Vascular cannula

 

The invention relates to medical instruments and can be used in medicine, mainly in the artificial circulation. The device includes an elongated body having at least two ends. Plot adjacent to one of these ends, it is the connecting part of the cannula. The area adjacent to the second of these ends, it is the working part of the cannula. In the said elongated body is made through the channel so that it receives fluid from the end adjacent to the connecting portion of the cannula and extends from the end adjacent to the working part of the cannula. The working part is made in the form of a spiral. The ratio of the size of the diameter of the spiral and the size of the step ensures that the ratio of the magnitude of the rotational speed of the fluid to the magnitude of its translational speed as2:1. The result is the creation of physiological helical blood flow in the artificial circulation, which is as close as possible to the natural, effectively overcoming vascular resistance and optimal conditions for microcirculation and transcapillary exchange. 7 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

In General, the medical cannula are hollow tubes of a simple or complex configuration with blunt head of the working part. Depending on the purpose and scope distinguish cannula: anatomical, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, ENT, dental, urological, vascular, and others.

Vascular cannula is intended for intravenous infusion, produced by the method of venesection, including blood transfusion, and to connect the heart-lung machine to arterial and venous vessels of the patient with artificial circulation. Vascular cannulas of various configurations are known. Thus, the known limit of the vascular cannula, which is made in the form of a glass tube, the working of which has drawn the tapered end and an interception in the form of a groove (neck of the cannula). The working part of the cannula is inserted into the incision in the wall of the vessel is an artery or a vein and fixed in the vessel with a thread ligatures, tighten in the neck of the cannula. The end of the glass tube, opposite the working side of the cannula, it is fitting that put the hose from the heart-lung machine, or to the Diya”. 1959, page 167]. This vascular cannula is the closest analogue to offer cannula and adopted for the prototype of the invention most similar to her signs. The disadvantage of the prototype is that when using this cannula for connecting blood vessels to the heart-lung machine, it provides only the translational motion of the blood in the vessels and does not guarantee the formation of helical blood flow in the vessels of the circulatory system. However, research on the biomechanics of blood circulation in recent years, experiments have shown that in the bloodstream, as well as throughout the cardiovascular system, blood flow is not progressive, as previously thought, and the rotational-translational in nature, and the rotation direction of blood flow in large and small circles of blood circulation is opposite [Century. N.Zakharov and other Biogeographica movement of blood in the cavities of the heart and great vessels” (Preprint) - Novosibirsk: Institute of Bioorganic chemistry of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1989, and S. N. Bagaev, V. N. Zakharov, V. A. Orlov, “Physical mechanisms of transport systems of a living organism” (Preprint) - Novosibirsk: Publishing house of SB RAS”, 1999]. Helical flow of blood keeani reciprocating linear motion of the blood are that muscular elements of the myocardium of the ventricles of the heart and blood vessels have a helical packing, their cavities are funnel-shaped chamber with the asymmetry of the input and output. The flow of blood flowing into the main blood stream during systole of the ventricles of the heart, initially has a rotational-translational motion. Because, just as in the myocardium, smooth myocytes blood vessels spiral Packed, stretching the walls of blood vessels, receiving the systolic ejection of blood, causes stretching of smooth muscle elements and spiral wave their excitation. Then the sum of forces of the elastic deformation of the elastic frame and the active reduction of smooth myocytes of the walls of arteries creates a wave twisting, ensuring the preservation of the swirling flow of blood when it arrives in a blood vessel, and supports along with the translational component of the motion of the blood of its rotational component. For the period of one cardiac cycle of contraction and relaxation of the active elements of the vessel wall occurs alternately, this process extends from the heart to the periphery of the main blood vessels. One heart cycle corresponds to one vascular art is ludacka heart since there are phase spiral of contraction and relaxation of the muscular layer of blood vessels, and in General the activity of the heart and blood vessels are synchronized so that in fact the whole system is distributed by the heart, which provides a uniform cardiovascular cycle. Established by the radiopaque original research) that the primary divisions of arterial circulatory system of the rotational energy of the flow of blood about two times greater than its translational energy, which provides optimal conditions for cardiac output, and the ratio of the magnitude of the rotational speed of the spiral blood flow to the forward speed - as2:1. The functional role of a rotational component of motion of the blood is to overcome the distributed resistance vessels, the value of which is determined by the viscous friction and the length of the vascular arteries. In the cardiovascular system generated so much rotational energy as necessary to overcome vascular resistance along the path of blood flow. It is therefore crucial during artificial blood circulation not just continuously pumped under pressure to nod pulse of the rotational-translational movement of blood in the arterial line, arousing active pulsed operation of the arteries. Spiral contraction of the arteries support the required level of rotational energy in the helical blood flow to effectively overcome vascular resistance.

