The hydraulic machines

 

(57) Abstract:

The hydraulic machines is designed to convert the force of water pressure into mechanical and electrical energy. The hydraulic machines - multi-storey and contains a frame integrally connected with the base, the dam and the bulls, on the upper floors which are concreted power frame, which is rigidly connected to the upper part of the frame hydraulic machines. On power rack fixed housing with bearings, in which is inserted a cylindrical shaft, which is attached individually drives the eccentrics chief Executive and the eccentric rods. On the basis of the frame hydraulic fixed frames of the cameras, made in the form of a vertical shaft, floor and hermetically separated intermediate covers. Inside each cell placed in the working chamber and has a piston square section, which divides the inner cavity of the working chamber on podporchennuyu and nadporshnevaya cavity. All pistons on all floors rigidly interconnected by a rod. The upper rod to its upper end pivotally connected to the axle narrowed force of the walls of the main eccentric rod. Side frame hydraulic side of the upstream dam is called magneta the party. At all levels of the floors of the hydraulic machine on the frame side of the upper and lower pools fixed drum dispensers, which are interconnected and are in reciprocal and rotational movement by means of a chain drive control system with the Executive eccentric rod, placed with the main Cam rod on a common cylindrical shaft. Under the action of the pressure difference between the pistons move toward smaller negative pressure through the main rod rectilinearly-and-forth motion of the pistons is converted into rotational movement of the cylindrical shaft, and connected to the shaft, the generator produces electrical energy. Design of hydraulic machines allows to increase capacity and reduce water consumption. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 14 ill.

The invention relates to hydropower, is designed to convert the force of the water pressure, which is determined by the difference between the elevations of water levels behind the dam (upstream water - WB) and dam (downstream water - NB) in mechanical or electrical energy, and construction and operation of the invention relates to reciprocating machines.

It is known a device in which the force of the water pressure approx is some fluid into mechanical or electrical energy, which is the closest prototype of the invention.

This device is a Hydropneumatic hydrogenerator", patent USSR, F 03 13/12, 17/00, №1611225, (22) 29.11.85, auth. Tibor, Kendari.

The invention relates to hydropower. The purpose of the invention is the increased efficiency of the hydro generator by providing a pump operating in its optimal modes when changing water levels in the upper and lower dams. The hydrogenerator contains fixed on the bottom of the vertical guide block is made of at least one of the shaft 2 with holes 3 and 4 in the side wall 5 near the bottom 1 of the reservoir, located in the dam 6, weighted float 7, mounted in the guide block with the possibility of vertical movement on the guide rollers 26, piston pump 8 bilateral actions for pumping hydraulic fluid through a closed circuit, the piston 9 which by means of a connecting element made in the form of an adjustable along the length of the rod 10, is connected with the float 7, hydropneumatic accumulator 11, communicated through the pressure pipe 12 with the cavities of the injection pump 8, the receiving container with the Converter 14 energy mainly in wedm and lower bays 17 and 18 of the reservoir. The hydro generator is equipped with automatic control valves 19 and 20, the actuator changes the length of the rod 10, which includes a hydraulic cylinder 21 and the pump 22 and 23 and the sensor 24 of the upper and lower water levels. The hydrogenerator has also a collection of 25 communicated with the inlet pipe 15. Under the sequential opening of the valves 19 and 20 of the water, periodically filling the watch 2, raises and lowers the float 7, through which the rod 10, the length of which is adjustable depending on fluid levels in the pools 17 and 18, actuates a pump, which pumps the hydraulic fluid in the hydropneumatic accumulator 11, which is then fed to the Converter 14 energy, which can be connected to a generator, and then to the input of the pump 8.

As can be seen from the description and the two drawings, a hydropneumatic hydrogenerator presented in the form of simple ideas which you want the entire structure to modify the levels of many subsequent inventions.

1. On day 1 of the reservoir represented the Foundation in the form of a mound, which has a vertical guide unit made in the form of shaft 2 and dam 6, within which is placed a heavier float 7 with the possibility of vertical movement in the direction of the local top covering shaft 2 is mounted piston pump 8 bilateral actions for separate pumping hydraulic fluid through a closed circuit. The pump 8 has a piston 9, which by means of the rod 10 is connected with the float 7 by means of hinges 27 and 28, to compensate for the distortions. Therefore, the distortions in the movement of the float 7 is provided, and this in reciprocating devices is unacceptable.

3. The cavity 16 of the shaft 2 is in communication with the atmosphere through the openings 3 and 4 with the upper and lower pools 17 and 18 of the reservoir.

4. The hydro generator is equipped with automatic control valves 19 and 20. If this is unknown: the device itself, where it is placed, how it interacts with the flaps and how they are managed.

5. The hydro generator is equipped with actuator changes length of the rod 10, which includes a hydraulic cylinder 21 and the pump 22 and 23 and the sensor 24 of the upper and lower water level. The cylinder 21 and the pump 22 and 23 are placed in the inner cavity of the float 7. If this is unknown, the design of gear pumps and cylinders, as they alter the length of the rod 10, how and by what means receives signals from the two sensors 24 of the upper and lower water levels in the dams.

6. When opening the valve 20 water under pressure of the upstream flows into the internal cavity 16 of the shaft 2 and the float 7 is lifted up not only under the action of water pressure, and under the action of the Archimedean force to be harvested to create the required higher pressure in newportnews pump cavity 8, you want to compress the air in the hydropneumatic accumulator 11 to the correct pressure shown on the pressure gauge 33. The speed filling with water pagpapalabas cavity by lifting the float 7 only up depends on the living section of the hole 4 and the pressure of the water head. As the float 7 and the piston 9 are connected with a common shaft 10, therefore, with the same speed rises and the piston 9 and pumps nadporshnevaya hydraulic fluid in the hydropneumatic accumulator in the number of times smaller by volume many times the area of the piston 9 is smaller than the area of the float 7. In this part of Archimedean force is lost due to compression of air in the hydropneumatic accumulator 11.

When closing the valve 20 and open time of the valve 19 water under its own gravity and severity weighted float 7 flows out of the holes 3 more slowly as the water overcomes the resistance of the hole 3, and the weight of the weighted float 7 is optimally limited, since the increase in the weight of the float 7 above optimally valid correspondingly reduced lifting the Archimedes force when lifting up. And with a slow lowering of the float 7 down decreases the performance of the pump 8 and even less is dependent complex system: a system of float 7 with the actuator changes the length of the rod 10 and the pump 8 with additional equipment.

The first system is designed for optimal modes when changing water levels in the upper and lower pools.

The second system is designed to increase the pressure of the hydraulic fluid and supply it to the Converter 14, which only then will rotate the wheel of the Converter 14 and to generate mechanical or electrical energy. But the increasing pressure of hydraulic fluid occurs due to the reduction of its volume and power of its flow to convert it into mechanical or electrical energy. When the fluid flow is interrupted at the collector 25. Therefore, such a discontinuous two-stage system is not conducive to efficiency. While the pump 8 shown in Fig.1, generally unhealthy. For his performance required in the discharge pipe 12 and into the suction pipe 15 to build two non-return valve: two of which must be configured to allow fluid from the suction pipe 15 in podporchennuyu and nadporshnevaya cavity, and the other two must be configured to allow fluid from these cavities in the pressure line 12. Check valves must be installed respectively above and below the dead of the provisions of the piston 9. Even after installation of the additional reverse is: by submitting it through the refill valve 34 of compressed air.

8. The dam of 6 hydro generator can be made several mines 2. Herself dam of 6 may consist of stacked interconnected sets of mines. In Fig.2 to the main dam to its ends attached to other dams in the form of ragged contours of dams. Therefore, dams and hydro generators can be located only on the horizontal level. In Fig.1 at the top of the shaft 2 at an unknown overlap of the pump 8, the piston 9 which the rod 10 pivotally connected downstream of the float 7. So there is no possibility of over one hydro generator to place the second hydrogenerator. The shaft of one of the transducer 14 cannot be connected to the shaft of the second inverter 14 to increase the power, because the generators can only work individually and each has their individual bulky equipment.

On the basis of only these listed common features, we can conclude that a hydropneumatic hydrogenerator is complex, inefficient device can not be used in any scale industry, but can be made in the form of complex cumbersome laboratory setup, in which the Converter 14 can only be salivating in mechanical or electrical energy.

The ability to convert the force of water pressure directly into mechanical or electrical energy was determined only after it was invented independent invention "Eccentric rod" according to the patent of Russia №2178106 from (22) 16.02.1999, (51) G 16 H 21/18 published (46) 10.01.2002. Bull. No. 1, ed. Kuzin, A. A.

