The accelerator of charged particle beams
The invention relates to accelerators, beams of charged particles, in particular electrons, and can be used in physics, chemistry and medicine. In the accelerator of charged particle beams, comprising a metal shell within which is placed a layer of dielectric material, and a vacuum channel for the passage of electrons, is made along the Central symmetry axis of the metal shell, the inside of the metal shell are additional layer of ferroelectric material; a layer of ferroelectric material may be placed between the metal shell and the layer of dielectric material; a layer of ferroelectric material can be placed inside the layer of dielectric material. The technical result is ensured by the control parameters of the accelerator and you can adjust the synphasicity beam of charged particles and accelerating them waves. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.The invention relates to accelerators, beams of charged particles, in particular electrons, and can be used in physics, chemistry and medicine.Known accelerator of charged particle beams, comprising a metal shell within which o f the m and along the Central axis of symmetry inside the dielectric material includes a vacuum channels for migration of charged particle beams, see stunning Kerning and other “ANNULAR BEAM DRIVEN HIGH GRADIENT ACCELERATORS”, proceedings of the conference “Beam Proceeding 1988, 7thInternational Conference High-Power Particle Beams, pp.864-869 (reference copy attached).The disadvantage of this accelerator is that the bunch of charged particles is unstable and after a short span deposited on the inner wall of the shell.Also known accelerator of charged particle beams, comprising a metal shell within which is placed a layer of dielectric material, and a vacuum passage along the Central axis of symmetry of the metal shell, see W. Gai and other Experimental Demonstration of Wake-Field Effects in Dielectric Structures, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, vol.61, No. 24, pp.2756-2758, 12.12.1988 (reference copy attached).This solution is taken as the prototype of the present invention.Its disadvantage is the ungovernability of the parameters of the accelerator; due desinfecte beam of charged particles and accelerating waves reduces the efficiency of the acceleration.The present invention is based on a solution of the problem of controllability parameters of the accelerator and, accordingly, vozmojnoe charged particles, includes a metal shell within which is placed a layer of dielectric material, and a vacuum channel for the passage of electrons, is made along the Central symmetry axis of the metal shell, the inside of the metal shell are additional layer of ferroelectric material; a layer of ferroelectric material may be placed between the metal shell and the layer of dielectric material; a layer of ferroelectric material can be placed inside the layer of dielectric material.The applicant has not identified the sources containing information about technical solutions, identical to the present invention, which allows to make a conclusion about its compliance with the criterion of "novelty".Thanks to the implementation of the distinguishing features of the invention, the object acquires a very important new feature: it is possible to adjust synphasicity beam of charged particles and accelerating them waves. The applicant did not know of any sources of information which are information on the accelerators of charged particle beams additional layer of ferroelectric material and thereby providing control parameters of the accelerator.This obstoyalo “inventive step”.The invention is illustrated by drawings, which shows:in Fig.1 is a cross-section of the accelerator; a layer of ferroelectric material is placed between the metal shell and the insulator;in Fig.2. - the cross-section of the accelerator; a layer of ferroelectric material is placed inside the layer of dielectric material.The accelerator of charged particle beams includes a metal casing 1, within which is placed a layer 2 dielectric material and a vacuum channel 3 made along the Central symmetry axis of the metal shell 1. As the dielectric material can be used high-frequency ceramic materials with dielectric constants ranging from 4 to 45. The basis of these dielectrics comprise oxide system - compounds and solid solutions, such as cordierite (2MgO2Al2O3·5SiO2with4.7, corundum (Al2About3with9.7, the titanates of magnesium and calcium in the system MgO-CaO-TiO2from 14 to 20, as well as solid solutions titanate calcium-aluminates rare earth elements Satio3-LnAlO3(Ln-La, Nd)cInside of the metal shell 1 has also a 4 layer of ferroelectric material; it can be placed between the metal shell 1 and layer 2 dielectric material (Fig.1) or within the layer (Fig.2). The ferroelectric material in the specific example is a solid solution of barium titanate and strontium (Ba, Sr)Tio3with the addition of oxides and compounds of various elements. The dielectric constant is in the range from 200 to 600, a tgin the range of 10...35 GHz is equal to 0.004 0.006.... This manageabilitythe electric field is in the range (5-15)%. When the above parameters, the high-frequency ceramics and ferroelectric material handling accelerator structures will bedepending on the thickness control of the ferroelectric layer and the specific values of the dielectric constant.The device operates as follows. In the accelerator of the injector known type serves a high current beam of charged particles of low energy, in the specific example, electrons with energy 15-50 MeV, pulse duration of 10-40 and not charge 10-100 MK. This beam excites in the full beam of high energy electrons (>100 MeV), pulse duration of 10-40 and not charge less than 0.1 MK. The low-voltage electron beam accelerated in the field of high-frequency electromagnetic waves and excite high-current electron beams. To ensure the correlation of low-voltage electron beam and a high-frequency electromagnetic waves create a DC electric field in layer 4 of ferroelectric material; it is carried out in a specific example, by feeding it through the applied metal contacts (not shown) of a DC electric voltage. The intensity of the DC electric field is from 1 to 10 V/μm. Changing the value of this parameter you can change the dielectric constant of the ferroelectric material and thus to adjust the frequency and, accordingly, the phase velocity of the electromagnetic wave relative to the speed of the electron beam.For the implementation of the invention used known materials and technical tools that allow to make a conclusion about its compliance with the criterion “industrial applicability”.
