Device for supplying hydrogen isotopes in the receiver (options)

 

The invention can be used in nuclear engineering. The device includes a housing 1, which is set to item 2 of the metal hydride, the heater 3, the electrodes 4, the outlet 5, the shell 6, the nozzle 7 with a plug 8. Item 2 is the carrier of hydrogen isotopes and is enclosed in a sheath 6 made of a porous, for example, stainless steel. In one variant, the device is further provided with a membrane 9 with selective permeability for hydrogen isotope and the heater 3 is located between the membrane 9 and part 2. Alternatively, the heater 3 is made in the form of a tube from a material with selective permeability for hydrogen and serves as a selectively permeable membrane. One end sealed and the second hermetically connected with the outlet pipe 5. Item 2 may be made in the form of a hollow cylinder and mounted coaxially with the heater 3, or can be made flat, for example, in the form of tablets, and the heater 3 is located above its surface. Isotopes of hydrogen desorbers from part 2 as a result of its heating under the action of current flowing through the electrodes 4. The membrane 9 or the heater 3 is selectively transmits the target isotope of hydrogen, which is discharged through Petra to regulate its flow. 2 S. and 3 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to the field of hydrogen of high purity by the method of diffusion purification and can be used to supply it to the receiver with the possibility of fine adjustment of the quantities supplied threads.

In the field of supply of hydrogen isotopes in the receiver a device for the absorption and release of hydrogen [1]. It includes a housing which contains the detail of an alloy capable of absorbing hydrogen, and substances, the resistance of which is higher than that of the alloy. For details of the connected electrodes, when the coil is energized by which it is heated, resulting in a regulated reaction processes of absorption and release of hydrogen. This device can be used to feed into the receiver of hydrogen released during the heating of the alloy.

The known device has the following disadvantages. It does not provide purification of hydrogen from gas mixtures. In case of allocation of a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium with it the inevitable output and the product of its decay is Not3. In addition, the release of hydrogen from the alloy its electrical resistance changes because the reaction occurs converting hydride alloy in the alloy. For the sterile.

A device for separation of hydrogen and/or its isotopes from the flow of liquid or gas [2], containing permeable to hydrogen tubular substrate of a porous ceramic material, the Central outer portion of which is covered with a film of metal or alloy characterized by a catalytic activity and a selective permeability for hydrogen. Thus the outer surface of both ends of the tube is covered with a gas-tight material. The ends of the tube by means of a seal firmly attached to the shell of the reactor, forming a cavity that receives the original stream containing hydrogen isotopes. Through a film having a selective permeability for hydrogen isotope they are allocated from the thread comes in a tube and discharged through it.

This device allows you to select the isotopes of hydrogen from the flow of liquid and gases, and therefore, the disadvantage of this device is its complexity due to the need for an external source of hydrogen isotopes with a variable parameter.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is a device for input and selection of isotopes of hydrogen [3]. It contains cold working chamber with the outlet pipe, fitted the metal hydride is located coaxially around the heater, when this equilibrium pressure of hydrogen over the metal hydride is: <0.1 mm RT.article when 30And1atm at 350C. In the working chamber placed heat shielding membrane that divides the working chamber into two volumes, one of which are part of the metal hydride and the heater, and the other is connected with the outlet pipe. When the supply voltage of the wire spiral is heated under the action of heat occurs desorption isotopes of hydrogen from the metal hydride. The pressure of hydrogen isotopes in the working chamber is equal to the equilibrium pressure applied over the hydride at the heating temperature. Released into the working chamber of the gas through the pipe is fed into the receiver.

Such a device provides a supply to the receiver gas with purity implemented by heating the metal hydride. In particular, for tritide metal this means the presence of impurities radiogenic helium and other impurities of organic and inorganic origin, adsorbed on the surface of tritide and released into the gas phase upon heating, which is not always appropriate for the receiver. As impurities can be emitted gases, initially in to the adjustment of the gas flow in a wide range of flow (if the difference in extreme values by 3-4 orders of magnitude). The pressure of hydrogen isotopes in the chamber will be equal to the equilibrium pressure applied over the hydride at the heating temperature, and without any adjustment of the flow of hydrogen isotopes will be through the pipe to flow into the receiver.

The present invention is a device that provides fine adjustment of the gas streams fed to the receiver, in a wide range of flows (up to 3-4 orders of magnitude), while ensuring the diffusion of purity supplied to the receiver of hydrogen isotopes.

When using the present invention are achieved by the following technical results:

- purity supplied to the receiver gas increases by at least 2 orders of magnitude and is not less than 99,99999%;

- expanding the range of flows by summing up the effects of temperature on the equilibrium pressure P(T) over the hydride and coefficient of selective membrane permeabilityp(T), which can be adjusted by changing the temperature of the working surfaces of the device. When this flow is calculated as follows:

J(mol/s)=Kp(T)S/(LNA)P(T),

where S is the area of the selective membrane, L - thickness is at an equilibrium hydrogen pressure of 1 ATM penetration flow will change to 4;

- set the stream coming from the device the gas is maintained within 0.5% in the range of flows up to 4 orders of magnitude.