The invention Eccentric rod relates to mechanical engineering and for the creation of a transmission for converting the motion by means of cranks and eccentrics. The rod has a disk-eccentric with a round hole through which the drive Cam mounted on a cylindrical shaft and rigidly attached to it. The disk is eccentric by means of bearings associated with the link rod. The link rod is connected with the Executive management, with the possibility of reciprocation. The center hole of the disc Cam is offset from the center of the disk at a distance of the radius of the crank. The radius of the disk Cam is greater than the sum of the crank radius and the radius of the shaft. The rollers are placed on the surface of the outer diameter of the disk is eccentric and covered by the casing annular body and load bearing walls, the components of the link rod. These walls are made with narrowed ends with holes. In these openings led the shaft is made to rotate around a common axis, passing through the center excentricities hole of the disk Cam and along the axis of the cylindrical shaft. The technical result of the invention is to reduce the cost of manufacturing the eccentric rod and improving its operational qualities.

Wide application eccentric rod will find as a replacement crank mechanisms in internal combustion engines, propellers, presses, cutting or other processing machines. This assumption is supported by theoretical calculations, the unique advantages and opportunities eccentric rod, its high efficiency and absence of such analogs with the same advantages and opportunities, which has an eccentric rod.

As a result of these substitutions may appear and already there are new appliances and machines, and existing and current will acquire new qualities and capabilities.

Therefore, in the wide possibilities of application of the eccentric rod and made possible the invention of a brand new Hydraulic machines, in which the interaction of the eccentric connecting rods with pistons became possible to directly Preobrazhenskoe energy.

In this application the invention the hydraulic machines is as follows.

In Fig.1 shows one seven-story of hydraulic machines in a static position in the cross section along b-B in Fig.2.

In Fig.2 shows two single Hydraulic machines in the section along a-a in Fig.1.

In Fig.3 shows a section of the three upper floors along b-b In Fig.2.

In Fig.4 shows a section of the top three floors at the time of the operating position of the circular part of the Cam rod is rotated counterclockwise to the left on the corner .

In Fig.5 shows a section of the top three floors at the time of the operating position of the circular part of the Cam rod is rotated counter-clockwise right angle =180.

In Fig.6 shows a section of the top three floors at the time of the operating position of the circular part of the Cam rod, turned to the right on the corner .

In Fig.7 shows a separate chamber with the piston Assembly.

In Fig.8 shows the working chamber.

In Fig.9 shows the piston Assembly.

In Fig.10 shows a chain management system of water distribution on the three upper floors in cross section along G-G in Fig.2.

In Fig.11 shows the hydraulic machines in cross section along d-D in Fig.10.

In Fig.12 shows BAA seven triple hydraulic machines.

In Fig.14 shows the lever system to reduce the stroke of the pistons and increase the radius of the crank of the main eccentric rod.

The seven-story of hydraulic machines provides the Foundation 1, immured as one of the concrete dam 2 and bulls 3, holding the water level of the upstream WB relatively downstream NB shown in Fig.1. In the dam 2 embedded channels 4 console nozzles 5 of rectangular cross-section and the grid 6, the height corresponding to the levels of the floors of the hydraulic machines. All 4 channels are opened is closed by the shutter 7 and by means of the hook 8 of the lifting machine (not shown).

On the Foundation 1 concreted base plate 9, on which the lower base fixed column 10. On the upper floors of the bulls 3 concreted power frame 11. Within the walls of the bulls 3 on the height and width of the necessary amount of concrete cantilever beams 12, which is rigidly attached removable transverse beams 13 one end of the cantilever beam 12 a bull to 3, and the other end of the cantilever beam 12 other bull 3. The top cap of the column 10 is rigidly attached to the power frame 11, and over the entire height of the column 10 is rigidly connected with a removable transverse beams 13. and transverse beams 15. On the base plate 9 is fixed to the base 16 on which floor alternately attached to the cover 17 and the chamber of rectangular cross-section, one of which is shown in Fig.7. Each cell by the number of floors of the hydraulic machine includes a housing 16, each of which have their flanges 19, the upper flanges 20 of the rectangular structure and the cover 17 between them bonded by common bolts in the form of a common vertical shaft of rectangular cross-section, split floor covers 17 independent sealed chamber. Therefore, each cover 17 for one camera is the bottom, and another neighboring camera cover, and Vice versa. Each camera optional hard floor and bolted to a removable longitudinal and removable cross beams 14 and 15 through the frame 21, which is welded to the outer walls of each chamber. Each chamber is equipped with pipes of rectangular section 22, 23, 24, 25. Inside each cell placed in the working chamber 26 with a rectangular hole 27, strictly match the perimeter with the sockets 22, 23, 24, 25. In the upper part of the chamber mine blocked extra lids 28 connected by a common sleeve 29. Within each working chamber 26 posted by the piston, which is shown in Assembly in Fig.9. The piston provides the it of which is hermetically attached to the bottom of the housing 30, and the upper flange of the coupling 31 and the upper square or rectangular level of the piston is sealed by a cover 32 having a sealed hatches 33, inside sleeve 31 along its axis, there is a hole with internal thread, into which is screwed the threaded ends of the two rod 34 fixed locking bolts 35. The rods 34 are wearing depreciation rings, for example, of rubber 36. On the upper end of the upper rod 34 screw threaded and fixed head 37, the lug which is inserted the axle 36.

On the power frame 11 is fixed to the housing with bearings 39, in which is inserted a cylindrical shaft 40, the ends of which are fixed clutch 41. On the cylindrical shaft 40 mounted and rigidly secured on the eccentric main eccentric rod 42, the lower end of the tapered walls through which the axis 36 hinged to the head 37 of the upper rod 34. In addition, the cylindrical shaft 40 mounted and fixed eccentric Executive eccentric connecting rod 43.

At the level of each floor, for example, seven hydraulic machines, with both sides installed and fixed drum distributors, one of which is shown in Fig.12. Building drum dispenser consists of two detachable nozzles 49. Named detachable parts tightly connected rectangular flanges 46 and 48, between which is tightly clamped seal 50 around the rectangular perimeter.

The nozzles 49 are sealed and connected with a rectangular lap 51. The end walls of the two housing parts are equipped with detachable sliding bearings 52. By lap 51 rectangular nozzles 49 respectively and hermetically connected with the pipes 22 and 23 on one side of the camera (Fig.7), and on the other side of the camera and hydraulic drum valves pipe 49 through the knees 51 is hermetically coupled to the nozzles 24 and 25 cameras. Within each corps drum dispenser placed the drum 53, made of tube, with the two ends of the end wall 54, to which the inner side of the welded flanges 55, and they are respectively welded on the left axis 56 and the right axis 57 that its sliding tails inserted in sliding bearings 52, and the other tails axis is inserted in the bearings 58 secured in the housings 59 and fixed caps 60. Inside the tube of the drum 53 welded baffles 61 and 62 along the entire length of the drum, and the Central baffles are welded in such a way that represent the views expand the width of the cone 63 is equal to the distance l. On the right console axis 57 is attached a sprocket 64. The drum 53 is made to rotate inside the drum of the distributor and is a round of the farm, the terminals of which are the partitions 61 and 62.

Drum distributors nozzles 45 are sealed and connected with the console nozzles 5 dam of 2 over the entire height of the respective floors of the hydraulic machines. On the opposite side hydraulic drum dispensers, in which the diffusers 63 performs the function of confusion that their nozzles 45 is sealed and floor are connected with branches 65, all of the internal cavity which is communicated with a common internal cavity of the collection of water 66, in which the lower base is in communication with the internal cavity of the knee 67 and with the lower tail NB water.

Thus performed hydraulic machines connected to the base 1 by means of the concreted plate 9, the base 16, with bulls 3, through concreted on the upper floors of the bulls 3 power frame 11, is rigidly connected by columns 10 with the base plate 9 and the base 1, with immured within the walls of the oppositely located bulls 3 cantilever beams 12, a removable transverse beams 13, the longitudinal beams 14 and transverse beams 15 - is it a console nozzle 5 along the entire height of all floors and width design hydraulic machines - all this defines a single, monolithic design of hydraulic machines.

In the same way all the internal cavity of all channels 4, console nozzles 5, drum dispensers, knees 51, chamber pipes 22 and 23 to the piston on the right side of the dam 2 (Fig.1) is all of the intake side of the hydraulic machine. And all the internal cavity of the working chambers for the pistons, nozzles 24 and 25, knees 51, drum dispensers, taps 65, collection of water 66 and knee 67 to the downstream water NR water level (to the left in Fig.1) - all this is for the suction side of the hydraulic machine. While the factors mentioned parties hydraulic machines are all at the same time the piston, which divides the inner cavity of each working chamber 26 on podporchennuyu and nadporshnevaya cavity, simultaneously on all floors of the hydraulic machines.

For alternate connection all at the same time podporchenyj and nadporshnevaya cavities of the working chambers 26 on all floors of the hydraulic machines equipped with a Chain management system for distribution of water to all floors, which contains the following basic elements of design.