Claims1. The accelerator of charged particle beams, comprising a metal shell inside of which is placed with the symmetry of the metal shell, characterized in that the inside of the metal shell are additional layer of ferroelectric material.2. The accelerator of charged particle beams under item 1, characterized in that the layer of ferroelectric material is placed between the metal shell and the layer of dielectric material.3. The accelerator of charged particle beams under item 1, characterized in that the layer of ferroelectric material is placed inside the layer of dielectric material.
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for impact compression of material involves use of relativistic vacuum diode that has axisymmetrical vacuum chamber with electricity conducting walls, plasma cathode, and concentrating anode. Target in the form of axisymmetrical part is produced from condensed material and is used at least as part of concentrating anode. The latter is installed in relativistic vacuum diode in a spaced relation to plasma cathode and pulse discharge is applied from power supply to relativistic vacuum diode as electron beam is self-focused on concentrating anode surface. For the purpose use is made of axisymmetrical plasma cathode in the form of conducting rod and butt-end dielectric member coupled to the latter; surface area of conducting rod in dielectric member is larger than maximal cross-sectional area of concentrating anode. Concentrating anode is installed in a spaced relation to plasma cathode so that center of curvature of concentrating anode working surface is disposed within focal length of collectively self-focusing electron beam.
EFFECT: ability of compressing material to superdense condition.
22 cl, 17 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: technical physics, in particular, accelerators of light ions, possible use as generator of neutrons.
SUBSTANCE: accelerator of ions with magnetic isolation contains vacuumized cylindrical cover, made of dielectric material, provided with vacuum pump, magnetic coils positioned outside the cover, connected to impulse electric power source and creating axial magnetic field, anode and cathode, made in form of coaxial tubes, connected to high voltage source. Accelerator is provided with gas tank, adjustable by gas inlet valve and means for controlling gas pressure, accelerating inducers and additional magnetic coils, which are positioned on external surface of vacuum cover between inducers and are connected to impulse electric power sources. Device is also provided with inverse coaxial magnetrons with smooth anodes, each magnetron is connected to accelerator space via through slit, made in cathode of magnetron and lying in plane, passing through appropriate cover diameter in parallel to its generating line. Anode tube is made in form of part of cover, on vacuum surface of which axially-symmetrically and with provision of electric contact by their cathodes magnetrons are mounted, while their anodes are connected to impulse electric power sources.
EFFECT: decreased instability of ion current.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, possible use in laboratory research, and also during development of new devices for medicine and engineering, where it is needed to eject electron or laser beams in impulse mode.
SUBSTANCE: the essence of method is in using the difference of spreading speeds of gas and electrons. Ejection channel is opened for the time, sufficient for flight of electrons, but insufficient for passage of gas molecules. This allows ejection of short electron beams of any power without loss of their energy with minimal flow of gas in direction of lesser pressure. Claimed device, which realizes the method, does not exhaust all of its capabilities. It is engineered for ejection of electrons from radioactive gas environment with pressure of 1Pa order into vacuum with pressure 10-5-10-6 Pa. Special feature of the method is that on its basis devices may be created for ejection of electron and laser beams without limitation of energy and distortion of their spectrum.
EFFECT: possible creation of devices, which, depending on conditions of operations in conjunction with various methods and means of vacuum and compressor engineering will ensure ejection of electron and laser beams of any energy into space with any pressure.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in high-voltage electrode of double stepped forming line, which contains two coaxial metal shells connected by means of end flange, and fixed in housing of double stepped forming line by means of discharge devices on one side and support dielectric elements on the other side, connection section of discharge devices to high-voltage electrode is made in the form of annular framework; openings are made in the framework and thin metal membranes through which discharge devices are connected to high-voltage electrode are fixed in them; at that, membranes are installed with possibility of their being broken away when discharge devices are destructed.
EFFECT: reduction of labour costs for repair of high-voltage electrode without removal of double stepped forming line of accelerator.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multipass accelerator-recuperator with separate paths for accelerated and decelerated particles.
EFFECT: independent control over accelerated and decelerated particles, particularly, independent focusing and trajectory correction.
SUBSTANCE: radiant tube (4) for guiding a charged particle stream (10), having a hollow cylindrical isolation core (6) directly surrounding a beam-guiding hollow volume (8), the isolation core (6) being formed from a dielectrically acting carrier substrate (14) and an electrical conductor (16) held therein, and a metal housing (5) surrounding the isolation core (6), wherein the conductor (16) is divided into a plurality of conductor loops (20) completely encompassing the circumference of the isolation core (6) at different axial positions and galvanically connected to each other, wherein the conductor (16) in at least two spaced-apart points, particularly at the side of the ends, is galvanically connected to the housing (5), wherein metal layers are embedded in the carrier substrate (14), said metal layers being arranged one behind the other along the axis of the radiant tube (4) and inductively connected to each other through the electrical conductor (16).
EFFECT: reduced probability of breakdown.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: acceleration equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to acceleration engineering. Accelerator for charged particles comprises a set of capacitors with the first electrode, which can be brought to the first potential, with the second electrode, which is located concentrically to the first electrode and can be brought to the second potential differing from the first potential, and with at least one intermediate electrode, which is arranged concentrically between the first electrode and the second electrode and which can be brought to an intermediate potential located between the first potential and the second potential, a switching device, with which electrodes of the set of capacitors are connected and which is designed so that during operation of the switching device arranged concentrically to each other electrodes of the set of capacitors are brought to rising steps of potential, the first and the second accelerating channels formed by the first and respectively the second holes in electrodes of the set of capacitors, so that along the first or the second accelerating channel charged particles can be accelerated by the electrodes, a device affecting the accelerated beam of particles inside the set of capacitors to make a beam of particles generate the radiated photons.
EFFECT: technical result is provision of constant field intensity along the accelerating channel.
9 cl, 9 dwg