The method of manufacture of filter products to a specific form of activated carbon fibers and the subject of protective clothing, is obtained in this way

 

A method containing a step of manufacturing the procurement of the final product, which is obtained from matter, consisting of the original carbon fibers. The specified procurement is made through the application process, such as knitting, postegivanie two-dimensional matter or weaving. Then spend carbonizers and activating processing to directly obtain products of desired shape, made of activated carbon fibers. The workpiece give dimensions, taking into account the shrinkage during the specified processing. The technical result is to provide protection from harmful influences, such as nuclear, biological or chemical attack. 2 N. and 10 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The technical FIELD TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES

The present invention relates to the manufacture of filter products of a certain shape, having absorbent properties, with the use of activated carbon fibers. The term "absorbent product of some form" in this case is used to denote frameless filter products non-planar shape.

Specifically, the invention relates to the manufacture of predm the clothing is designed for use civilian or military personnel to protect it from aggressive actions, having particularly nuclear, biological or chemical nature.

However, the method according to the invention can also be applied for other purposes, for example, for the manufacture of filter products, special forms, such as sleeves, spherical caps, etc.,

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

For making modifications to clothing to protect from nuclear, biological and chemical (ABH) lesions, suggested various materials.

So, well-known variant of the manufacturing of protective clothing made of thick rubber, as a rule, isobutyl. These costumes, especially at relatively high temperatures uncomfortable and wear them hard, because they make it harder to breath.

In addition, there were proposals to apply the dust particles of activated carbon, dispersed in the foam, such as polyurethane foam. Made so costumes or items of clothing are very thick. Due to the presence of foam to their disadvantages include difficulties in the wash, and bad behavior in the presence of fire. In addition, in the case when conditions demanded their laminating on a substrate a certain form, could deteriorate porosity and ability to breath. In addition, in the United degale also apply activated carbon fiber. In the manufacture of garments, some form of mechanical properties of these fibers make it difficult to perform with them, textile operations, such as spinning, weaving, knitting, stitching, weaving. Apparently, it is possible to place the activated carbon fiber in a specific order on the substrate having the form of service, subject to manufacturing. However, again there are the disadvantages indicated above relating to the clogging of pores and worsening opportunities for breath.

To resolve the problems caused by the unsuitability of carbon fibers for textile operations, patent document FR 2599761 And offers the use of composite filaments. The thread contains the core with the required mechanical properties, such as the core metal, coiled or wound on her primary carbon fibers. When making clothes composite filament can be used to carbonization and activation of primary carbon fibers. According to a patent document, the resulting fabric can be used for the manufacture of protective garments. The disadvantage of this method lies in the complexity and high cost associated with the manufacture of composite yarns. Others will Neelam them very hard. For military applications, this can be a drawback from the point of view of freedom of movement.

The fabric of activated carbon known, it is used for applications involving filtration products. The manufacture of such fabrics are described in patent documents FR 2741363 and WO 98/41678 A. However, the production of articles of clothing of a particular form of this fabric requires stitching. Unfortunately, due to the stitches made in the fabric of activated carbon has a substantial local increase stiffness, increasing discomfort. In addition, causing the formation of pores of non-uniform size, stitches cause the formation of channels of the light passing to the toxins that must be retained.

The INVENTION

The problem to which the present invention is directed, is to develop a method that can manufacture filter products of a certain shape, and particularly, but not exclusively, clothing for ABH protection, but without the above specific deficiencies.

More specifically the invention is directed to production of such filter products of a certain shape, which is made of activated carbon fibers, may is. odnovremenno with this specified products inherent in good mechanical strength; in addition, their pores do not form any preferred channels for the passage of the medium to be filtered.

These tasks are solved by a method comprising the stages of:

- harvesting products made out of matter, consisting of the original carbon fibers, with the use of the textile process,

- conduct carbonitride and activating processing thus, to directly obtain the product desired shape, made of activated carbon fibres, with

the workpiece give the size of shrinkage during carbonitride and activating processing.