Two removable longitudinal beams 14 (Fig.10 and 11) fixed bearings (not shown) into which is inserted a shaft 68, to the console, which is about two stars 64 drum 53 on both sides and at all levels of the floors of the hydraulic machines. On each shaft 68 mounted and rigidly fixed to the lever 72, which is pivotally connected with the General thrust of 73 through the axis 74. The upper end of the thrust 73 through the axis of the hinge 36 is connected with narrowed ends of the walls of the Executive eccentric connecting rod 43 with an eccentric hole 75 in the disk-Cam mounted on the cylindrical shaft 40.

In Fig.1 and 3, the hydraulic machines is shown in a static position. In Fig.4-6 main eccentric rod 42 shown in moments of circular rotation disk is eccentric about the axis of rotation of the cylindrical shaft 40 in a counterclockwise direction.

Executive eccentric rod fixed to its drive an eccentric on a common cylindrical shaft 40 also rotates in the same direction, but according to the counter section along G-G in Fig.2 it is shown rotating clockwise in Fig.10.

In Fig.1 and 3, the vertical axis Y1-O1the main eccentric rod 42 coincided with the main vertical axis Y-Y of the entire hydraulic machines.

In Fig.10 own vertical axis Y1-O1Executive eccentric connecting rod 43 is also shown coincident with the main vertical axis Y-Y just to show that SK-eccentric Executive eccentric connecting rod 43 when mounting offset and secured to the angle1(not shown) relatively fixed on a common cylindrical shaft 40 of the drive Cam of the main eccentric rod 42, i.e., for example, behind the angle1=15-30. Therefore, when the axis of its own Y1-O1the main eccentric rod 42 coincides with the main vertical axis Y-Y, Executive eccentric connecting rod 43 is actually the position I (Fig.10 is shown by the dotted line).

In Fig.12 shows the mean position of the diffuser 63 of the drum 53 is strictly along the horizontal axis, the result shows that the height of the rectangular hole h2cone 63 is larger than the distance a between the nearest horizontal edges of the rectangular pipes 49, resulting in the internal cavity of the diffuser 63 at this moment reported in the form of narrow slits simultaneously with podpisniye and nadporshnevaya cavities by lap 51 and chamber nozzles 22 and 23.

In the initial static position when the installation by selecting the appropriate transfer circuits 70 and 71 (Fig.10) diffusers 63 (Fig.3) all drums 53 forcing the hand set clockwise by a certain angle so that the lower nozzles 49, reported by lap 51 and chamber PAYG nozzles 23, communicated with nadporshnevaya cavities of the chambers 26 are open.

Diffusers 63 all drums suction side of the hydraulic machines installed clockwise by the angle of rotation thus, conversely, that the nozzles 49 drum 53 by means of lap 51 and chamber pipe 34 provided with podpisniye cavities of the working chambers 26 are open, and the upper nozzle 49 by lap 51 and chamber pipe 25 provided with nadporshnevaya cavities of the working chambers 26, are closed.

Drives eccentric main rod 42 and actuating rod 43 during the rotation of rotating around the longitudinal axis O of rotation of the cylindrical shaft 40, the center Of which is located at the intersection of the horizontal axis x-X and the main vertical axis Y-Y. the Center of the swing rods about the axis 38 is marked with the letter " O1. The letter O2marked the center of the disk is eccentric, which is located at the intersection of the horizontal axis X1-X1and the main vertical axis Y-Y. the Distance between the center O2and About the rotation axis O of the cylindrical shaft 40 is the radius of Krivosheya rkra rod.

In the description of the invention the Eccentric rod mentioned that the eccentric rod ... has naibolshim turnover two dead. Therefore, the hydraulic machines can work alone, if on a cylindrical shaft will be assigned to the appropriate counterweight that balances the first elements of the rotational and vertical translational movement by means of a counter moment is equal to the crank radius, multiplied by the total weight, containing: weight of rods 42 and 43, the weight of all of the rods 34, the weight of all of the pistons, the weight of all console ends of the levers 72 and the weight of the traction 73, i.e.

MCR=rkr(RW+PPCs+Pp+Pt),

where MCR- the total moment of the counterweight, KGM;

rkris the radius of the crank eccentric rod, m;

PW- total weight of all rods, kg;

PPCs- total weight of all the rods 34 with a head 37, kg;

Pp- total weight of all pigs, kg;

PP- the total weight of the cantilever ends of all the levers 72 kg;

Pt- weight traction 73 kg

Then in this condition the hydraulic machines will be named as one single hydraulic machines having one main eccentric rod 42 and one Executive rod 43 with the said counterweight.

One single, for example the seven-story, hydraulic machines operates as follows.

the primary objective of which corresponds floor number of floors hydraulic machines, and height correspond to the distances between floors hydraulic machines.

In the closed position of the shutter 7 of its rectangular Windows are tall between 4 channels. When lifting the shutter 7 by means of the hoisting machine and of the cable with a hook 8 at the height of the alignment at the same time all the rectangular window shutter 7 with 4 channels water under pressure height of the upstream WB water level and the corresponding depth of the treated nets 6, rushes simultaneously on all floors through the channels 4, cantilever pipe 5 and the pipe 45 into the inner cavity of the sector parts 44 buildings all drum distributors, through a slim rectangular side diffusers 63 height h1through extended side diffusers 63 height h2through the upper Agape pipe 49, through the knee 51 through the upper chamber, the nozzles 23 through the upper rectangular openings 27 of the working chambers 26 in the inner Nagorskaya cavity of the working chambers 26 of a width of l, i.e., the entire intake side, but the further path of water through the upper chamber nozzles 25, elbows, 51, nozzles 49 drum distributors throughout the suction side of the hydraulic machine is closed cylindrical body of the drum 53 in each drum races the distributors intake side: through the bottom nozzles 49, knee 51, the lower chamber of the nozzle 22. But podpisniye cavity of the working chambers 26 is communicated through the lower chamber, the nozzles 24, the knee 51, the pipe 49 with the inner cavity of the diffuser 63 drum distributors suction side of the hydraulic machine, and through the nozzles 45, bends 65, the collector 66 and the knee 67 all podpisniye cavity communicated with the lower water NR water level. Therefore, when the shutter is open 7 at the moment shown in Fig.3, in nadporshnevaya cavities of the working chambers 26 water with the force of the pressure corresponding to the height of the upstream WB and the corresponding depth, which corresponds to the level of each floor hydraulic machines, presses on the entire working area of the piston simultaneously in all nadporshnevaya cavities of the working chambers 26 on all floors of hydraulic machines.

The working area of the piston is the product of the size of the piston AB in Fig.9 except the area of a circular cross-section rod 34, i.e.

Fp=Fn-FPCs,

where Fp- working area of the piston, m2;

Fn- General rectangular area of the piston, m2;

FPCs- the cross-sectional area of the rod 34, m2.

In Fig.3 shows the moment a static position when the pistons vs the ka-Cam is located above the center Of the rotation axis O of the cylindrical shaft 40 at a distance of crank radius rkrand the axis of X1-X1is located above the center Of the rotation axis O of the cylindrical shaft 40 at a distance, too, the crank radius rkrand parallel to the axis X-X.

The total force Rwithoperates top-down simultaneously on all the videos that are hosted on the area of the upper semicircle of the outer diameter of the disk is eccentric by a distance equal to the sum of the crank radius rkrand the radius of the disk is eccentric Rg, i.e. u=rkr+Rg. Each individual force acting on each roller, toward the center of the disk is eccentric normal.

Such unilateral action from top to bottom relative to the center Of the rotation axis O of the cylindrical shaft 40, when all the pistons and the main rod 42 will be in its upper position, the position is not very stable, because at this moment on the disc Cam begins to operate the moment of rotation, is equal to the total power Pwithmultiplied by the crank radius rkr, i.e., MBP=Pwithrkr. Then under the action of the moment of rotation of the drive Cam rotates the cylindrical shaft 40, while lowering down the main rod 42, for example, counterclockwise, and pistons all move together down premalatha 42 at the beginning of the rotation angle of lag, for example,1=15-30 attached to the main rod 42 on a common shaft 40 continues to climb up the minimum speed that tends to zero, and also slowing down the rod 43 lifts up the rod 73, which is also slowing down rotates the levers 72 simultaneously on all floors with slow turn double row sprocket 69 which, through roller chains 70 and 71 rotate sprocket 64 mounted on the right axes 57, thereby turning all the drums 53 on both sides of the hydraulic machines.

With a transmission ratio of diameters DFedouble row sprocket 69 to the diameters of dSVsprockets 64, for example, DFe:dSV=2:1, while rotation double row sprocket 69 on the corner sprocket 64 rotates through the angle 2, which respectively rotate the drums 53 and diffusers 63.

