach and landing. The first version of the communication channel described in the patent [1], the second in the patent [2] and in the monograph [3].

The use of corrective information when the navigation definitions for GPSr can significantly reduce the systematic components of uncertainty MO; to reduce the noise component of the error MO one of the possible ways is to use additional navigation points, improving geometric properties working constellations NESS.

In the patent [1] proposed a high-precision system MO containing N navigation satellites, ground-based equipment in the form of control and correction station (CCF), consisting of an antenna receiving radio-navigation signals from N NISS located within the footprint of CCF at the input of the receiver, the output of which is connected to the input of vices erentially amended; the transmission device amendments, including a reference oscillator, the output of which is connected to the first input of the transmitter, to the second input of which, as well as to the input of the transmitter amendments, receives signals coordinate CCF, on the third transmitter input signals to the correction information, and the output of the transmitter signals CCF via the transmitting antenna are received at the receiving antenna and receiver on-Board equipment LA, which provides the reception and processing of signals NISS and KEY, and generates the position data of the aircraft. The lack of similar are the special channel CI and the lack of opportunities to improve the geometric parameters of the working constellation NESS that determine the accuracy of calculation of coordinates of the aircraft.

The precision system MO [2] differs from previous similar in implementation of the transmission device amendments. Such a device is implemented on the principle of pseudo satellite (PS); used broadband signals, similar radiated from NIST encoded, including corrective information. Emission frequency FP shifted relative to the frequency of the L_{1}SRNS GPS. The advantage of analogue [2] compared with [1] are no additional communication channel, IDE difference of the carrier frequency signal PS from the standard carrier frequency L_{1}GPS signals, which does not allow to use on LA standard on-Board GPS receivers, and the lack of opportunities to optimize the navigation properties of the work constellation consisting of NISS and PS.

SRSP [3], like [2], is built on the principle of the system using pseudo satellite, but has an additional advantage: the navigation signals PS are used for more pseudorange, which is equivalent to the improvement of the geometric properties of the work of the constellation. In addition, the signals SS are identical to the signals NESS.

SRSP [3] is a prototype of the claimed invention.

In Fig.1 shows the General layout TRNSP the prototype in the space of the airport, and Fig.2 is a structural diagram of its nodes [3]. SRSP contains NISS forming a working constellation, reference pseudo satellite (FSS) 1, located at the runway (runway) and consisting of series-connected receiving antenna 2, the ground receiver 3, the transmitter measured parameters 4 and evaluator amended, 5, as well as transmitter corrective information 6, triggering input connected to the output of the reference oscillator 7, the output connected to the input of the transmitting antenna 8, an installation entry transmitter 5 and the second is with respect to the input of the transmitter 6, the latter is associated information communication transmission-reception with the onboard receiver LA 9 via the antenna 8, and 10, and NICS connected in a similar relationship with LA and OPS through the antenna 11 and 2, respectively. The receiver 3 performs continuous monitoring of the satellite signals and computes corrections for transmission to the onboard receiver 9. The pseudo satellite generates a signal synchronized to GPS time and modulated taking into account the calculated corrections. Broadband on-Board receiver 9 onboard monitors the signals of the satellites and pseudo satellite, corrects the measurement of pseudorange and phase bearing in the presence of KI transmitted as part of a data frame navigation pseudo satellite signal, and performs an exact calculation of the coordinates of LA in three-dimensional space.

However, this system does not provide sufficient accuracy of measurements of the coordinates of LA when the spatial-temporal changes radionavigation field SRNS.

The present invention is to improve the accuracy of measurements of radio navigation settings on SNS, providing the possibility of landing aircraft on unprepared airfields and landing grounds with an accuracy of 1 category landing meteorological minimum.