This task is solved in that known device for supplying hydrogen isotope containing cold working chamber with the outlet pipe, set it a part from the metal hydride, the heater and the element that divides the working chamber into two volumes, one of which is part of the metal hydride and the other is connected with the outlet pipe, according to the invention the specified element made in the form of a membrane with selective permeability for hydrogen isotope. The heater is installed between the part of the metal hydride and the membrane. Detail of the metal hydride is placed in the shell, and at least one of the walls of the shell is made porous.

Option is a device for the supply of hydrogen isotopes in the receiver, containing the working chamber with the outlet pipe, set it a part from the metal hydride and the heater, wherein the heater is made in the form of a tube from a material with selective permeability for hydrogen isotope with one end of the tube is tightly closed and the second hermetically connected with vyhodit to be made flat, for example, in the form of pills, and a tubular heater in the form of a flat spiral, installed over its surface. Detail of the metal hydride is placed in the shell, and at least one of the walls of the shell is made porous.

Comparative analysis of the proposed solutions with the prototype shows that the proposed device differs from the prototype in that the element that divides the working chamber into two volumes, one of which is part of the metal hydride and the other is connected with the outlet pipe, made in the form of a membrane with selective permeability for hydrogen isotope, while the heater is installed between the part of the metal hydride and the membrane. In another embodiment, the inventive device differs from the prototype in that the heater is made in the form of a tube from a material with selective permeability for hydrogen isotope with one end of the tube is tightly closed and the second hermetically connected with the outlet pipe with the possibility of separating the cavity of the tube from the volume of the working chamber. Thus, the claimed devices meet the criteria of the invention of "novelty."

When the analysis of the known technical solutions are not identified devices having attributes that match the distinctive features Growing".

In the inventive device under the action of heat from the heater is desorption of hydrogen isotopes from the metal hydride. Under the influence of heat from the heater is heating the membrane. The membrane is made from a material with selective permeability to hydrogen, for example, Pd or Ni. When heating the membrane becomes permeable for hydrogen isotopes. Due to the heat from one heater metal hydride and membrane not only simplifies the design, but also improve conditions for flow control. This is the sum of the results of two physical phenomena. It is known that the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen isotopes on metal hydrides in proportion to their temperature. It is also known that the permeability of metals isotopes of hydrogen is a function of temperature and pressure. The increase in the heater temperature by increasing passing current through it, with the aim of increasing the flow of hydrogen leads to an increase in hydrogen pressure in the working chamber and the increase in membrane permeability. I.e., the flow will increase due to the summation of effects. Similarly, when reducing passing through the heater current is reduced and the pressure of hydrogen isotopes in the working chamber, and permeability m is ispolnen in the form of a tubular helix of a material with selective permeability for hydrogen isotope (in this case it performs the function of the membrane), there is the same combination of two effects increase when passing through the heater current to the permeability increases and increases the pressure of hydrogen isotopes in the working chamber by raising the temperature of the hydride. Isotopes of hydrogen diffuse into the internal cavity of the tube through the wall. Sealing the tubular membrane on one side and the tight connection of its other end with an outlet pipe allows to separate the internal cavity of the tubular membrane from the cavity of the working chamber. T. O., isotopes of hydrogen, received in the cavity of the tubular membrane, completely isolated from the gas medium in the working chamber. Because the cavity of the tubular membrane is hermetically connected with the outlet pipe, the receiver receives diffusion-pure hydrogen isotopes.

To reduce the overall characteristics of the device part of the metal hydride can be made in the form of pills, and a tubular heater, performing the role of the membrane is installed over the surface of the tablets.

The placement of the part of the metal hydride in the shell, at least one of the walls being porous, allows to solve the technological problem of keeping hydride powder from entering the membrane material, what can cause malfunction due to dissolution of the metal hydride in the metal membrane. The porous wall at the same time allows you to decide on the release of hydrogen isotopes from the shell, and when complete removal of gas from the metal carrier through a porous wall, he again filled the isotopes of hydrogen.

In Fig.1 shows a device for supplying hydrogen isotopes - option under item 1 of the claims (with cylindrical carrier gas, the membrane and heater).

In Fig.2 shows a device for supplying hydrogen isotopes - option under item 3 of the claims (with the combined heater and the cylindrical membrane and the carrier gas).

In Fig.3 presents a special case feeder isotopes of hydrogen - option under item 4 of the claims (with the combined heater and the membrane and the flat carrier gas) and a top view in the section.