In Fig.4 shows the working time, when the main rod 42 has deviated to the left by the maximum angle between the axis Y1-O1and the main vertical axis Y-Y and X1-X1and Y1-O1perpendicular to each other and the angle between them is constantly equal to 90. While the X-axis1-X1aligned with the center O of the rotation axis O of the cylindrical shaft 40. All the main sloanie S, equal to the crank radius rkr, i.e., S=rkr. The rod 43 has been in position II, shown by the dotted line in Fig.10. At that moment, all pistons have maximum movement speed down. And all the drums 53 and diffusers 63 intake side of the hydraulic machine turned to the maximum anglemclockwise up, providing maximum flexibility and maximum area of passage for the flow of water under pressure in Nagorskaya cavity of the working chambers 26. And the path of water through the lower nozzles 49, knee 51, chamber nozzles 22 of the cavity of the working chambers 26 of the intake side of the closed bodies of the drums 53. At the same time the drums 53 and diffusers 63 acting confusion, the suction side of the hydraulic machines have also turned clockwise down to the maximum anglemproviding maximum flexibility and maximum area for the flow of water from podporchenyj cavities of the working chambers 26 and securely closing the water outlet from nadporshnevaya cavities of the working chambers 26 through the upper chamber nozzles 25, colony 51, the upper tubes 49, blocking the exit bodies drums drum 53 distributors suction side of the hydraulic machine. In this case, all podpisniye cavity of the working chambers 26 atsisiusti 44 and pipe 45 drum distributors, bends 65, collection of water 66, knee 67 with the lower tail NB and with the atmosphere.

The next half of the way (move) down, also equal to the crank radius rkr, the pistons move slow at the same time drives eccentric main rod 42 and rod 43 under the influence of total flight points and flight of the moment of the counterweight and connecting rods 42 and 43 rotate the cylindrical shaft 40 around the axis of rotation O of the cylindrical shaft 40 with a constant angular velocity.

At the same time, when the pistons slow their downward movement, traction, on the contrary, accelerates its movement down rapidly turn all the levers 72 and double row sprocket 69, and due to the gear ratio even uskorenie turn sprocket 64, drums 53 and diffusers 63.

In Fig.5 shows the working time, when the disk is eccentric of the main rod 42 is turned relative to the center Of the rotation axis O of the cylindrical shaft 40 at angle =180. At this point, all pistons stopped, reaching its lowest position, moving (motion), is equal to two radii of the crank, i.e., S=rkr. At this point, all of the drum 53 of the intake side of the hydraulic managed to block their cylindrical bodies accesses streams of water in Nagorskaya cavity working her hand hydraulic managed to block their cylindrical bodies exit podporchenyj cavities of the working chambers 26. At this point, all the original air is displaced from podporchenyj cavities of the working chambers 26 through the bottom nozzles 24, elbows 51, the conduits 63, sector-part 44, the nozzles 45, bends 65, knee 67 in the lower reach of NB and into the atmosphere. The rod 43 has accepted the position III shown by the dotted line in Fig.10. Own axis, Y1-O1the main rod 42 is aligned with the main vertical axis Y-y Axis, X1-X1located parallel to the axis X-X at a distance of crank radius rkrbelow the center Of the rotation axis O of the cylindrical shaft 40.

To this moment, when the speed of the vertical straight-and-forth motion of the piston becomes equal to zero, i.e. Vn=0, and the load is the total weight of the main rod 42, pistons, rods 34, the weight of water in nadporshnevaya cavities of the working chambers 26 and vertical inertial forces continue to act on the inertia of top-down on all the rollers located on the square in the upper semicircle of the outer diameter of the disk is eccentric, and the lower rollers located on the square in the lower semicircle of the outer diameter of the disk Cam is not loaded, the moment of resistance to rotation is equal to the total power from the load, the total weight and inertia of Pwithmultiplied by the coefficients is of rolling, KGM;

Pwith- total force, kg;

fto- coefficient of rolling friction.

Therefore, the main rod 42 in conjunction with the counterweight, with all the rotating elements of the drive has a large inertia of rotation, so easy, unstressed and gently passes the bottom dead center position.

In Fig.6 shows the working time, when the main rod 42 has deviated to the right by the maximum angle between its sobestvennoy Y1-O1and the main vertical axis Y-y Axis, X1-X1aligned with the center O of the rotation axis O-O of the cylindrical shaft 40. The rod 43 has accepted the position IV in Fig.10.

The axis 38 and all the pistons moved up to a distance S equal to the crank radius rkr, i.e., S=rkr. At that moment, the pistons on each floor has reached its maximum speed. The drums 53 and diffusers 63 is turned to the maximum anglemdownwards counterclockwise with angular velocity tends to zero, thus providing the opportunity for maximum passage for flow of water under pressure to all podpisniye cavity of the working chambers 26 with the inlet side of the hydraulic machine. And the drums 53 and diffusers 63 of the suction side of the hydraulic machine turned on mA is Yaya thereby the opportunity for maximum output flow of water from nadporshnevaya cavities of the working chambers 26, blocking still safer exit podporchenyj cavities of the working chambers 26. The next half of the stroke S of the piston wuerch, also equal to the crank radius rkr, the pistons move vertically straight-forward with delay. The connecting rods 42 and 43 are rotated around the rotational axis O-O of the cylindrical shaft 40 with a constant angular velocity, and thrust 73 moves upward with increasing speed, rapidly rotates the levers 72 and double row sprocket 69, still uskorenie turn sprocket 64, drums 53 and the diffuser 63. And by the time the piston top position all the drums 53 and diffusers 63 accept the position of Fig.3. Further, the rotation of rods 42 and 43 and the flow of water is repeated simultaneously on all floors of the hydraulic machines.

In the present description unless stated one single hydraulic machines with the appropriate counterweight, through which balances the first rotating and moving parts of hydraulic machines, but not balanced by the total weight of the water, which is a big drawback. Practically start working fluid machines, such as shown in the initial position in Fig.3, when filling the water starts simultaneously in all cavity is air. Then under this condition and with the rapid opening of the shutter 7, when the water instantly committed in the cavity of the working chambers 26 on all floors with only one hand hydraulic machines, possible hydraulic shock a large force capable of hydraulic machines out of action. So in this situation it is necessary to open the shutter 7 as slowly as possible until and unless you remove the air from all of the cavities of the working chambers 26 and until all cavities are completely filled with water in a continuous flow. Then the hydraulic impact is mitigated through advanced water flow in the opposite cavity when the previous cavities water is still not fully removed. Softens the blow and the fact that by the end of the stroke of the pistons with the speed tends to zero, the flow of water in the cavity will tend to zero in the dead moments provisions. But the main condition, which excludes the occurrence of water hammer, is the fact that at any point in the movement of the piston cavity of the working chambers 26 of the intake side of the hydraulic communication with the water behind the dam 2 of the upstream WB, and the cavity of the working chambers 26 for the piston of the suction side of the hydraulic machines communicated with the lower tail NB and atmosphere. Therefore, the application of one which of hydraulic machines, eliminating the drawbacks of one single hydraulic machines, which is stated in the description for a more simple and accessible understanding of the construction and operation of hydraulic machines, as well as one option among many possible options for the manufacture of hydraulic machines, which are based on applied one single hydraulic machines.

The continuity of water flow simultaneously into all the cavities of the working chambers 26 all floors of the intake side of the hydraulic machine and the simultaneous removal of water from the opposite cavities of the working chambers 26 behind the piston from all floors of the suction side of the hydraulic machine is provided by a Chain management system, which the hydraulic machines are equipped and which is extremely important. From the accuracy of its calculation, from the practical experience of its installation and operation all depends efficient operation of hydraulic machines. In its application are given ample opportunity to try different combinations of numerous options chain water management system in the form of continuous threads. The main prerequisite is that the connecting rod 43 is fixed on the cylindrical shaft 40 together with the main rod 42, whereby both of the connecting rod rotate with the same angular velocity. However rynkowymi size as one of many options. In fact, the rod 43 may be larger or smaller, to have in advance some excentricity holes (Fig.10) that if necessary it is possible to apply different radii of cranks rkrand , consequently, to be able to apply different working strokes thrust 73, different lengths of the levers 72, different diameters of the sprockets 69 and 64, different gear ratios between them, etc.

Using the capabilities of many combinations in the calculations and in practice, we can ensure that when the pistons to their upper or lower positions diffusers 63, advancing movement of the pistons, will give a counter their movement the pressure of the flow of water, thereby softening the inertia forces of the pistons and rods 34, to apply the optimal radius of the cranks of the main connecting rod 42.