The task RH apparatus (LA), containing N navigation satellites (NISS) forming a working constellation, reference pseudo satellite, located at the runway (runway) and consisting of series-connected receiving antenna, the ground receiver, transmitter measured parameters and evaluator amended, and the transmitter corrective information, triggering input connected to the output of the reference oscillator, the output connected to the input of the transmitting antenna and the installation log calculator amendments and the second information input of said transmitter adjustment information used to enter coordinates OPS, each of these NICS associated information communication transmission-reception with LA and the reference pseudo satellite and transmitter adjustment information associated information communication transmission-reception with LA, is entered n of additional pseudo-satellites (DPS), placed at fixed locations in the runway, the transmitter optimal coordinates of pseudo-satellites, the unit information parameters airport and the distribution node (n+1) outputs, each of the entered n DPS contains reference generator output connected to the trigger input of the transmitter ensuring through transmitting ant the amendments the first output is connected to the first information input of the transmitter OPS, and the rest of the n outputs respectively connected with the first information input transmitters mentioned n DPS calculator optimal coordinates of pseudo-satellites includes n processors interconnected in series so that the first previous output of the transmitter connected to the first input of the subsequent, second outputs of the computers are connected respectively with the second information inputs of transmitters n DPS, the second inputs of said computers connected to the output unit information parameters airport, and the first input of the first transmitter is used to enter coordinates OPS.

In addition, we offer an introduction to OPS evaluator optimal coordinates of a reference pseudo satellite, the first input connected to the first output of the n-th transmitter, a second input coupled to the output unit information parameters airport, the first output connected to the first input of the first introduced evaluator, and its second output is connected with the adjusting entry transmitter amendments.

It is proposed to determine the number of pseudo-satellites n, the length of the vector position of the i-th pseudo satellite from the point of intersection of the axis of the runway end Spotsylvania, of the following functionals f_{1}F_{2}F_{3}:

where m is the number of optimized on the status of pseudo-satellites

F[_{runway},_{runway}h_{runway}, z_{runway},_{k},_{k}h_{k}, L_{imin}, L_{imax}I (N)],

_{runway},_{runway}h_{runway}latitude, longitude, and altitude of the mid-end of the runway, designated in Fig.1 and 1A point On,

Az_{runway}the azimuth of the centerline of the runway,

_{to},_{to}h_{k}- the coordinates of the K-th reference point reference glide path, respectively, the latitude, longitude and height,

L_{imin}- the minimum distance of the i-th pseudo satellite from the middle to the end of the runway,

L_{imax}- the maximum distance of the i-th pseudo satellite from the middle to the end of the runway,

I(H) - the function

H - matrix guides of the cosines, determined by the equation

where cos_{i}cos_{i}cos_{i}, i=1... M+m - guides to

There is a way to landing and landing AIRCRAFT, which use the above navigation satellite system landing OPS DPS and n, determine the coordinates of the OPS on forming a working constellation N NESS, calculate the difference between the coordinates of the OPS and the true coordinates OPS and this discrepancy calculate an array of amendments and make corrective information (CI) for each of the components of working N NESS, calculate the optimal coordinates n DPS, place n DPS in accordance with the optimal coordinate, distribute KI between GPT and every DPS according to a given law, modulate navigation signals OPS and DSS signals, corresponding CI for TSO and each DPS, modulated broadcast navigation signals each DSS and CPRS in LA, and when the above-mentioned calculation of the optimal n DPS pre-determine the initial conditions in the form of a set of data about the location of the runway, the reference points specified glide path, the coordinates of the OPS and the almanac satellite navigation system, then define the starting anchor point specified glide path, calculate the effect of the installation of the first DPS through regular search of possible azimuths and deleted DPS is Lennie optimal coordinates of the first DPS, then complement the initial conditions, the optimal coordinate DPS and repeat the same procedure for all subsequent DPS.

In the development of the above-mentioned method after determining the optimal n DPS is calculated by the similar actions of optimal coordinates OPS and post OPS in accordance with its optimal coordinates.

We also offer a version of the above-described method, consisting in the fact that the initial conditions complement the value of the specified threshold_{0}effect of installation DPS, make a comparison of the current effect_{j}installation for the j-th DPS by comparing it with a predetermined threshold value and limit the number of DPS, based on the ratio of

Declare landing system is explained using Fig.1a, 2a and 3.

In Fig.1A shows the General layout SNPS in the space of the airport. In Fig.2A is a structural diagram SCNS with non-optimized coordinates OPS; Fig.3 is a block diagram of nodes SMPS optimized coordinates OPS.

