The method of open pit mining of bedded deposits

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for open development of horizontal and sloping layers of minerals. The technical result is to increase the efficiency of field development. For this purpose, the method includes the overburden removal using explosion on reset, cleaning the remaining species in the mined-out area and the excavation of minerals. This increases the coefficient of discharge by eliminating the bottom zone, handling remaining after the explosion of any of the castle rock is done with the help of career excavator type shovel, the first excavator section is performed to clean the slope of the rock ledge from navica with the simultaneous handling of a breed developed in the space, and the resulting cone is removed by a bulldozer, the second section of preexcavation empty rock spend on a surface of the ore body with the simultaneous Stripping of minerals from rocks, rock cone is also removed by a bulldozer on the contact rocks of the ore body are the ditch to a depth of digging excavator, width of which is directly dependent on the thickness of the ore body, the ore at evosat blade. 8 Il.

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for open development of horizontal and sloping layers of minerals, thus covering overburden are rocky or half-rock rock fortress more than four on a scale professional Protodiakonov and are processed by drilling and blasting operations.

There are several ways to develop these fields.

The most common way of developing such deposits is a way, when blasted rock overburden removed transport in the external or internal piles. (The Handbook. Open pit mining. - M.: Mining Bureau, 1994. P.135). The disadvantage of this method is the cost of moving overburden ranges from 35 to 45% of the cost of mining overburden.

The known method of opencast development of horizontal and sloping layers of minerals (on the application of EN No. 95118279 published 1997.11.20.). Handling of overburden in a goaf make with the help of excavators, type dragline, but this method can only be applied when developing soft or very good blown up half-rock overburden is of encosta excavator (dragline may not work on the rock).

Closest to the invention is a method of opencast development of horizontal and sloping layers with loading blasted rock (the Handbook. Open pit mining. M: Mining Bureau, 1994, S. 423). The method includes drilling and explosion on reset shoveling residues breed developed in the space, leaving the bottom zone of not less than 6 m, and when ore drilling and blasting method bottomhole zone increase the width of the emission. The disadvantages of this method: 1 ratio reset with this method does not exceed 0,15-0,20; 2 - dragline on the constructive characteristics of almost not adapted to work on the rocks; 3 - when mining fields in this way is arranged bottomhole zone with a minimum width of 6 m (the area between the bottom edge of the mining ledge and the lower inner edge of the dump), and, with the use of drilling and blasting works on the extraction of minerals width of the bottom zone is equal to the width of the release of 20-25 m, i.e., the effect of the explosion on reset almost not observed.

The present invention aims at improving the efficiency of field development during the mining of rock and half-rock overburden drilling and blasting method. The cost reduction occurs with the switching of the transport costs overburden removal, reduce the proportion of the cost of excavation, excluding the cost of construction and maintenance of roads for transportation of overburden, and also due to the completeness of the extraction of minerals.

Overburden is placed in the exhaust space: 45% stack at once with an explosion on reset, 50% Excalibur with career excavator mechanical shovel and bulldozer. The remaining 5% work in the traditional way - take out vehicles.

The invention consists in the fact that produce an explosion on the discharge to waste space with loading remaining after the explosion of rock quarry excavator type shovel and further cleaning of the formed cone by a bulldozer, without leaving the bottom zone and the Stripping of overburden slope ledge from navica and visors produce excavator type shovel and handling of the breed beyond the contour of the ore body, and the Stripping slope of the ledge of minerals produced by the excavation of the ditch to a depth of digging excavator. Further, when drilling and blasting operations in the extraction are drilling blastholes at full capacity of the ore body and produce an explosion at loosening. When the thickness of the ore body more than 5 m production are two podus the ava, the rock from which it is transported by road.

