Oven uglevyzhigatelnuyu with the regulator of the heat flow
The invention relates to the field of control automation pyrolysis of wood in a mobile uglevyzhigatelnuyu furnaces. The furnace comprises an outer insulating casing and the inner casing, provided with a compactible door and contains a removable container with narrow slits, transport devices and collection of recyclable waste, while it is provided with two diagonally spaced exhaust devices installed in the bottom area of the outer casing and containing an adjustable valve, and the channel of the heat flow contains discrete three-position switch associated with temperature sensors mounted in the inner housing and positioned at points, the temperature of which is with the highest reliability reflects the characteristic modes of the pyrolysis process, in the zone of unstable flow heat flow in the inner casing ejector holes with a variable diameter nozzle, and the upper arch of the case is made in the form of a paraboloid. The invention improves qualitative and quantitative indicators of the technological process - pyrolysis of wood while reducing loss of coolant due to more rational use of tasali management pyrolysis of wood in a mobile uglevyzhigatelnuyu furnaces. The closest, according to the applicant, the claimed device is “Uglevyzhigatelnuyu furnace” (EN 2151785 C1) containing a removable container on the truck, on the side walls of which are made elliptical cracks located over them at an angle motionless curtains, and on the inner walls of the body has movable curtains; on the container is concave cover, mounted on the roof of the inner case.
In the known device kindling and pereopisanie wood is carried out at the restricted access of atmospheric air, and the distribution of heat flow is regulated by means of insulating curtains. This method of control provides the change of the heat flow only in the direction of decreasing, resulting in equalization of the temperatures in the hearth and roof of the furnace. The main disadvantage of this control device is the inability to use the excess heat of the temperature field near the arch of the furnace to warm up the wood, available in low temperature zones. In addition, the lack of control over the temperature of the exhaust gases leads to an increased expenditure of the heat carrier.
The task of the invention yavlyaetsya loss of coolant due to more rational use of thermal field of gas flows.
The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality of coal and increase its output by increasing the degree of regulation of the heat flows inside the heat chamber.
The technical result is achieved due to the fact that the furnace is equipped with two diagonally spaced exhaust device that contains its own adjustable damper, and the channel of the heat flux in the furnace contains a discrete three-position switch associated with temperature sensors mounted in the inner housing and positioned at points, the temperature of which is with the highest reliability reflects the characteristic modes of the pyrolysis process. This allows the redistribution of heat flow volume of the heat chamber, which will increase the efficiency of heat exposure on raw materials, reduce the consumption of coolant due to its repeated use.
The present invention is characterized by the following essential features:
a) restrictive - outer heat insulating casing, an inner casing, thick-walled door, removable container with narrow slits, the transport device moves, the source of the heat flow and collection of recyclable wastes;
b) is feasible dampers; suction devices are mounted in the lower zone of the outer casing; a discrete three-position switch associated with temperature sensors mounted in the inner housing and positioned at points, the temperature of which is with the highest reliability reflects the characteristic modes of the pyrolysis process; ejector holes of different diameter in the inner enclosure of the furnace.
The causal link between the technical result and declare the essential features is that the uniformity of flow of the pyrolysis process is achieved through the use of additional control devices. The temperature difference between the roof and the furnace, resulting in the pyrolysis process and causing local regions of overheating and underheating of wood is reduced by changing the direction of heat flow carried out by switching the channel of the heat flow from one exhaust device to another. The more heated the gas-vapor mixture placed in the vault of the furnace is directed in a less heated lower region of the furnace, thereby increasing the uniformity of thermal treatment of raw materials.
Installation involves downloading the wood in the container, ostanoveetsa the pyrolysis process. Under the plant body is a collection of žižka.
Heat to heat the wood and ensure it perepilivanija receive from the gaseous products of combustion in the furnace. Kindling fuel lead seal casing of the furnace.
At the end of the process perepilivanija and cooling coal boot the door is opened, the container is rolled out, take off the wheels and unload.
In Fig.1 and 2 depict uglevyzhigatelnuyu oven.
Installation (Fig.1 and 2) contains a split air cavity 1 outer casing 2, the inner case of the heat chamber 3, welded from sheet steel, the body is made independently from the casing to eliminate thermal deformation during operation.
From the face side shroud slots fortified lift door 4 of the porous refractories, lined with steel plates. The door is lifted by the lifting device 5, which is driven by a motor 6 and is blocked by the fingers 7 on both sides. The arch of the inner case is made in the form of a paraboloid to provide additional turbulence of the gas flow. The lateral surfaces of the heat chamber holes (ejectors) 8, with the upper holes are made with a larger diameter than the bottom.