Declare SNPS (Fig.1A, 2A) contains: N navigation satellites (NISS) forming nemnogo receiver 3, evaluator measured parameters 4 and evaluator amended, 5, as well as transmitter corrective information 6, triggering input connected to the output of the reference oscillator 7, the output connected to the input of the transmitting antenna 8, the installation log calculator amendments and on the second information input of the transmitter 6 is entered coordinates OPS 1, each of the said NESS associated information communication transmission-reception with the onboard receiver 9 LA and the reference pseudo satellite 1, and transmitter adjustment information associated information communication transmission-reception with the onboard receiver 9 via the antenna 8 and 10, each of these NICS associated information communication transmission-reception with the onboard receiver 9 LA and with reference OPS 1 through the antenna 11 and 2 (radio transmission-reception indicated by the dotted arrows).

Introduced (Fig.2A) n DPS, placed in fixed locations in the runway, the transmitter optimal coordinates of pseudo-satellites 12, unit information parameters airport 13 and a distribution node (PN) 14 (n+1) outputs, with each of the entered n DPS contains the reference oscillator 15_{1}..._{n}output connected to the input of the transmitter 16_{1}..._{n}providing via the transmitting antenna 17_{1}1..._{n}mentioned n DPS; the transmitter optimal coordinates of pseudo-satellites includes n processors 12_{1}..._{n}interconnected in series so that the first previous output of the transmitter connected to the first input of the subsequent, second outputs of the computers are connected respectively with the second information inputs of transmitters n DLU 16_{1}..._{n}second inputs of said computers connected to the output unit information parameters port 13 and the first input of the first transmitter 12_{1}enter coordinates OPS.

In another embodiment, SNPS (Fig.3) put the transmitter optimal coordinate OPS 18, the first input connected to the first output of the n-th transmitter 12_{n}the second input is connected to the output unit information parameters port 13, a first output connected to the first input of the first introduced calculator 12_{1,}and its second output is connected with the adjusting entry transmitter amendments 5.

CRNPS in Fig.2A assumes beforehand set is not optimized coordinationation signals NISS; the transmitter 4 OPS processes the received signals and generates an array of pseudorange to NIST and coordinates OPS. Further, these data are sent to the input of the transmitter amendment 5, which also receives the specified coordinates OPS. The computer 5 performs calculation of the amendments on the basis of comparison of calculated and known coordinates OPS and forms the KEY.

Using the transmitter 12 based on the coordinates of the system, the input to the first input of the transmitter 12_{1}and the data of the airport coming from the unit 13 to the second inputs of the computers 12_{1}..._{n}is the calculation of the optimal coordinate the installation of each of a given number of DPS, and these DPS are in the area of the airport in accordance with the calculated optimum coordinates.

From the output of the transmitter 5 of the calculated corrections to the pseudorange to each of the N NESS is fed to the input of the distributor amendments (SPM) 14, distributing amendments to the first information input of the transmitter 6 GPT and on the first informational inputs of the transmitters 16 DPS. At the same time to trigger the transmitter input 6 receives the output signal of the precision reference oscillator 7. On the triggering inputs of all of the transmitters 16 DPS also receives signals from all relevant reference generator is on the second information inputs of the transmitters 16.

Information outputs of the transmitter 12 to the inputs of the transmitters 16 remains unchanged, unless there is a change in the system NISS satellite navigation system. The signals of the transmitters 16, modulated additional information containing the coordinates of the DPS and appropriate DSS KEY part specified by the block 14, through the transmitting antenna 17 are emitted in the direction of the setting on landing the aircraft.

At LA signal SS via the antenna 10 are accepted onboard receiver 9, which is adopted amendments produces, first, the adjustment they formed a virtual course and glide trajectories of landing aircraft and, secondly, enables the on-Board equipment to support deviation from LA these trajectories within the standards set for the landing by the 1st category landing meteorological minimum ICAO [4].