A distinctive feature of the invention is that the filter product you receive immediately after carbonization and activation of the workpiece from the source of carbon fibers produced using textile process to give it a shape corresponding to the shape of a product to be manufactured.

Textile process used to shape the workpiece may consist at least partially of knitting, stitching or postegivaniya two-dimensional material is cloth or woven products with multiple threads.

The workpiece is made, in particular, in matter of cellulose fibers, for example, using fiber artificial silk. This allows to obtain carbon fibers of high purity, and with a large specific surface area, for example, more than 800 m2/g or even more than 1200 m2/,

In the first variant implementation of the method carbonizers and activating processing includes:

- the stage of carbonization, providing a heat treatment in an inert gas atmosphere with heating to a temperature in the range of 250-500With, and

- stage activation of the carbonized preform carried out at a temperature in the range of 750-950C. Activation is carried out in an oxidizing atmosphere such as water vapor and/or carbon dioxide.

In the second variant of the method the sequence of operations of carbonization and activation includes the step of impregnation of the preform composition, which contains at least one ingredient that promotes the decomposition of cellulose, and a heat treatment at a temperature in the range of 350-500With carried out in such a way as to provide filtration products directly from the activated Out to be obtained through the described method, i.e., the subject of a protective garment of a particular form, characterized in that it is made in the form of a single product of matter formed activated carbon fibers. A distinctive feature of this garment is that, although it is made of fibres specified type, it is nevertheless inherent strength required for the realization of its purpose. In a preferred embodiment, the garment is formed at least partially by knitting or weaving yarns formed activated carbon fibers. The garment may also be formed, at least partially, the two-dimensional fabric of carbon fibers, the form of which is given by postegivaniya.

Because the garments according to the invention is made of carbon, they show good performance in the presence of heat and thermally stable. Due to its conductivity carbon fibers have the ability to eliminate static electricity. In addition, they are easy to wash. Compared to the dust particles of activated carbon products made from activated carbon fibers, have a very limited loss of their qualities under the influence of moisture. The vast majority of pores in the enterprise to this, since the size of these fibers is much less dust particles of activated carbon, for a given mass of carbon they have much more surface area exposed to gas flow. To ensure the specified properties, the thickness of the products according to the invention can be significantly reduced.

The LIST of GRAPHICAL MATERIALS

The invention will be clear from the description that do not have restrictive and given with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig.1 illustrates the successive stages of the method, representing one of the embodiments of the invention,

Fig.2 illustrates the successive steps of the method represents a modification of the variant, which is illustrated in Fig.1,

Fig.3 is a photograph of a workpiece for gloves, associated with the use of viscose filament, and a photo of gloves from the activated carbon fibers obtained after application to the workpiece carbonitride and activating processing.

INFORMATION. CONFIRMING the POSSIBILITY of carrying out the INVENTION

In the description below refer to the manufacture of protective garments. As mentioned above, the invention is nevertheless not ograniczenie the divided form.

The first stage 10, as shown in Fig.1, consists of harvesting of a product to be manufactured, with the use of the textile manufacturing process.

The workpiece is made, using the original carbon fiber having the form of a thread or yarn. You can use different types of source material, such as pre-oxidized polyacrylonitrile (PAN) resin, a phenolic compound. Preferably the application of the cellulose source material, in particular of viscose, for example artificial silk.

The workpiece shape corresponding to the shape of a product to be manufactured, however, the shrinkage occurring during carbonitride and activating processing.

The shaping can be done directly, using thread or varieties of yarn source of carbon fibers, in particular, by knitting or weaving.

You can also start with the fabrication of two-dimensional matter from the threads of the original carbon fiber or modifications of his yarn. For example, it may be fabric or woven product with multiple threads. Then the workpiece shape by cutting and postegivaniya thread of the same type. Woven product with mesh of threads or modifications yarn, elongated parallel to a given direction. Woven products with one system thread impose, having them in different directions, and if necessary you can attach them to each other, for example, pristegivaniem or light stitching.