In nm the switch (controller) 11, which are driven by electric motors 12. Exhaust device equipped with adjustable dampers 13, 14.
In the lower part of the flue pipe is made of sewage manholes 15, 16 for cleaning chimneys from the remaining products of combustion.
On the outer shroud of the gas duct installed relief valve 17, and the lower the temperature sensors 18, 19, 20 and opening 21 for determining the porosity of perepilivanija wood using a metal probe. Idle holes sealed screw caps.
Trolley 22 is equipped with racks, inside which is mounted a removable container 23 with wood. In the lower part of the furnace is installed storage tank (collection) 24 for collecting condensate (žižka). In the side wall of the collection made the hole in which the welded flue pipe 25 from the chamber 26. In the lower part of the collection there is a drain hole provided with a valve 27, there is a space 28 for attachment adjacent the furnace.
Furnace the furnace is fitted with adjustable valves for loading firewood 29 and podopechnogo holes 30.
The process of producing charcoal in the considered setup is as follows.
The container 23 with pre-loaded and dried wood placed the food on the track is moved inside the heat chamber 3. The moving truck is limited to the braking device. The door 4 is closed and covered with clay to asbestos. Open adjustable dampers 13, 14 and exhaust device 9, and 10, and three-position switch 11 is set to a position that allows free passage of the heat flow from the chamber 26, a chimney (flue) 25 in the air cavity 1. Then in the furnace is the ignition of the fuel. Once the fuel starts to burn, adjustable dampers, furnace 29 and podopechnogo hole 30 is closed and sealed.
The heated mixed mass heat flow from the air cavity 1 through the injection hole 8 and the raw materials fall to the bottom of the heat chamber 3. In the initial stage endothermic process up to 150With heats up wet material, removal of free moisture from the wood, from 150-300Is heating the dry material, begins the decomposition process is less persistent organic substances, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, acetic acid and enters pereopisanie. These processes occur due to the oxygen contained in the wood. Progress is monitored by the temperature sensors 20, 21, 22, arranged in the inner case is if you do not reduce the amount of external oxygen into racks ignition occurs raw materials. As the flow of the pyrolysis process according to the signals from the sensors is gradually reduced by means of adjustable valves 13 and 14, the cross section of the exhaust duct devices 9 and 10 and the switch 11 is periodically transferred from one extreme position to the other, which provides a change of direction of heat flow inside the heat chamber and increases the uniformity of the temperature field inside the chamber.
At a temperature of 300-450With adjustable dampers 13 and 14 completely cover the cross-section of the chimney exhaust devices. Starts an exothermic process: the rapid release of heat from the raw materials, the formation of carbon, removal of volatile organic compounds. At a temperature of 450-550With complete sealing of all connections is the process of ignition of coal.
Control of the heat flow helps to prevent thermal explosion (possible penetration of oxygen in the hot gas stream), to perform technological regulations and thereby improve the quality of the final product is coal.
In all stages of the process perepilivanija wood liquid condensate flows into the collector 24 and can be recycled or burned in a furnace.
The willingness of coal is defined IU the air traffic management.
After cooling to a temperature of 50Is the coal is discharged from the container 23, which by means of a lifting device 5 opens the door 4, the container moves to the outside and is discharged into the tank-tushilnik.
Using the above installation, you can expect the following technological advantages in comparison with the analogue of:
- improving the quality of coal due to a more uniform flow of process; uniformity is achieved with a deeper degree of equalization of the temperature field inside the heat chamber with the help of additional regulating devices;
- loss of coolant due to more rational use of thermal field of gas flows.
Uglevyzhigatelnuyu furnace comprising an outer insulating casing and the inner casing, provided with a compactible door and contains a removable container with narrow slits, transport devices and collection of recyclable waste, characterized in that it has two diagonally spaced exhaust devices installed in the bottom area of the outer casing and containing regeneratornyj sensors, mounted in the inner housing with spaced points, the temperature of which is with the highest reliability reflects the characteristic modes of the pyrolysis process, in the zone of unstable flow heat flow in the inner casing ejector holes with a variable diameter nozzle, and the upper arch of the case is made in the form of a paraboloid.