In SMPS in Fig.3 the possibility of optimization of the positioning of the OPS. This is achieved using the put transmitter 18, and the optimization of the coordinates OPS is performed after calculating the optimal coordinates of all DPS. To do this, at the first input of the transmitter 18 is fed the output signal of the transmitter of the last DPS 12_{n}and on its second input the Ohm setting OPS is optimal coordinates. In this embodiment, CRNPS coordinate input OPS in the system is made from the output of the transmitter 18.

Above discussed options CRNPS to a predetermined number of pseudo-satellites.

At the same time CRNPS more economical, if the number of DPS is set in the result of the optimization process coordinates. In General, this SMPS is determined by the following relations.

The number of pseudo-satellites n, the length of the vector position of the i-th pseudo satellite from the point of intersection of the axis of the runway end runway L_{i}angle And_{i}between the axis of the runway and the above-mentioned vector L_{i}are defined in terms of optimization and, consequently, of the following functionals f_{1}F_{2}F_{3}:

where m is the number of optimized on the status of pseudo-satellites

F[_{runway},_{runway}h_{runway}, z_{runway},_{k},_{k}h_{k}, L_{imin}, L_{imax}I (N)],

_{runway},_{runway}h_{runway}geodetic coordinates of a point On the middle of the end of the runway, respectively, the latitude, longitude and height,

the Noah reference point reference glide path, accordingly, the latitude, longitude and height,

L_{imin}, L_{imax}- the minimum and maximum values allowable deletes the i-th SS from the end of the runway, and these values are functions of the angle And_{i},

I (H) - the function

H - matrix guides of the cosines of:

where cos_{i}cos_{i}cos_{i}, i=1,... , M+m - direction cosines of the vectors position LA [3] relatively NESS and pseudo-satellites in the geodetic coordinate system (see Fig.4),

The function I represents the effect of the installation of m pseudo-satellites in various valid points airport; it depends on the set of parameters {L_{i}And_{i}}, i=1,... , m. Regular brute-force sets the optimum network configuration from m DPS. Possible options for the development of the functional I given below in the description of the method of implementation of the proposed SRSP.

The calculation of the optimized coordinates of DPS on the above formula (1-4) can be produced in various ways. One of the possible ways and his ways are described below.

The essence of the proposed method is illustrated in Fig.5, 6, 7.

In Fig.5 - General shenoute j-th DPS.

In Fig.7 is a diagram of a method of approach and landing an aircraft with automatic selection of the number of valid DPS.

The method of Fig.5 consists of the following sequence of actions: the formation of the initial conditions - 1, determining the initial reference point specified glide path - 2, the calculation of the effect of the installation of the 1st DPS - 3, the optimal assignment of coordinates to the first DPS - 4. The dashed line denotes an optional action - calculating the optimal coordinate OPS - 6. The set of operations 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to a variant of the method that implements the system of Fig.2A. The set of operations 5 and 6 correspond to a variant of the method that implements the system of Fig.3.

In fragment 3 in Fig.6 compute the coordinates of all NICS system according to the almanac on the interval duration - 1 day-7, shall conduct sampling NESS constituting the working constellation - 8, calculate the effects of the installation of the j-th DPS in various valid points airport - 9.

The method of Fig.7 includes steps 1, 2, 3, 4 of Fig.5 and supplemented by the calculation of a sufficient number DPS - 10.

Initial conditions 1 contain the following data: the coordinates of reference point runway (point O in Fig.1A) and the azimuth of the centerline of the runway; restrictions on the distance from the point O to DPS depending on the azimuth; the coordinates of the E. determine the optimal coordinates of the 1st DPS initial conditions complement the information about the optimal coordinates of the 1st DPS (data optimization). Then the process is repeated (n-1) times; at the end of the initial conditions contain all the information about the optimal n DPS, including additional information. This information is used to Refine the optimal coordinate OPS (Fig.5). When the automatic selection of a sufficient number of DPS initial conditions complement value of a threshold effect_{0}and the maximum number of DPS n_{max}.

The initial anchor point specified glide path is chosen according to the accuracy requirements of the municipality. Calculations 7 coordinate all NICS system incrementst in the interval T=1 day according to the almanac is taken for each time interval T NESS that fall within the “zone range” from the point O, as defined by a preset angle of elevation NESS above the horizon at the point Of [3].