It is known that various presses, equipped with a crank mechanism with the use of a crankshaft in moments of dead positions, the rod has the most power. This positive advantage further has an eccentric rod. Therefore, depending on water pressure and working areas of all of the pistons so you can find the working stroke of the pistons with the respective radius of the crank that uscanada. Continuous flow will be established because all mentioned the way the water flows under pressure purged in an airtight channels, the elbows, the knees, the working chambers, the diffusers, the bends, in the collection of water. In such tight conditions of continuous streams become inextricably threads that are spontaneously only once after the initial launch of hydraulic machines, two or three full working stroke of the pistons of the water all the way from gate 7 to the downstream of NB - removed all the air into the water and through it to the atmosphere, the additional volume is completely filled with water. Continuity of flow is not disturbed by the piston, which each flow of water into the internal cavities of the working chambers 26 are divided into forcing (positive) part of the flow of the intake side of the hydraulic machine and the suction (negative) part of the flow of the suction side of the hydraulic machine. When the positive part of the flow implies a positive water pressure in each separate stream of water from a window shutter 7 to the pumping cavity in the working chamber 26 of each floor, and the magnitude of the positive pressure in each thread corresponds to the depth of the individual level of each floor hydraulic machines relative to the water level ve is Neva cavity of the working chamber 26 of each floor, and the magnitude of the negative pressure in each individual flow of water each floor depends on the level of each floor relative to the water level downstream of NB, i.e., from individual drop height for each floor.

Continuity of water flow and its ability to maintain the integrity and at low pressure (vacuum) is widely used in turbines by installing the suction pipe below the impeller, which allows better use of the kinetic energy of the flow of the water leaving the impeller turbines.

It is known that ... one of the main factors determining the flow of fluid at low pressure is the durability of the liquid in the gap. Thus, the experimental data of pure water, not containing solid and gaseous impurities, can withstand tensile 0.2-0.3 MPa (2-3 kgf/cm2), and in special circumstances, up to 10-25 MPa (100-250 kg/cm2). Theoretically, the strength of the water gap is even greater (Hydraulic machines, Moscow, in Energy, 1978, S. 103. Auth. G. I. Krivchenko).

This is an important physical phenomenon contributes to the fact that at each working area of the piston at the top and bottom will act simultaneously two water pressure: positive pressure on the one who, when changing the sign of the action of pressure.

In the result of the conversion action of the above mentioned pressure is one working area of the piston will act positive power of Pnand on another side opposite to the working area of the piston at the same time will operate the negative power of Pfrom. These forces are of different sizes, but the same direction of their joint actions. The sum of these two forces constitute the total force on the piston PCand the total force can be approximately determined by the formula

Pwith=2FpHKp,

where Pc- the total force acting on all pistons, kg;

2Fpdouble the working area on both sides of the piston, m2;

H is the water pressure at the depth corresponding to the middle floor hydraulic machines relative to the water level of the upstream WB, m;

- the specific weight of water, kg/m3;

Kp- the number of the pistons.

In the description set forth design and work one single hydraulic machine with counterweight, with the appropriate power and having the above-mentioned disadvantages.

Stronger and more stable will work two single hydraulic machine, showing the disk-eccentric main rod 42, mounted on the cylindrical shaft 40 one hydraulic machines must be rotated 180 and rigidly fixed relative to the drive Cam of the main connecting rod 43 fixed to the cylindrical shaft 40 other hydraulic machines. Similarly, the rod 43 will be rotated and fixed at 180 with the corresponding corners of ottomania on their main rods.

In Fig.2 the first left-hand hydraulic machines shown in the static position shown in Fig.3, the second right hydraulic machines shown in the static position shown in Fig.5.

When rotation of the cylindrical shaft 40 of the first hydraulic machines, combined with the cylindrical shaft of the second hydraulic machines by the middle of the coupling 41, for example, counterclockwise when the first left-hand hydraulic machines will occupy the position shown in Fig.4, the second right hydraulic machines will occupy the position shown in Fig.6. When the first left-hand hydraulic machines will occupy the position shown in Fig.5, and the joint of the cylindrical shaft 40 is rotated 180, the second right hydraulic machines will occupy the position shown in Fig.3, i.e., hydraulic machines has changed the provisions on the opposite. During subsequent rotation of the joint of the cylindrical shaft 40 180 main rods 42 all of these provisions of the main connecting rod 42, the rod 43 will hold the relevant provisions, it is shown in Fig.10 by the dotted line, with the corresponding corners of the lag.

Even more powerful and more stable will work three single hydraulic machines, in which the individual cylindrical shafts 40 are connected by two intermediate coupling 41.

The purpose of simplicity, the present description drives eccentrics will not be referred to in that they are mounted on cylindrical shafts, not forgetting that it is only through their eccentric rods 42 and 43 pivotally connected with the cylindrical shaft 40.

So the main rod 42 mounted on individual cylindrical shafts 40, connected in a common cylindrical shaft by means of two intermediate couplings 41 three single hydraulic machines, with each main rod 42 will be rotated 120 and is fixed relative to the adjacent main rod 42 adjacent hydraulic machines. Accordingly, the rod 43 will be rotated relative to the adjacent rods 43 on the adjacent hydraulic machine 120 with the corresponding corners of the gap with its main connecting rod 42.

Even more powerful and more stable will work two double hydraulic machines, in which each individual shaft United in one common cilindric is but one line, and each pair of main rods 42 is rotated relative to the other pair of rods on a different machine 180. Accordingly, the rods 43 of the two hydraulic machines rotated between a 180 with the corresponding angles1the gap between their pairs of main rods 42. At the same time on all floors all pistons increase in width (perpendicular to the flow of water) 2-3 times. Consequently, the working area of the Fpwith the two sides of the piston also increases 2-3 times. Accordingly expands the frame of the two hydraulic machines, but it is more compact, cheaper to manufacture and operate than do four single hydraulic machines. In this way the flow is not increased, and the cross-sectional area of water flow also increases in 2-3 times. Therefore, the total power from the two double hydraulic machines have more to grow than the total power received from four single hydraulic machines, which occupies a large area with long dam 2.

Even more powerful and more stable will work three double hydraulic machines, in which each individual cylindrical shaft 40 is placed on two main rod 42, but all the main pair of rods 42 of one of the hydraulic machines is rotated relative to pairs of main rods 42 on the adjacent hydro with appropriate for them corners gap between their pairs of main rods 42. The total capacity from three double hydraulic machines larger than the total capacity of six single hydraulic machines.

In Fig.13 shows one triple hydraulic machines, in which the cylindrical shaft 40 on one line fixed three main rod 42 and one rod 43 with one chain management system. Accordingly, it may be increased width of the piston in 3-4 times, increasing the length of the drum 53 and the cross-sectional area of water flow, which increases the power of one triple hydraulic machines. If necessary, triple hydraulic machines can be equipped with two rods 43 with their individual chain water management systems. In Fig.13 shows a triple hydraulic machines with a single connecting rod 43 with a single system of water management right in between the frame hydraulic machines and the right bull 3. Between the frame hydraulic machines and left bull 3 can be placed and another chain management system with additional second connecting rod 43, which together with the first connecting rod 43 will be rotated the same angle lag1from the three main rods 42.

Therefore, there is every opportunity to make two triple hydraulic machines, in which the three main rods 42, which are located on the same line tsilindricheskoi hydraulic 180, mounted on the cylindrical shaft 40 other triple hydraulic machines. Two cylindrical shaft 40 two triple hydraulic machines are connected to a common coupling 41. In Fig.13, the cylindrical shaft 40 other triple hydraulic machine shown ragged end right at the top indicated by the arrow C, i.e. in the same way as in Fig.2.

Power from two triple hydraulic machines should be more power from six single hydraulic machines.

There are also opportunities to make three triple hydraulic machines, in which the individual cylindrical shafts 40 are connected to one common shaft, each of which is mounted on three main rod 42 is rotated between adjacent triples of rods 42 at an angle of 120. Accordingly, the rods 43 must defend their threes on the angle of lag .

The power of three triple hydraulic machines should be more power from nine single hydraulic machines.

In addition to various combinations of these variants, there are other combinations of options, when the total number of hydraulic machines is divided into four. Then the rotation angle of the connecting rods between adjacent hydraulic machines can be set to 90. Then the angle of rotation of each pair of rods one double hydraulic machines can be installed at 90 relative to the other is x2">

In the same way, the total number of hydraulic machines, divisible by six, i.e. single, double, triple hydraulic machines, their single, dual, triple rods can be rotated between at 60. Therefore, when the respective turns at 120, 90, 60, completely eliminated the dead the entire range of hydraulic machines in a static position and during rotation on cylindrical shafts are uniform torque, all hydraulic machines work under such conditions, evenly, with the highest power output, etc.

The total power of the multiple - single, double, triple - hydraulic machines is determined by the number of the main eccentric rods, the number of pistons, their total working area and their work progress.

From the stroke of the pistons is determined by the individual and total volume of water per unit of time. Each revolution of the cylindrical shaft 40 each piston makes two working stroke 2S, corresponding to the two volumes of water. Therefore, each revolution of the cylindrical shaft 40 through each floor hydraulic passes the volume of water Vinequal to the working area of the piston Fpmultiplied by two working stroke 2S of the piston, i.e., Vin=Fp·2S m2.

The obtained amount of water tomasino each revolution of the cylindrical shaft 40, and the speed of passing the entire volume of water in the hydraulic machines determines the flow rate of water per unit of time.