FIELD: wood-chemical production.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of resin industry, in particular, to wood-chemical production and also intended for production of charcoal and for complex utilization of wood wastes. The charcoal kiln contains a heat-insulated chamber of pyrolysis and drying used for installation of containers with firewood, a fire box, a scatter, a pipeline with an air blower and a cooler. At that the drying chamber is supplied with a heater and it is stand-alone unit. The scatter represents vertically placed perforated headers fixed in the lower part of the container communicating with a gas duct of the fire-box through a compactor. The fire box is made in the form of in series connected a gas generator and a combustion chamber. The pipeline is supplied with a heat insulation. The cooler is made in the form of a jacket-tubular heat-exchanger, the inter-pipe space of which is connected with the heater of the stand-alone drying chamber and the air blower is located behind the cooler. The invention allows to improve the operational characteristics of the charcoal kiln at production of the high quality charcoal.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improved the charcoal kiln operational characteristics at production of the high quality charcoal.
FIELD: chemical mechanical engineering; reactors for fast pyrolysis of wood and peat.
SUBSTANCE: proposed reactor has pyrolizer equipped with rotor made in form of hollow cylinder with blades rigidly secured on its lateral surface and located at equal distance relative to one another for smooth heating of its lateral surface; reactor is also provided with loading bin. Pyrolizer is provided with turbine mounted under rotor; turbine has several blades rigidly secured on its shaft. Turbine shaft and hollow cylinder of rotor are rigidly interconnected. Loading bin is engageable with hollow cylinder. Pyrolizer is made in form of truncated cone whose larger base is directed upward; it is mounted in housing for rotation about its axis. Rotor is located in upper part of pyrolizer coaxially relative to it for rotation around its axis in direction opposite to direction of rotation of pyrolizer at rate equal to rate of pyrolizer. Blades of rotor and turbine are made in form of right-angled trapeziums whose large bases are directed upward.
EFFECT: high yield of vapor-and-gas product.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises furnace, heating chamber, plate, vertical removable retort tightly mounted on the plate for permitting pyrolytic gases to be discharged in the bottom section of the retort, and gas duct for supplying gases to the furnace. The plate is made of heat-resistant material and has opening that receives unmovable device for discharging pyrolytic gases to the gas duct. The plate is provided with gate valve made of a heat-resistant loose material . The retort is tightly mounted on the valve gate. The device for discharging the pyrolytic gases is made of a section or two sections of a pipe. The plate is made of a heat-resistant steel.
EFFECT: improved environmental protection.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: petroleum processing.
SUBSTANCE: hydrocarbon stock processing that can be used in production of activated carbon comprises preliminary thermal treatment thereof using gaseous heat carrier followed by processing at 200-900°C in reactor under reductive gas atmosphere in presence of saturated steam supply, cooling, and discharging activated carbon. Reductive gas is generated by combusting hydrocarbon fuel with air consumption ratio below 1.0 and then mixed with thermochemical processing gases in proportion 1:(0.1-10). In order to control temperature conditions, reductive gas is fed to at least three reaction zones and, prior to be fed to each individual reaction zone, reductive gas is preliminarily mixed in proportion ensuring specified temperature conditions in different zones, whereas process is carried out according to known temperature regimes in production of products with specified parameters.
EFFECT: expanded process possibilities due to enabled temperature conditions control, increased accuracy in achieving specified parameters of product, and reduced power consumption.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; medicine; woodworking industry; methods and devices used for production of the charcoal.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the wood pyrolysis in the retorts. The invention provides for, that on the charging platform the retorts are loaded with the raw, for example, the raw wood. Then the first retort is placed in the chamber with the minimum heating temperature of 200°С and kept there till the complete removal of the water. At the following stage the first retort is moved in the chamber with the heating temperature up to 400°С, and on its place the second retort is located. At the second stage the separation of the wood gas, resins, acids and alcohol is exercised. In the second half of the second stage the first retort is placed back into the chamber with the heating temperature of 200°С, and the second retort is placed in the chamber with the heating temperature of up to 400°С. Then the first retort is relocated into the chamber with the heating temperature of up to 550°С. At that they exercise separation of the mixture of the gases and the solid fractions of the product, the second retort is placed in the chamber with the heating temperature up to 400°С, and the third retort - in the chamber with the heating temperature of 200°С. Upon termination of the process the first retort is placed on the site for cooling. The rest retorts are relocated according to the above mentioned scheme. After cooling the first retort is placed on the turnover device, where the retort contents moved to the receiving hopper. The invention allows to improve the quality and to increase output of the charcoal.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved quality and increased output of the charcoal.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of power stations operated from carbonaceous refuse, and can be used for construction of lower-power power stations using plant refuse as fuel (wood chips of dry and sick trees, milled root crops, canes, branches, grapevine, wood processing refuse). Biopower station contains pyrolysis plant and gas-operated power facility, equipped with moisture separator and gasholder. Pyrolysis plant comprises inclined gasproof thermal enclosure with in-built angularly 45-50° hermetically sealed ribbed pipe retorts connected to vertical hermetically sealed loading and unloading box-type feeders. Upper part of retorts is attached to gas pipelines connected through moisture separator and gasholder with power facility. Exhaust pass of power facility is connected with thermal enclosure in its bottom section. Biopower station is additionally equipped with starting combustor and recovery boiler.
