Method of ventilation of the tunnel face excavation

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the construction of mining enterprises and engineering structures, including in areas of permafrost. The technical result of the invention is the provision of intensive ventilation bottom part of the excavation in any geological and climatic conditions and reducing the cost of airing. To do this, carry out the extraction of polluted air after blasting through two ventilation systems to achieve a certain level of air pollution in the bottom part of working. Then create in each of its stagnant zone of the circulating air flows, introducing impurities to the suction ventilation system. This circulating flow is formed by filing multiple air jets through another ventilation system operating in the mode of drawing fresh air from the atmosphere. The process of airing the bottom zone production continues until it reaches air purity level of sanitary norms. 2 Il.

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used when drilling vertical the permafrost.

A known method of ventilation of the tunnel face excavation, including the discharge of air from the atmosphere into the bottom part of the production with the subsequent moving of air pollution on the development and release it into the atmosphere [1].

The disadvantage of this method is that the removal of impurities from the production after blasting requires time-consuming when large air flow and high costs of energy for ventilation, particularly during the ventilation openings of the large extent and high flow explosives.

A known method of ventilation of the tunnel face excavation, including the extraction of polluted air after blasting from the bottom part of the output, separated by a screen, by means of two or more ventilation systems [2]. This method is taken as a prototype.

This method is compared with the above speeds up the process of removing harmful impurities from the face. However, near the bottom stagnant zones are formed, the movement of air in the direction of the pipeline is virtually absent. The total time required for ventilation of the bottom part of the production is also great.

In addition, the air systems in which, after the production of blasting perform simultaneous injection and suction of air [3].

The disadvantages of this method are the presence of stagnant zones near the bottom, especially when a large section of passable production due to the expiration of the current of air in one direction, and the long duration of the process ventilation output.

The task of this method is the provision of intensive ventilation bottom part of the excavation in any geological and climatic conditions, as well as reducing the cost of airing.

This is achieved in that in the method of ventilation of the tunnel face excavation, including the extraction of polluted air after blasting from the bottom part of the output, separated by a screen, by means of two ventilation systems, determine the gradient of concentration of harmful impurities in the pipeline one ventilation suction system and the time at which the gradient becomes zero, the other ventilation system switch in the mode of discharge of air from the atmosphere into the bottom part of the mine workings through a slotted nozzle in the pipe forming in her circulation flows of the scheme the implementation of the method of ventilation of the tunnel face excavation mode, the suction of air from the bottom space.

In Fig.2 shows a diagram of the formation of flow patterns in the bottom part of the output.

Method of ventilation of the tunnel face excavation is as follows.

In the mine workings, such as a vertical hole 1, separate the bottom part of the screen 2. After blasting rock bottom carry out suction of air pollution from this bottom space through two ventilation systems, the first of which consists of a feed duct 3, the fan 4 and the suction pipe 5 with a nozzle 6, and the second, respectively 7, 8 and 9 with the nozzles 10 and 11. The degree of air contamination in the bottom part of the production is controlled by means of the detector 12, is installed on the pipeline 3. In the first period of time, the process of removing impurities by extraction of polluted air from the bottom-hole zone of the two ventilation systems is intensive, and the length of this period depends on the amount of the shielded part of the face, geological conditions, composition and amount of explosive, the parameters of ventilation systems and virtually lasts for 4 to 12 minutes. Then the process of removal of harmful primes the analyzer 12, will be equal to zero, and the further operation of the ventilation system in the mode of extraction is not effective, because it takes a significant investment of time on the order of several hours, and, respectively, means for ventilation of the tunnel face excavation. However, after removal of the greater part of the impurities from the bottom of the space generation mode, the suction level of air pollution in it exceeds the standard value, while a significant number of them concentrated in stagnant zones a, b, C and D located in the outlying parts of this space. To enhance removal of the remaining impurities from the bottom part of working after fixing the specified time served from the atmosphere some fresh air jets that form in stagnant zones a, b, C and D circulating flows. The supply air passes through the slotted holes in the nozzles 10 and 11 by switching the second ventilation system in the mode of discharge. These circulating flows capture particles harmful pollutants and carry them into the active area of the first suction ventilation system, which emits pollution into the atmosphere. Thus the process of removing the remaining amount of harmful use is to support the specified mode ventilation nozzles 10, 11 the second ventilation systems are nearer to the bottom than the nozzle 6 of the first ventilation system. In the cold period of time and at penetration openings in the permafrost of the air supplied to the second ventilation system, heated by the heater 13.

In General, the process of airing generation after blasting is 14...40 minutes depending on the volume of the bottom part of the production, composition and amount of explosive, properties of rocks and ventilation intensity and requires much less energy costs in comparison with the known methods of ventilation opening faces.

An example implementation of the method.

When conducting vertical shaft with a diameter of 9 m in the sinking of one cycle of blasting around the Dolomites use of the packaged Ammonite AP-GW in the number of 468 kg Bottomhole zone of production screen at a distance of 35 m from the bottom along the bottom edge of the tunneling shield. After blasting include two ventilation systems: consisting of fan type CC-16 with a rigid metal piping with a diameter of 1.2 m, working in the suction mode. According to the testimony of the detector GIAM determine the point in time at which the gradient is egime extraction proceeded for 6 minutes. After that, the second ventilation system switch mode discharge, and the nozzle of this system are located at distances of 10 and 32 m from the bottom. The first ventilation system continues to operate in the mode of suction air, and the nozzle is located at a distance of 20 meters from the bottom. Fresh air through 12 slotted holes in the nozzles of the second ventilation systemupdate in the direction of stagnant zones in the bottom space of the barrel, creating in them the circulating flows. In the result, the impurities are carried to the first nozzle ventilation system and absorbed in its pipeline. After 18 minutes of ventilation systems in this mode, the air pollution in the bottom part of the trunk fell to sanitary standards, allowing further operation of the driving cycle. The total duration of ventilation of the tunnel face excavation was 24 minutes.

For ventilation of the tunnel face vertical shaft in similar geological conditions known methods require at least 1.5 hours. By reducing the time for ventilation of the tunnel face by the described method is more than three times increase in the rate of passage is to be more than twice.

Sources of information

1. Kirin Baltic Fleet and other Aerology underground structures (under construction). Lipetsk: Lipetsk publishing house, 2000, S. 268-270,

2. Ibid, S. 304-306 (prototype).

3. Ibid, S. 267-268.

Claims

Method of ventilation of the tunnel face excavation, including the extraction of polluted air after blasting from the bottom part of the output, separated by a screen, by means of two ventilation systems, characterized in that to determine the gradient of concentration of harmful impurities in the pipeline one ventilation suction system and the time at which the gradient becomes zero, the other ventilation system switch in the mode of discharge of air from the atmosphere into the bottom part of the mine workings through a slotted nozzle in the pipe, forming therein a circulating air flow, introducing impurities to the pipeline suction ventilation system.

 

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