The second step 20 of the method consists of carbonization of the workpiece. It includes the operation of heat treatment in an inert atmosphere at a temperature in the range of 250-500With, for example, approximately 400C. This stage is carried out at a slow temperature rise, as a rule, with a speed of 0.01 to 0.5C/min, over a relatively long period of time from several days to several weeks.

You can then spend the final stage of heat treatment at a higher temperature, for example at temperatures up to 600-900With, also in an inert atmosphere for a much shorter period of time, for example within a few minutes.

To facilitate the removal of impurities entering with the gas stream, optionally within a relatively short period of time, approximately 1 min, hold an additional heat treatment at asplenia, equal to, for example, 5-60 PA.

The third step 30 of the method consists of activation obtained at the end of the billet, carbon fiber. The activation is carried out by exposing the specified workpiece heat treatment in an oxidizing atmosphere such as water vapor or preferably carbon dioxide, and a mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor. You can refer to the above patent document FR A. The temperature of the heat treatment lies in the range of 750-950With, preferably in the range of 850-950With, and the duration of this treatment is preferably 50-300 rpm, depending on the desired specific surface area. Thus we can get the product from the activated carbon fibers having a specific surface area greater than 800 m2/g or even greater than 1200 m2/,

If necessary, you can spend the final stage 40 post-processing, depending on the desired application of the product. As an example, one of the modifications of the post-processing may consist of the formation of very fine precipitated layer for fixing any carbon particles and prevent their separation when using the product. This Osaki may consist of connection products and lining, the purpose of which is not in making the product of strength and eliminate direct contact between the product and the skin of the user. To avoid deterioration of porosity and permeability, the lining can be performed aerated. It should be attached to the product only at several points, for example, with adhesive.

In Fig.2 shows a variant implementation of the method, suitable for use in the case of procurement source of cellulose fibers. From the way shown in Fig.1, it differs in that the stages 20 and 30 carbonization and activation replaced by stage 20' impregnation of the preform composition that contains an ingredient that promotes dehydration of cellulose, and the stage 30' heat treatment. The purpose of these stages is to obtain products directly made from the activated carbon fibers.

The impregnation is conducted by applying the composition, which contains at least one ingredient that promotes dehydration of cellulose, such as inorganic ingredient selected from phosphoric acid, zinc chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium hydroxide, diammonium phosphate and ammonium chloride. Preferably, the soaking, applying a composition containing phosphoric acid, and massobrio includes temperature rise speed in the range of 1-15C/min, followed by a pause, which is preferably maintained at a temperature in the range of 350-500With in an inert atmosphere or in an atmosphere containing activator reaction, such as carbon dioxide or water vapor. The resulting product is then preferably washed. This method is described in the aforementioned patent application WO 98/41678. Thus, directly get the product made from activated carbon fibers.

Example 1

Billet glove, similar to the blank shown left shown in Fig.3 pictures, produced by knitting artificial silk thread type 330 decitex (decitex), using hosiery fabric, the edge of gloves manufactured by applying the artificial silk thread type 167 decitex.

The workpiece placed on the frames in the drying and firing furnace and subjected to heat treatment for about 2 weeks. The temperature was increased very slowly, at a rate less than 0.1C/min, up until not reached the level of approximately 400C.

Thus obtained preform is then again subjected to heat treatment by heating to a temperature of the lattice.

Carbonized preform activated in a rotating autoclave at a temperature of approximately 850C in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide (CO2) for approximately 1 h

The resulting gloves were like gloves, which are shown in Fig.3 pictures (right). They had the following average characteristics:

- specific surface area approximately equal to 1500 m2/g;

- tensile strength tensile approximately 1.5 decanewton per centimeter (DTCs/cm);

- breaking elongation of approximately 50%;

the carbon content of approximately 95%;

the diameter of the activated carbon fibers (filaments) of approximately 17 microns.

Shrinkage caused by carbonization and activation, averaged 32%. To get the gloves to the required dimensions in the manufacture of blanks this shrinkage must be taken into account.