In Fig.1-8 shows the sequence of method development, where:

Fig.1 - blasthole drilling through overburden to Bang on reset, after sinking a cutting trench and mined; Fig.2 - sweep slope of the rock ledge from navica and visors, and handling excavating of blasted rock; Fig.3 - cleaning cone shipped breed bulldozer spent in space; Fig.4 - handling the remaining rocks and scraping the roof fossil excavator; Fig.5 - cleaning cone shipped rocks and scraping the roof of the mineral bulldozer; Fig.6 - excavation of ditch excavator with the purpose of Stripping part of the slope of the mining ledge; Fig.7 - blasthole drilling for the production of an explosion on loosening useful for fossil; Fig.8 - layer-by-layer production of minerals with the simultaneous excavation of the ditch.

Numerals in the figures denote: 1 - split the trench; 2-rock or half-rock overburden rock; 3 - minerals; 4 - drilling machine; 5 - boreholes; 6 - contour reset breed; 7 - exploded and discharged into the mined-out space rock; 8 - career excavator; 9 - cone pass the and, undertaken by excavator; 13 - volume breed exported vehicles.

The method is as follows.

The development is carried out with a wing that has the lowest capacity of overburden. After conducting mining capital of the sinking of the cutting trench 1 extraction of minerals 3 and create a space for placement of overburden produce blasthole drilling 5 to overburden rock to Bang on reset (Fig.1). After the explosion produce the Stripping of overburden slope ledge 2 excavator type shovel 8 from navica and visors with partial loading of the breed for the outline of the ore body (Fig.2). After mopping up the slope of the ledge bulldozer 10 make cleaning the formed cone 9 in the mined-out area 11 in the internal dump (Fig.3). Next are the second excavator section on the roof of the ore body and preexcavation the rest of the breed beyond the contour of the mineral (Fig.4). Formed rock cone 9 is removed by a bulldozer 10 goaf, produce a full sweep of the roof of the ore body (Fig.5). To reduce losses and dilution of the mineral produce partial Stripping slope ore ledge by sinking Karina ditches is directly dependent on the thickness of the ore body. When working on the system design eliminates the need for the creation of bottom-hole zone and therefore the coefficient of discharge reaches of 0.45. Further work is carried out for the extraction of minerals. When using blasting in mining are drilling blastholes at full capacity of the ore body (Fig.7) and produce an explosion at loosening. The quality of the explosion in the holding environment is always good (the effect of retaining walls). To reduce the loss of the mineral mining height of the ledge choose no more than five meters. When the thickness of the ore body more than five meters production are two podstupeni (Fig.8), simultaneously with the production on the first pedoscope to avoid losses and dilution of minerals, are also ditch, the breed of which is transported by road to the dumping of waste rock. The volume of rocks does not exceed 5% of the total volume of overburden.

Claims

The method of open pit mining of mineral deposits, including overburden removal using explosion on reset, cleaning the remaining species in the mined-out area and the excavation of minerals, characterized in that increase the coefficient of discharge by eliminating prisa the first excavator of the type shovel, the first excavation section is performed to clean the slope of the rock ledge from navica with the simultaneous handling of a breed developed in the space, and the resulting cone is removed by a bulldozer, the second section of preexcavation empty rock spend on a surface of the ore body with the simultaneous Stripping of minerals from rocks, rock cone is also removed by a bulldozer on the contact rocks of the ore body are in the ditch on the digging depth of the excavator, the width of which is directly dependent on the thickness of the ore body, the ore when the ore body thickness of more than 5 m are two podstupeni with simultaneous excavation of ditches, the rock from which it is transported to the dump.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of coal deposits flat and oblique incidence

The invention relates to the field of mining and can be used for the open development of mineral resources

The invention relates to mining and, in particular, to the open mining methods blasting

The invention relates to the field of construction and mining

The invention relates to mining and can be used when developing fields in an open way

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of steeply-dipping, elongated fields quarries

The invention relates to mining and can be used to increase the slope stability of the slopes and the pitwall rock and semi-bedrocks when the designed circuit

The invention relates to mines horizontal and sloping occurrence of extensive mineral deposits particularly high power

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for tuning out outside the pit at the time of finalisation with the formation of high ledges (45 - 70 m)

The invention relates to the field of mining and can be used in mining bulldozers unproductive rocks on gravel and formation deposits

FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60 and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

Up!