When water is injected into podpisniye cavity of the working chambers 26 the total weight of water in all podporchenyj cavities of the working chambers is perceived intermediate lids 17 and is transmitted through the buildings of the cameras 18, base 16, base plate 9 of the base 1. The total weight of water in all nadporshnevaya cavities of the working chambers 26 is perceived upper working space of the piston, and the lower working space pistons rely on water that these opportunities transmits all the total load as the total weight of water and inertial forces is also the Foundation 1.

In one single hydraulic machines by contrast, when only the initial start-up of hydraulic machines in podporchenyj cavities of the working chambers 26 is air, and the total weight of all newportnews water is not balanced, it is only in this case, and with the rapid opening of the shutter 7 can occur hydraulic shock, which determines mentioned the lack of one single hydraulic machines.

When there are two or all multivariate hydraulic machines, continuous and unbroken streams of water no hydraulic in the working area of all of the pistons on the one hand and the simultaneous action of negative pressure to the working area on the other side of the same piston and the above steps are similar in direction, it contributes to the accelerated filling of water in the pumping cavity of the working chambers 26 and expedited removal of water from behind the piston opposite the cavities of the working chambers 26. If one single hydraulic machines all rotating and moving parts of the hydraulic balanced bulky and heavy counterweight, two single or in any multivariate hydraulic machines perfectly balanced all rotating and moving parts of some hydraulic machines exactly the same elements adjacent hydraulic machines, United by a common cylindrical shafts. But most importantly - balanced all the volumes of water flowing simultaneously in communicating hydraulic machines, both under static and operating conditions. Therefore, any hydraulic impacts are excluded.

In two and in any multivariate hydraulic machines to increase their capacity contributes sealed pastoralist all pistons. When the movement of all of the pistons up some hydraulic machines, their total weight is reduced by the amount of the total Archimedean force, at the same moment of time in other neighboring hydraulic machines that have the same number of piston goes down, the total weight of the descending piston remains the same. Therefore, kazhdoyu weight of the water displaced by all the pistons, Degussa up, and called the power of two multiplied by the radius of the crank, gives said additional moment of couple of forces, which increases the total power of any set of hydraulic machines.

All of these options hydraulic machines contribute to the invention of many other options.

The capacity of any type of hydraulic machines depends on water flow rate and radius of the crank main connecting rod 42, which define the stroke of the pistons.

Have contradictory necessary: on the one hand the need to reduce the stroke S of the piston by reducing the radius of the crank of the main rod 42 and, consequently, reduce the torque on the cylindrical shaft 40 to reduce water consumption, and on the other hand - the need to increase the radius of the crank of the main rod 42 and the mass of all of the main rod 42 to increase the total moment and the inertia rotation of the entire drive, load and water flow.

In Fig.14 shows one possible set of options for overcoming the above-mentioned contradiction by applying the Lever system as follows.

In Fig.10 ispolnitelny eccentric rod 45, the rod 73, the cylindrical who subsidiaries 69 are located along the vertical axis2-Y2at a distance of K. In Fig.14 double row sprocket 69 are opposite along the vertical axis Y-Y (not shown), and listed all the drive is along the vertical axis Y2-Y2at a distance To.

On a platform attached to two brackets 76, which is attached to two columns 10, fixed to the housing 77 with the axis 78, which is pivotally attached one end of a lever 79 having a body longitudinal rectangular opening in which is placed on a sliding fit slider 80 by connecting, for example, type dovetail, at a distance shoulder-radius r1from the axis of rotation 78. The slider 80 by means of axis 81 pivotally connected to the head 37 of the upper rod 34. The other end of the lever 79 on the distance of the shoulder radius R from the axis of rotation 78 pivotally connected to the axis 38 of the main rod 42. While the shoulder is the radius R is equal to the sum arm of radius r1and the distance K, i.e. R=r1+K. In case of equality shoulder-radius R=2r1+2K.

During the rotation of the lever 79 in one direction or another at a common angle to the center axis 81 is moved in an arc of radius r1. Vertical recoil straight-and-forth movement of the head 37 with the rod 34 and the piston is compensated by the transverse movement of the slide 80 in nicelets total angle of swing of the lever 79. Lateral deviation relative to the vertical axis Y2-Y2offset transverse deviations of the angle of the main rod 42. In Fig.14 shows the moment when the lever 79 is in the horizontal position, and the main rod 42 has deviated to the right by the maximum angle and takes the position I. the Subsequent position of the main rod 42 - II, III, IV - shown by dashed lines.

Similar compensation occurs by means of the deflection angle of the connecting rod 43 (Fig.10), where each axis 74 pivotally securing the lever to pull moves in an arc, and rod 73 at the same time moves along the vertical main axis Y-Y and simultaneously across her at a slight distance, which is compensated for by the deflection of the rod 43 at a slightly different angle .

In Fig.14 length l1lesser arc of radius r2almost corresponds to the lower course of the pistons and the length l2greater arc of radius R corresponds to a greater movement of the main rod 42 along the Y axis2-Y2and , consequently, a larger crank radius rkr. The vertical recoil straight-and-forth motion of the pistons occurs with acceleration or deceleration, respectively, with acceleration and decreasing the and , consequently, a higher amount of the total move at the moment and the moment of inertia of the entire drive and the whole mass moving and rotating elements of hydraulic machines, which contributes the maximum torque of the cylindrical shaft 40, and ultimately to increase the speed and power hidromasaje. Therefore, the height h of the rectangular holes 27 of the working chambers 26 (Fig.8) and the height of all internal cavities all the way to the water flow can be increased to the optimal value, as it is enlarged in Fig.14 that reduces the stroke of the pistons, reducing the time of filling of the working chambers 26 water and reduction of the time of removal of water from the working chambers 26, without increasing the water flow, but increasing this speed and power hydraulic machines.

As can be seen from the description and the drawings, the invention is a hydraulic machines differs from the closest analogue (prototype) of the invention. "Hydropneumatic hydrogenerator" through a comparative analysis of the General characteristics of these analogue (prototype) stated in the beginning of the description in eight points, with the General characteristics of the invention, the hydraulic machines, which showed the following.

1. Foundation 1 hydraulic Zaba top bulls 3 concreted power frame 11, which are rigidly connected to base plate 9 through 10 columns, between which a base plate fixed to the base 16 on which is installed and fixed to the shaft, rigidly fastened at all height with 10 columns and split floor by covers 17 independent sealed chamber, within each of which is placed a sealed working chamber 26 within which is placed a sealed hollow pistons interconnected by the height of the rods 34, which are inserted through the cover 17, and the upper end of the upper rod 34 pivotally connected to the axle 38 of the tapered walls of the main eccentric rod 42, by which there is a transformation of the vertical recoil straight-and-forth motion of the pistons into rotational motion of the cylindrical shaft 40, and Vice versa.

2. The total height of the mine hydraulic machines allows the floor to accommodate the optimum number of sealed chambers that are separated and bonded together with the intermediate lids 17 additional caps 38, United General sleeve 29 through which pass the rods 34 on a sliding fit without any distortions.

3. All the internal cavity of the working chambers sealed and full of the division of water on the floors of hydraulic machines in the interior of the pumping cavity of the working chambers 26 is made by drum-type distributors intake side of the hydraulic machine, and the simultaneous removal of water from the internal supersneak cavities of the working chambers 26 from all floors is made by drum-type distributors suction side of the hydraulic machine. Management of all drum dispensers are made automatically by means of a chain management system, which contains the following structural elements. For every two removable longitudinal beams 14 are fixed bearings, in which is inserted a shaft 68, on the console which is mounted and fixed double row sprocket 69 is connected by roller chains 70 and 71 simultaneously with two asterisks 64 drum 53 on both sides and at all levels of the floors of the hydraulic machines. On each shaft 68 mounted and rigidly fixed to the lever 72, which is pivotally connected with the General thrust of 73 through the axis 74. The upper end of the thrust 73 through the axis of the hinge 38 is connected with narrowed ends of the walls of the Executive egocentrique rod 43.

5. In hydraulic machines, there is no need for any actuator changes length rods, cylinders, pumps, sensors, upper and lower water level in the pools.

6. Lift - up and slope - down at the same time all of the pistons occurs by alternating the pressure of the water in navody appropriate height of the upstream WB and simultaneous removal of water from supersneak cavities of the working chambers 26 through the action of the negative pressure on the opposite side of the working space of the piston with a force corresponding to the height of each floor relative to the water level downstream of NB. When the shutter is open 7 into the working area of the lower side of all of the pistons, when lifting them up, the force of the positive pressure of the water head and the Archimedes force, and at the same time on the upper working surface of all of the pistons force of negative pressure (vacuum). All these three forces are the same in direction. When the movement of all of the pistons down on the top working surface of all of the pistons force the positive pressure of the water head, and the lower working space these all pistons force of negative pressure (vacuum) and at the same time the gravity of all of the pistons. These three forces are the same in direction. For example, two hydraulic machines connected by a common cylindrical shaft 40, when all the pistons in one of the hydraulic machines rise up, while the other hydraulic machines all pistons simultaneously fall down in such environment, there is a pair of total force, which is equal works total force one of the two hydraulic radius of the crank. These conditions and actions occur in each pair and each of the three hydraulic machines at any variants of their production. The maximum values of these moments occur twice each revolution of the cylindrical VA what toonami 42 and 43 in the total torque of the cylindrical shaft, United in a common cylindrical shaft, will be able to achieve such power that exceeds the capacity of many turbines operating worldwide, and the flow of water into the multivariate hydraulic machines will be correspondingly less.