It should be noted that it would be dependent on the applied textile process and forms of products, shrinkage does not necessarily have a uniform character throughout the product and in all directions. Defined for the workpiece shape is preferably determined through testing, and these are spyderchat from the activated carbon fibers can be placed on top of the lining gloves for example, cotton. The lining of the glove and the glove can be connected with each other by a few drops of glue.

The resulting set can be inserted directly into the front shell gloves, made, for example, of the skin, In the work environment is able to absorb exactly the subsystem formed by the glove of the activated carbon fibers and any lining. In addition, this subsystem is easy to burn without the formation of toxic emissions.

Example 2

Billet glove, the same as in example 1, was impregnated by immersion in a solution (20% by volume) phosphoric acid, H3RHO4in the water. In order to remove water impregnated preform was subjected to firing at a temperature in the range of 70-90C, and the amount of phosphoric acid is fixed on the blanks, amounted to about 16 wt.% relative to the mass of dried preparations.

Then the workpiece without interruption entered the heat treatment, during which they were moved, securing strap, made, for example, of glass fibres. Heat treatment consisted of increasing the temperature at a rate of about 5C/min to the temperature level is roughly 90 minutes

The resulting gloves washed in demineralized water at a temperature of approximately 90C.

Gloves made of activated carbon fibres produced in this way had the following average characteristics:

- specific surface area approximately equal to 800 m2/g;

- tensile strength tensile equal to approximately 1.2 DTCs/cm;

- breaking elongation of approximately 50%;

the carbon content of approximately 80%.

Measured shrinkage averaged 28%.

Test

Tested effectiveness against mustard gas, using gloves, obtained in example 1.

Testing for vapor phase spent with mustard gas at 37C.

After a time interval greater than 8 h, passing through the protective barrier formed by the glove, not watched.

Test for liquid phase was conducted using mustard gas at ambient temperature 20C. the Mustard in the form of drops brought into contact with gloves, and the amount applied of the damaging substances was 10 g/m2the surface of the gloves. Quantity of mustard gas which has passed through gloves, measured by extracts Serenoa number passed through the substance was in the range of 0.2-1,02 g/m2.

These tests show a very effective protective quality, obtained by adsorption properties of activated carbon fibers.

Claims

1. The method of manufacture of filter products to a specific form containing activated carbon fibers, characterized in that the method includes the steps of harvesting products made out of matter, consisting of the original carbon fibers, textile application process, conducting carbonitride and activating processing, providing directly receive filter products desired shape of the activated carbon fibers, and the workpiece give the size of shrinkage during carbonitride and activating processing.

2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the workpiece is made, at least partially, knitting yarn, made from the original carbon fibers.

3. The method according to p. 1, wherein the workpiece is made, at least partially, pristegivaniem two-dimensional matter from a source of carbon fibers.

4. The method according to p. 1, wherein the workpiece is made, less-4, characterized in that the workpiece is made of matter consisting of cellulose fibers.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the workpiece is made of matter, consisting of fibres of artificial silk.

7. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-6, characterized in that carbonizers and activating processing includes the step of carbonization, providing a heat treatment in an inert atmosphere to a temperature lying in the range from 250 to 500With phase activation of the carbonized preform carried out at a temperature lying in the range from 750 to 950C.

8. The method according to p. 5 or 6, characterized in that carbonizers and activating processing includes the step of impregnation of the preform composition containing at least one ingredient that promotes the decomposition of cellulose, and a heat treatment at a temperature lying in the range from 350 to 500With providing filtration products directly from the activated carbon fibers.

9. The item of protective clothing that has a definite shape and containing activated carbon fibers, characterized in that it is made as a single product of matter, images at least partially, knitting yarns formed activated carbon fibers.

11. The garment under item 9, characterized in that it is formed, at least partially, the two-dimensional fabric of carbon fibers, the form of which is given by postegivaniya.

12. The garment under item 9, characterized in that it is formed, at least partially, weaving threads formed activated carbon fibers.

 

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