Calculation of the effects from the installation of the j-th DPS in various valid points airport 9 is carried out at regular enumeration of all valid locations DPS within a specific airport for all time points of the interval, So the Current effect_{j}equal to the ratio of the geometric factor of the vertical component j DPS, it averaged in time, the geometric factor of the vertical positioning of the constellation of navigation points, which consists of N NISS satellite navigation system, and OPS (j-1) DPS, the latter are located at points corresponding to the optimal coordinates (j-1) DPS:

In the formula (5) index (*) marked optimized coordinates DPS; M [] denotes averaging in time interval T,

where Q is the number of time points in the interval T,

t_{q}- current time:

Vertical geometrical factor VDOP is a function [3] from the matrix guides of the cosines of N when determining the effect of the installation of the j-th DPS with type H_{j}:

and coordinate LA, located in the initial anchor point reference glide path.

The results of calculations of the effects from the installation of the j-th DPS in various valid points airport 9 is then used to calculate the average in time of the current effects M [’_{j}] 4 and the computed values determine the optimal value of the effect and the optimal coordinates of the j-th DPS soniye coordinates of all n DPS, optimize OPS - 6. To do this, repeat steps 3 and 4 relative to the coordinates of the OPS at known coordinates N NESS and optimal coordinates of all DPS.

When the automatic selection of the number of DPS (Fig.7) after calculating the effect of the installation of the j-th DPS at optimal coordinates calculated by the formula (8), make a comparison of this value with a threshold value of_{0}. If the effect is smaller than the threshold value, deciding that the j-th DPS is not required, it is enough (j-1) DPS. Otherwise, the process continues either until the enumeration of all n_{max}DPS, or to find so many DPS n<n_{ max}at which the effect is less than the threshold value.

The above-described one possible optimizations implemented by the circuits of Fig.5, 6, 7, including calculation of the effect of the installation of the j-th DPS and determine the optimal coordinates of the j-th DPS. The value of M [’_{j}] characterizing the effect can be summarized in the form of_{i}designed on the basis of geometrical factors of the vertical positioning (VDOP), horizontal (HDOP) and time (TDOP), taken with the appropriate veroyatnostei p=0,50 on VDOP and p=1 - for HDOP and TDOP, the type of function is linear.

For the considered variants was carried out simulation. The number of time points was Q=1000. Satellite system corresponded to the SRNS GPS; Pulkovo airport; the initial datum for a given glide path separated from a reference point on the runway 850 m; the height of LA in the initial reference point of the glide path was 60 m above the Ground surface. Averaged over time effect from the installation of one DPS was (1.35-1.5), two DPS - (1.5-1.66), three - (1.66-1.74). Large values of the effect corresponds to the case of the optimized coordinates OPS. The maximum effect occurred during the interval of recurrence network configuration of GPS satellites, with three DPS was 4.4.

If threshold_{0}the results are as follows. When_{0}=1.1 a sufficient number of DPS was n=2. When_{0}=1.05 and n_{max}=3, respectively n=n_{max}.

Thus, the claimed invention allows an aircraft equipped with a satellite receiver, to carry out instrumental landing at any airport is not equipped with a standard costly ground-based landing systems type mezhdunardnogo PS, in any weather and at any time of the day.

This increases the operational capacity SMPS because peertranet area does not require special leveling the underlying earth surface to ensure uniform formation of the lobes of the radiation patterns of the transmitting devices, radio beacons, landing systems, and no need for regular trials of beacons, and corrections generated by them in the space lines of the course and glide path reduction LA.

In General, the functioning of SMPS and output characteristics of the OPS and DPS is tested and evaluated using the software-mathematical simulation on a personal computer. As most units are commercially available products:

- ground receiver 3 and the transmitter 4 are implemented in the standard DiamondCore type “breeze”, providing the opportunity to receive information in digital form from its outputs;

- the transmitter differential corrections 5, the optimal solvers coordinates 12, 18 and unit information parameters 13 built on the basis of universal computers;

distributor amendment 14 was developed on the basis of the transmitter serial code for ARINC 429 type HI 8586 company Holt (USA);

- support g is of type transmitter onboard equipment collision warning "Echelon";

antenna 2, 11 and 10 antenna type AC-01;

- on-Board receiver 9 on Board LA used any domestic or foreign satellite receiver capable of processing data NISS and PS.