This total power of any multivariate hydraulic incomparably large in magnitude with the power of the prototype - hydro-hydro generator, in which the float 7 and the piston 9 are raised up only by Archimedean force, and they fall only through gravity. In this part called the forces expended in compressing the pre-compressed air in the hydropneumatic accumulator 11. And only the remaining power is used to supply hydraulic fluid to the Converter 14 to generate mechanical or electrical energy, which is insignificant.

7. When the hydraulic machine of any option would not require any additional system, with extra sophisticated equipment to supply any special hydraulic fluid in a circular path to any Converter to generate mechanical or electrical energy.

In hydraulic machines any option power napho pressure on the downstream, in the form of Archimedean force when moving the pistons up and gravity during movement of the pistons down all these total power converted by the eccentric rods 42 and 43 in the torque of the cylindrical shaft and then converting directly into mechanical or electrical energy.

8. Depending on the height of the dam has the ability to produce hydraulic multi-storey and multi-variant and there is a possibility of total output power to the output shafts 40.

Presents a number of options for the effective use of hydraulic machines is not limited. For example, in mountainous areas, where the origins of flowing streams and rivers, where there are large differences between the upper and lower bays, you can install the hydraulic machines and without dams 2. It is enough instead of dam 2 is hermetically attached to the nozzle 45 of the intake side of the inferior hydraulic inverted 180 bends 65, collection of water 66 with knee 67 of the suction head hydraulic machines, and then to direct the water directly into the sockets 45 of the intake side of the higher hydraulic machines or in the same way as in the downstream of hydraulic machines. Thus will be realized the consequences and lack of overall differences in water level for the serial connection of hydraulic machines, you can install them in parallel at the same level, and the water flow of the stream or river divide by the number of hydraulic machines, to bring each thread to the appropriate water collection 66 or directly to the nozzle 45 of the intake side of each hydraulic machines.

Hydraulic machines at any variants of manufacture and durable in operation. Life can affect only the wear of the piston, which is a disadvantage in the known piston machines. However, in hydraulic machines, the gap between the side of the height H of the piston (Fig.9) around the perimeter of the side area of the piston and the inner walls of the working chambers 26 will be slightly more sliding landing diameter of the rod 34 passing through the cover 17, 28 and the sleeve 29, which perceive a slight lateral force at the maximum deviations of the main connecting rod 42 to the right . If necessary, these minor side efforts can be perceived by the rollers and rods.

Therefore, the cover 17, 28 and sleeve 29 when driving through rod 34 always maintain minimum clearances between the lateral outer walls of the pistons and the inner walls of the working chambers 26,copiously wetted with water. When optimally valid called water gaps can best take place only when the someone of the shaft 40 will be equal to 90 or is =270, and the pistons will take a middle position in the cavities of the working chambers 26, as only in these moments is the maximum difference between the inlet pressure on one side of the piston and the suction pressure on the opposite side of the piston. However, even in these moments of water leakage through the clearances will be minimal, because in these moments pistons move at maximum speed from the inlet pressure of the suction pressure. In practice, this known when working TurboPascal installations. Therefore, water leakage will be so minimal that they can be neglected, as they will be removed from the working cavities of the working chambers 26, together with the suction source of the water in the lower reach. While the sides of the pistons can be covered with waterproof and anti-friction materials.

The speed of rotation of the cylindrical shaft 40 from the zero velocity V0to the maximum velocity Vmis regulated by the opening-closing rectangular channels 4 dam 2 through gate 7, shifting his window up and down to align them in the channels 4 in the height of their location using a rope and hook 8 of the lifting machine.

If, instead of the coupling of the coupling 41 on the ends of cilindrica the relatively adjacent hydraulic machines under the relevant angles, that will allow you to build a dam in a semi-circle or u-shaped. Then will decrease the transverse length of the dam will increase the strength of its construction, will decrease the amount of hydraulic engineering works and the cost of production. And the power house can be placed on the dam corresponding to the above construction, protecting hydraulic machines between bulls 3 from the weather, and when closing the front of the suction side of the hydraulic machine can be created within the plant an appropriate microclimate that is convenient and extremely necessary in the harsh climate of Siberia.

The hydraulic machines of simple design, technologically easily assembled and reassembled. Hydraulic machines can be made any size, on any factories and workshops, equipped with the appropriate metal working equipment. Hydraulic machines can be installed on rivers and streams in mountain and lowland areas, where villages and villages will be able to acquire their own power plant to generate mechanical or electrical energy.

But the most important advantages of hydraulic machines of any option will be determined, if the advantages of hydraulic machines to compare with the advantages, for example, turbines and advantages of the engine in auromere around the axis of rotation of the shaft. Therefore, the impeller turbines are forced to produce large size, reaching a diameter of more than 10 meters, and the weight is 1,500 tons.

And the eccentric rod - main drive hydraulic machines - the bulk of the round part and attached thereto the total weight of the load is concentrated in the center of the eccentric, the center O2which is from the center Of the rotation axis O of the cylindrical shaft at a distance of the radius of the crank.

In two-stroke internal combustion engine operating cycle is carried out with the full revolution of the crankshaft, and in four-stroke internal combustion engine operating cycle is carried out during two complete revolutions of the crankshaft, resulting in crankshafts forced to rotate with great speed.

However, when several eccentric rods placed on a common cylindrical shaft 40 and rotated one relative to the opposite or adjacent to the corresponding degrees, then the total weight of all rods with their loads acting on the length of the two radii of the crank relative to the center Of the rotation axis O of the cylindrical shaft, which is several times greater than the torque of the impeller turbines, for which the duty cycle is twice each revolution of the cylindrical shaft 40. Therefore, the mass of all rotating and moving parts of hydraulic machines will be much less than the mass of the impeller turbines in the comparative capacity.

Therefore, hydraulic machines have advantages over the turbines and internal combustion engines, in which spent mogosoaia fuel.

It is known that supplying water to the impeller turbine only half of all energy used is useful, and the other half is spent on losses. Meanwhile, a quarter of all energy remains in the outgoing stream of water, the other quarter is spent on strike at the entrance to the channel (Hydraulic turbines and pumps, High school, 1969, S. 83, ed. I. N. Smirnov).

In hydraulic machines any option pistons selected almost all the energy is inseparable from water flows from the positive pressure of the intake side and negative pressure (vacuum) suction side of the hydraulic machine, and the energy of Archimedean force and gravity of the pistons, i.e. from each cubic meter and even from each kilogram of water.

Approximate calculations show that multi-storey multiple hydraulic machines will be able to two times exceed the capacity of existing gerotor the existing and newly constructed reservoirs will be less and electricity generation at power plants, equipped with hydraulic machines, will be correspondingly greater.

General summary of the invention the hydraulic machines can be defined as follows.