The device in Fig.1 includes a housing 1, which is set to item 2, made of metal hydride, which is a carrier gas isotope of hydrogen or mixtures of hydrogen isotopes), the heater 3 in the form of a spiral, the electrodes 4, the outlet 5. Item 2 is enclosed in a casing 6, which at least on one side is made porous, for example, from psmotrim pipe 7 with a plug 8. In the housing 1 also contains a membrane 9 with selective permeability for hydrogen, separating the volume with the metal hydride of the volume in which you installed the outlet. The heater 3 is located between the membrane 9 and the sheet of metal hydride 2.

The device in Fig.2 and Fig.3 includes a housing 1, which is set to item 2, made of metal hydride, which is a carrier gas isotope of hydrogen or mixtures of hydrogen isotopes), the heater 3 in the form of a tube from a material with selective permeability for hydrogen, and performing the function of a diffusion membrane. One end of the sealed tube is connected with the electrode 4, and its other end hermetically mounted in the outlet port 5. Part 2 of the metal hydride can be made in the form of a hollow cylinder and mounted coaxially relative to the heater membrane 3 (as shown in Fig.2). Alternatively, when the part 2 of the metal hydride is planar, for example, in the form of pills, and a tubular air heater membrane 3 made in the form of a flat spiral and is located above the surface of the tablet (as shown in Fig.3). Item 2 is enclosed in a casing 6, which at least on one side is made porous, for example, of a porous stainless steel. the Oh 8.

The device according to Fig.1 for supplying hydrogen isotopes in the receiver works as follows.

When applying voltage to the electrodes 4 and the housing of the working chamber 1 is heated heater 3, under the action of heat which is heated part 2 of the metal hydride and the membrane 9. This leads to the desorption of hydrogen from part 2 and the emergence of the permeability of the membrane 9. The liberated hydrogen fills the working chamber 1 and is directed to the membrane 9, which separates the portion of the working chamber with the metal hydride from the other part, which is the outlet 5. The gas passes through the membrane and enters the outlet. So is the cleaning out of a unit of hydrogen.

Changing the value of the applied voltage between the body 1 and the electrode 4, it is possible in a wide range of options to vary the flow of hydrogen isotopes sent to the receiver.

The device according to Fig.2 and 3 for the supply of hydrogen isotopes in the receiver works as follows.

When a voltage is applied to the electrode 4 and the housing of the working chamber 1 is heated tube heater 3, under the action of heat which is heated part 2 of the metal hydride and desorption of hydrogen. Released water the cuttings. Since one end of the tube is sealed, and the other is tightly installed in the outlet port 5 of the working chamber 1, which is in the tube hydrogen isotopes are isolated from the cavity of the working chamber and the receiver go pure hydrogen isotopes.

Changing the value of the applied voltage between the body 1 and the electrode 4, it is possible in a wide range of options to vary the flow of hydrogen isotopes sent to the receiver.

The proposed device for supplying hydrogen isotopes in the receiver is implemented as an option on p. 3 claims ZrCO hydride2and selective tube of Nickel. After saturation of the metal hydride hydrogen at a pressure of 1 ATM to the electrodes of the device was supplied current from 0 to 5A, the flow of leakage varied from values of ~0.1 cm3bar/hour to a value of 2500 cm3bar/hour.

Sources of information

1. Device for absorption and excretion of hydrogen alloy that absorbs hydrogen. The Japan patent No. 6092241 B4 (application No. 61-230375 priority from 29.09.86), publ. 16.11.94, IPC601 In 3/00, journal ISM, issue 37, No. 4, 1998, page 9.

2. Ceramic catalytic membrane reactor for the separation of hydrogen and/or its isotopes from the original thread. U.S. patent No. 5366712, publ. 22.11.94, the No. 59137301, publ. 07.08.84, IPC601 IN 4/00.

Claims

1. Device for supplying hydrogen isotopes in the receiver, containing cold working chamber with the outlet pipe, set it a part from the metal hydride, the heater and the element that divides the working chamber into two volumes, one of which is part of the metal hydride and the other is connected with the outlet pipe, wherein the specified element is made in the form of a membrane with selective permeability for hydrogen isotope, while the heater is installed between the part of the metal hydride and the membrane.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the part of the metal hydride is placed in the shell, and at least one of its walls is made porous.

3. Device for supplying hydrogen isotopes in the receiver, containing the working chamber with the outlet pipe, set it a part from the metal hydride and the heater, wherein the heater is made in the form of a tube from a material with selective permeability for hydrogen isotope with one end of the tube sealed, and the second hermetically connected with the outlet pipe with the possibility of separating the cavity of the tube from the volume of the example, in the form of pills, and a tubular heater in the form of flat spirals and installed on one side of it.

5. The device under item 3 or 4, characterized in that the part of the metal hydride is placed in the shell, and at least one of its walls is made porous.

 

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