Thus, the proposed new satellite-pseudoreticulata the system and method of approach and landing aircrafts provide the possibility of landing approach and landing in LA weather 1 category landing meteorological minimum at airports not equipped with standard radio beacon landing systems.

SOURCES of INFORMATION

1. The method of differential navigation. RF patent 2130622, G 01 S 5/12 declared 19.12.97, published 20.05.99.

2. GPS PRECISION APPROACH AND LANDING SYSTEM FOR AIRCRAFT. Patent Number: 5311194, Date of Patent: May 10, 1994.

3. Network satellite navigation system. / C. S. Shebshaevich, P.p. Dmitriev, N. In. Ivancevich and others, edited by C. C. of Shebshaevich. - M.: Radio and communication, 1993, 408 S.

4. International standards and recommended practices. Aviation communication. Annex 10 to the ICAO Convention, volume 1 (radio navigation AIDS), fifth edition volume 1 - July 1996

Claims

1. Satellite navigation system for approach and landing of aircraft (LA) containing N navigation artificial with Adonai strip and consisting of series-connected receiving antenna, the reference receiver, transmitter measured parameters and evaluator amended, and the transmitter corrective information, triggering input connected to the output of the reference oscillator, the output connected to the input of the transmitting antenna and the installation log calculator amendments and the second information input of said transmitter adjustment information used to enter coordinates OPS, each of the said NESS associated information communication transmission-reception with aircraft and with ground-based receiver and transmitter adjustment information associated information communication transmission-reception with LA, wherein said introduced n additional pseudo-satellites (DPS), placed at fixed locations in the runway, the transmitter optimal coordinate DPS, including n processors connected in series, to sequentially calculate the optimal coordinates for each DPS, unit information parameters airport and the distribution node (n+1) outputs, with each of the entered n DPS contains reference generator output connected to the trigger input of the transmitter, providing through the transmitting antenna information communication transmission-reception with LA, a distribution node is connected to the other input n outputs respectively connected with the first information input transmitters mentioned n DPS, the transmitter optimal coordinate DPS includes n processors interconnected in series so that the first previous output of the transmitter connected to the first input of the subsequent, second outputs of the computers are connected respectively with the second information inputs of transmitters n DPS, the second inputs of said computers connected to the output unit information parameters airport, and the first input of the first transmitter is used to enter coordinates OPS.

2. Satellite navigation system under item 1, characterized in that the transmitter optimal coordinate OPS, the first input connected to the first output of the n-th transmitter, included in the transmitter the optimum coordinate DPS, a second input coupled to the output unit information parameters airport, the first output connected to the first input of the first transmitter included in the transmitter the optimum coordinate DPS, and its second output is connected with the adjusting entry transmitter amendments.

3. Satellite navigation system under item 1, characterized in that the number entered DPS n, the length of the vector position of the i-th pseudo satellite from the point of intersection of the axis of the runway end runway L_{i}angle_{i}between the axis of the runway and the UE is ctional f_{1}F_{2}F_{3}:

m=f_{1}[F]=n;

where m is the number of optimized on the status of pseudo-satellites;

F[_{runway},_{runway}h_{runway}, z_{runway},_{k},_{k}h_{k}, L_{imin}, L_{imax}I (N)];

_{runway},_{runway}h_{runway}latitude, longitude, and altitude of the mid-end of the runway;

z_{runway}the azimuth of the centerline of the runway;

_{k}h_{k},_{k}geodetic coordinates of the k-th reference point reference glide path, respectively, the latitude, longitude, and altitude;

L_{imin}- the minimum distance of the i-th pseudo satellite from the end of the runway;

L_{imax}- the maximum distance of the i-th pseudo satellite from the end of the runway;

I(N) - function;