The hydraulic machines containing the dam with holes, the Foundation on which you installed the vertical shaft, inside the pistons with the possibility of vertical movement and connected to common stock, the Foundation executed at the same time as one with bulls and with the dam, which is built channels with grids, with the console pipes of rectangular section, with the ability to open-close the channel by the gate with Windows corresponding to said channels, using a rope and hook hoisting machine, Foundation concrete Foundation plate on which the lower fixed column bases, and the top cap of the column attached to the power rack, concreted on the upper floors of the bulls, with between columns on a base plate mounted and fixed base on which is installed and fixed to the vertical shaft of rectangular cross-section, split floor on independent sealed chamber lids, each of which is one to the first floor, attached through a framework of longitudinal and transverse beams and the cantilever beams, one end embedded in the wall of the bulls, and additionally mine through mentioned beams attached to the columns the same width and height in the required number of beams, each chamber is equipped with nozzles of rectangular cross-section, inside each cell placed the working chamber with rectangular holes, strictly coincident and hermetically United at the perimeter of the nozzle chamber in the upper part of the mine is blocked extra lids connected by a common sleeve, while within each of the working chamber, the piston comprising a housing of rectangular cross-section, in the center of which is placed a sleeve with two round flanges, the lower flange is hermetically attached to the bottom and the top flange of the coupling and the upper rectangular level of the piston is sealed by a cover with hatches, inside sleeve along its axis has a through hole with an internal thread, into which is screwed the threaded ends of the two rod fixed locking bolts, causing the pistons are interconnected by a rod passing through the intermediate cover on the rods worn depreciation ring, for example made of rubber, the upper end in the th frame are fastened to the housing with bearings, in which is inserted a cylindrical shaft, the ends of which are pinned couplings, and the cylindrical shaft mounted and fixed eccentric main eccentric rod, the lower end of the tapered walls through which said axle pivotally connected to the upper head stock, an additional cylindrical shaft mounted and fixed eccentric Executive eccentric rod, at the level of each floor hydraulic machines, with both sides installed and fixed drum distributors, building each of which consists of two detachable parts: the pie part with rectangular flanges and the response of the semi-cylindrical portion with a flange and pipe, this detachable part is hermetically coupled mentioned rectangular flanges, between which is tightly clamped gasket around its perimeter, the said nozzles are sealed and connected with a rectangular knees, through which the rectangular nozzles respectively and hermetically connected to the nozzles from one side of the camera, and on the other side of the camera and hydraulic drum distributors nozzles through knees tightly connected to the pipe chambers, while the end wall is of realities placed the drum, performed, for example, from a pipe, with the two ends of the end wall to which the inner side of the welded flanges and welded thereto, respectively, the left and right axes that its sliding tails inserted into sliding bearings and other tails axis is inserted in the bearings, mounted in their enclosures and fixed lids, while inside the pipe drum welded partitions that are in the center welded in the form of a diffuser of rectangular cross-section, having narrowed the direction of lower height with one hand and extended the side with the greater height on the other hand, with a corresponding width of the diffuser, when the drum is made to rotate inside the drum dispenser and presents round the farm, the rods of which are mentioned partitions, with drum dispensers her nipples tightly connected with the cantilever ends of the dam over the entire height of the respective floors of the hydraulic machine, and on the opposite side hydraulic drum dispensers her nipples tightly and floor are connected with branches, all of the internal cavity which is in communication with the internal cavity of the collection of water, with internal polesini nozzles, drum distributors, knees, chamber pipes, the working chambers to the pistons on the right side of the dam, is all of the intake side of the hydraulic machine, and all the internal cavity: working chambers for the pistons, elbows, knees, drum dispensers, taps, collection of water to the downstream water NR water level is all the suction side of the hydraulic machine, and the divisor of the named parties are at the same time all the pistons, which divides the internal cavity of each of the working chamber on podporchennuyu and nadporshnevaya cavity simultaneously on all floors of hydraulic machines, and therefore for switching the connections of all podporchenyj and nadporshnevaya cavities working cameras on all floors of the hydraulic machines equipped with a Chain management system for distribution of water to all floors hydraulic machines, while chain management system contains bearings fixed on two removable longitudinal beams on the levels of all floors of hydraulic machines and bearings inserted shaft, a console which is mounted and fixed double row sprocket connected by roller chains simultaneously with two asterisks drums on two sides and on all floors of hydraulic machines, on each shaft once thrust through the said axis of the head is pivotally connected to the tapered ends of the walls of the Executive eccentric rod, with additional excentricities holes in the disc Cam mounted on a cylindrical shaft, but the disk is eccentric Executive eccentric rod when mounted on the cylindrical shaft is rotated and fixed at the optimum angle of lag relative to the drive Cam of the main eccentric rod, mounted on a common cylindrical shaft.

The hydraulic machines are equipped with Lever system, which contains attached to the columns of the brackets, which are attached Playground, and on-site fixed housing axis, to which the hinge is connected to one end of the lever with the body longitudinal rectangular opening in which is placed a slide axis on a sliding fit through a connection, such as a dovetail, at a distance smaller shoulder radius from the axis of rotation of the lever, the axis of the slide hinge is attached to the head of the upper rod and the other end of the lever at a distance larger shoulder-radius from the axis of rotation of the lever, pivotally connected to the axle end of the tapered walls of the main eccentric rod.

1. The hydraulic machines containing the dam with holes, the Foundation on which you installed the vertical shaft, inside the, the Foundation is made at the same time, as a whole, with bulls and with the dam, which is built channels with grids, with the console pipes of rectangular section, with the ability to open-close the channel by the gate and hook hoisting machine, Foundation concrete Foundation plate on which the lower fixed column bases, and the top cap of the column attached to the power rack, concreted on the upper floors of the bulls, with a base plate fixed to the base, on which is installed and fixed to the vertical shaft of rectangular cross-section, split floor on independent sealed chamber lids each single camera is the bottom, and another neighboring cameras is the cover and Vice versa, while mine is at the level of each floor is attached through a framework of longitudinal and transverse beams and the cantilever beams, one end embedded in the wall of the bulls, and additionally mine, mentioned by beams attached to the columns the same width and height when the required number of beams, each chamber is equipped with nozzles of rectangular cross-section, inside each cell placed the working chamber with rectangular holes, with the additional covers, United General sleeve, while within each of the working chamber, the piston comprising a housing of rectangular cross-section in the center of which is placed a sleeve with two round flanges, the lower flange is hermetically attached to the bottom and the top flange of the coupling and the upper rectangular level of the piston is sealed by a cover with hatches, inside sleeve along its axis, there is a hole with internal thread, into which is screwed the threaded ends of the two rod fixed locking bolts, causing the pistons are interconnected by a rod passing through the intermediate cover on the rods worn depreciation rings, for example, of rubber, on the upper end of the upper rod is screw threaded and fixed head, in the eye which is inserted the axle, power rack fixed housing with bearings, in which is inserted a cylindrical shaft, the ends of which are pinned couplings, and the cylindrical shaft mounted and fixed eccentric main eccentric rod, the lower end of the tapered walls which, through the mentioned axis, pivotally connected to the head of the upper rod and an additional cylindrical shaft mounted and fixed eccentric Executive extendrange distributors, the case of each of which consists of two detachable parts: the pie part with rectangular flanges and the response of the semi-cylindrical part of the flange and pipe, while the detachable part is hermetically coupled mentioned rectangular flanges, between which is tightly clamped gasket around its perimeter, the said nozzles are sealed and connected with a rectangular knees, through which the rectangular nozzle is hermetically coupled to the nozzles from one side of the camera, and on the other side of the camera and hydraulic drum distributors nozzles through knees tightly connected to the pipe chambers, with the end walls of the two housing parts are equipped with detachable sliding bearings, and inside of each shell drum dispenser placed drum, made for example from a pipe having two ends of the end wall to which the inner side of the welded flanges and welded thereto, respectively, the left and right axes that its sliding tails inserted into sliding bearings and other tails axis is inserted in the bearings, mounted in their enclosures and fixed lids, while inside pipe welded drum of perigee height with one hand and extended the side with the greater height on the other hand, with the appropriate width of the diffuser, while the drum is made to rotate inside the drum dispenser, and the drum is look round the farm, the rods of which are mentioned partitions, with drum dispensers her nipples tightly connected with the cantilever ends of the dam over the entire height of the respective floors of the hydraulic machine, and on the opposite side hydraulic drum dispensers her nipples tightly and floor are connected with branches, all of the internal cavity which is in communication with the internal cavity of the collection of water, with the internal cavity of the knee and lower downstream water level, and therefore, all the internal cavity: all channels in the dam, its console nozzles, drum dispensers, knees, chamber pipes, the working chambers to the pistons on the right side of the dam, is all of the intake side of the hydraulic machine, and all the internal cavity: working chambers for the pistons, elbows, knees, drum dispensers, taps, collection of water to downstream water level is all the suction side of the hydraulic machine, and the divisor of the named parties are at the same time all the pistons, which divide vnutrenniy, and therefore for switching the connections of all podporchenyj and nadporshnevaya cavities working cameras on all floors, hydraulic machines equipped with a chain management system for distribution of water to all floors hydraulic machines, while chain management system contains bearings fixed on two removable longitudinal beams on the levels of all floors of hydraulic machines and bearings inserted shaft, a console which is mounted and fixed double row sprocket connected by roller chains simultaneously with two asterisks drums on two sides and on all floors of hydraulic machines, each roller is mounted and rigidly fixed to the lever, which is pivotally connected with the General thrust through the axis, the upper end of the thrust through the said axis of the head rod, pivotally connected to the tapered ends of the walls of the Executive eccentric rod having additional excentricities holes in the disc Cam mounted on a cylindrical shaft, but the disk is eccentric Executive eccentric rod when mounted on the cylindrical shaft is rotated at the optimum angle of lag and fixed relative to the drive Cam of the main Cam is Romashina equipped with a lever system, which contains attached to the columns, brackets, on which is mounted the platform, while the platform is fixed to the housing with the axis, to which is pivotally attached one end of a lever with the body longitudinal rectangular opening in which is placed a slide axis on a sliding fit through a connection, such as a dovetail, at a distance smaller shoulder radius from the axis of rotation of the lever, the axis of the slide hinge is attached to the head of the upper rod and the other end of the lever at a distance larger shoulder-radius from the axis of rotation of the lever, pivotally connected to the axle end of the tapered walls of the main eccentric rod.

 

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