EFFECT: development of nonwaste technology of thermal refuse utilisation.
SUBSTANCE: declared group of inventions concerns method of wood biomass treatment in the form of combustive chips with receiving of bio-oils and wood coal, including drying, pyrolysis of wood biomass, wood coal tempering, selection of bio-oils from gas-vapor pyrolysis and coal in a one module, withdrawal of forming gas-vapor mixture of pyrolysis volatile products, at that formed pyrolysis gas-vapor with minimal temperature is withdrawaled from the area of active thermal decomposition with selection of bio-oils and directed to combustion chamber simultaneously to fed air, which is necessary for burning of deresined gas-vapor, at that fuel gases, formed during burning of deresined gas-vapor, at first dispose its heat for wood coal tempering, process of raw materials pyrolysis and then is directed for blending and forming of raw drying heat carrier, and also to the drying- retort module for wood biomass treatment in the form of combustive chips with receiving of bio-oils and wood coal, containing vertically installed body, divided by overclampings for drying chamber, chamber of wood biomass pyrolysis, mounted in top and bottom parts of facility body for charging of raw materials and discharge of coal, combustion chamber, unit of bio-oils selection and the first gaseous circuit in the form of gas flue with gas blower for feeding of gas-vapours pyrolysis chamber of wood biomass and coal tempering into combustion chamber, located in pyrolysis area of wood biomass and coal tempering, at that module is additionally outfitted by blending chamber for forming of drying heat carrier, connected through the gaseous circuit to combustion chamber, and the second gaseous circuit in the form of gas flue with regulating cap for feeding of smoke fumes from combustion chamber to the bottom part of drying area of wood biomass.
EFFECT: usage of mentioned above inventions provides increasing of utilisation level of wood refuses with receiving of bio-fuel with high energy density, increasing of method dedicated throughput and module and providing of ecology at the expense of toxic discharges into environmental absence.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: heating systems, drying.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used when utilising industrial wood residue. Dried raw material is put into pyrolysis chamber 1. Into drying chamber 2 live wood is put. Industrial wood residue supplied to silo 26 is fed to gas-generating furnace 5 with screw feeder 14. Gases generated in gas-generating furnace 5 are supplied via gas duct to pyrolysis chamber 1. At wood warming-up stage there supplied is generator gas, with the help of gas blower 4, from pyrolysis chamber 1 through outlet branch pipe 27 and condenser 3 to burner device 7, where it is burning. Flue gases appearing during generator gas burning provide for an additional heating of raw material through pyrolysis chamber 1 wall. After that flue gases are supplied to drying chamber 2 through outlet branch pipe 31 of combustion chamber 6.
EFFECT: improving process efficiency and reducing operating costs.
SUBSTANCE: furnace for wood waste pyrolysis includes burner, retort, heat supply and furnace gas outlet pipes. The retort is enameled from inside.
EFFECT: reduced heat exchange of retort with environment, accelerated pyrolysis process, improved performance of wood carbonisation furnace.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in thermal decomposition of solid waste. Waste is fed to pyrolysis chamber volume by auger 10. Heating of carbon-containing waste is implemented by contact of solid waste to heating pipe 4 surface. Pyrolytic gas is discharged through pipe 13, and hot solid waste is poured from pipe 12 to lower part of discharge device 8 to cooling chamber 14 where it begins to cool down. When a certain solid waste level in discharge device 8 is achieved, level sensor signal activates star valve 15 of upper gate unit. As solid remainders discharged to cooling chamber 14 cool down, thermal sensor 25 generates signal for activation of star valve 16 of lower gate unit.
EFFECT: enhanced operational efficiency of pyrolysis chamber.
2 cl, 3 dwg