H - matrix guides of the cosines, determined by the equation

cos_{i}cos_{i}cos_{i}, i=1...M+m - direction cosines of vectors provisions NESS and pseudo-satellites relative to LA in a geocentric system hordcore position of the i-th pseudo satellite from the point of intersection of the axis of the runway end runway L_{i}angle_{i}between the axis of the runway and the above-mentioned vector L_{i}is determined from the terms of optimization and, consequently, of the following functionals f_{1}F_{2}F_{3}:

m=f_{1}[F]=n+1;

where m is the number of optimized on the status of pseudo-satellites;

F[_{runway},_{runway}h_{runway}, z_{runway},_{k},_{k}h_{k}, L_{imin}, L_{imax}I (N)];

_{runway},_{runway}h_{runway}latitude, longitude, and altitude of the mid-end of the runway;

z_{runway}the azimuth of the centerline of the runway;

_{k}h_{k}h_{k}geodetic coordinates of the k-th reference point reference glide path, respectively, the latitude, longitude, and altitude;

L_{imin}- the minimum distance of the i-th pseudo satellite from the end of the runway;

L_{imax}- the maximum distance of the i-th pseudo satellite from the end of the runway;

I(N) - function;

H - matrix guides of the cosines, determined by the equation

cos_{i}cos

5. The method of approach and landing an aircraft using a satellite navigation system under item 1, namely, that define the coordinates OPS on forming a working constellation N NESS, calculate the difference between the coordinates of the OPS and the true coordinates of the system, compute the array amended, and form of corrective information (CI) for each of the N NESS constituting the working constellation, calculate the optimal coordinates n DPS, place n DPS in accordance with the optimal coordinate, distribute this KEY between the TSO and each of the DPS according to a given law, modulate navigation signals OPS and DSS signals, the relevant parts of the KI for TSO and each DPS, modulated broadcast navigation signals LA, characterized in that when the above-mentioned calculation of the optimal coordinates of n pseudo-satellites pre-determine the initial conditions in the form of a set of data about the location of the runway, the reference points specified glide path, the coordinates of the OPS and the almanac N NESS, then define the starting anchor point specified glide path, calculate the effect of the installation of the first DPS through regular search of possible azimuths and deletions relative to the reference point on the runway, assign DPS calc and repeat the same procedure for subsequent DPS.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that after determining the optimal n DPS is calculated by the similar actions of optimal coordinates OPS and post OPS in accordance with its optimal coordinates.

7. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the initial terms are in addition to the value given threshold effect installation DPS, make a comparison of the current effect settings for the j-th DPS by comparing it with a predetermined threshold value and limit the number used DPS, based on the ratio of

where_{0}- the threshold effect from installation DPS;

_{j}- the current value of the effect of the installation of the DPS.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: applicable in instrument engineering, in particular, in instruments using remote control of the actions of the observer-operator on the ground.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in measurement of the object coordinates, observer's coordinates and transmission of them for further use, as well as in finding of the observer's bearings with due account of obtaining of target designation and determination of the error of the preset and current coordinates. The observer performs scanning of the ground with fixation of the readings of the azimuth and elevation angle sensors, readings of the device for determination of the observer's own coordinates at detection by it of the object of observation. These data are transmitted to an individual control device of the observer. The own coordinates of each observer via individual transceivers are transmitted to the control and computations device of a group equipment, having a storage unit, which contains a digital model of the ground relief of observation and a data base for target distribution and renewal. The obtained data on location of the observers, as well as of the targets from the data base for target distribution are applied to the relief digital model. The data on the relative location of the observer and the target distributed to him are transmitted via the transceivers to the observer's control device, in which they are compared with the data obtained from the azimuth and elevation is transmitted to the indicators of the vertical and horizontal turning of the observer's scanning device. The device for finding one's bearings on the ground has location and orientation sensors, control and computations device, transceivers, scanning device for the observer with indicators of vertical and horizontal turning, sensors of the location in space in azimuth and angle of elevation, device for determination of the observer's own coordinates, having a navigational equipment linked with a satellite. The observer's transceiver is coupled to a group transceiving device connected to the control and computations device of the group equipment. The control and computations device of the group equipment comprises a storage unit, having a ground relief digital model and a data base for target distribution.

EFFECT: simplified and enhanced reliability of use of the system of transmission to the operator of the information on the direction on the ground.

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