The invention solves the problem of creating such a vascular cannula, which would provide a reciprocating linear movement of blood in the circulatory system with artificial circulation.

The problem is solved in that a cannula including an elongated body having at least two ends, while the section adjacent to one of these ends, it is the connecting part of the cannula, and a portion adjacent to the second of these ends, it is the working part of the cannula, and in the said elongated body is made through the channel, so that it receives fluid from the end of the cannula, which is adjacent its connecting part, and leaves the end of the cannula, which is adjacent its working part, which in turn made in the form of a spiral.

Fluid medium for vascular cannula may be blood, blood products, or their mixture. If such a cannula is used for purposes other than artificial blood is osudu her patient the working part can be positioned at an angle to its connecting part, moreover, this angle may be acute, direct or blunt.

The connecting part of the vascular cannula, which it connects to the hose of the heart-lung machine may be made cylindrical or conical shape. This hose can be connected to the cannula by putting him out on it fitting without additional funds, or using a known additional transition fittings with different diameters and working parts, one of which is included in the connecting portion of the cannula, and the second - in hose [Great medical encyclopedia /Ed. by A. N. Bakulev, I. 12. - M.: Publishing House. “Great Soviet encyclopedia”, 1959, page 166, Fig.11].

As mentioned above, studies of the circulatory system showed that the ratio of rotational and translational velocities: 1 is optimal. Therefore, it is advisable to choose the ratio of the diameter of the spiral and its step to comply with the specified ratio of rotational and translational velocities of the spiral blood flow in the initial section of an arterial channel.

General view of the proposed vascular cannula shown in Fig.1. The cannula has a connecting part 1, working with working part, located at right angles to the connecting part, and a working part of it is made in the form of a zero helix. Such cannulas are designed for vessels of the systemic circulation, first of all, for joining blood vessels, where there is a helical flow of blood from the left-hand direction of twist. In Fig.3 shows a General view of the cannula with working part located at a right angle to the connecting part and the working part is made in the form of a right-handed helix. Such cannulas are designed for vessels of the pulmonary circulation, where there is a helical flow of blood from the right direction of the twist.

The cannula is as follows. First of all, it must be connected to the blood vessel by inserting the end of the working part 2 into the vessel through an incision in the wall. Via is connected to the connecting portion of the cannula 1 hoses from the heart-lung machine in end-to-end channel of the cannula 3 enters the blood, blood products, or their mixture (hereinafter - the blood). In the connecting portion of the cannula 1, the blood is moving forward and in the working part 2, passing through the spiral channel 3, it acquires the rotational-translational motion, the nature of which is stored in anaut loss of energy of the rotational motion and provide the optimal ratio of rotational and translational velocities in spiral blood flow.

It is established that a previously unknown property for swirling fluid flow in consodering channels to create a thrust force in the screw thread, which is caused by the existence of rotational energy in the screw thread. In General, the cardiovascular system is confusedly channels, in which there is a swirling flow of blood. Due to the rotational component of the movement of blood distributed overcome the resistance vessels, the value of which is determined by viscous friction, there is a “start” mechanism push blood through the vessels in a spiral, i.e., the blood vessels begin to work, squeezing the blood. The blood flow in the circulatory system as close as possible to natural. This action prevents many of the complications seen with conventional artificial circulation of the blood, the causes of which lie in the disruption of the flow of blood, the absence of feedback between the injection of blood into the arteries and their active work.

The proposed vascular cannula enables the creation of physiological helical blood flow in the artificial circulation, which is as close as possible to natural. The optimal ratio vasodilagor resistance and optimal conditions for microcirculation and transcapillary exchange.

Ultimately, by applying the proposed vascular cannula under artificial circulation is implemented transport function of the cardiovascular system in General, since high efficiency transportation blood vessels.

Claims

1. A cannula including an elongated body having at least two ends, while the section adjacent to one of these ends, it is the connecting part of the cannula, and a portion adjacent to the second of these ends, it is the working part of the cannula, and in the said elongated body is made through the channel so that it receives fluid from the end adjacent to the connecting portion of the cannula and extends from the end adjacent to the working part of the cannula, characterized in that its working part is made in the form of a spiral so the ratio of the size of the diameter of the spiral and the size of the step ensures that the ratio of the magnitude of the rotational speed of the fluid to the magnitude of its translational speed as.

2. The cannula under item 1, characterized in that the connecting part of the cannula is connected to a source of fluid.

3. the eat, that fluid medium is blood.

5. The cannula under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the fluid medium is a mixture of blood and blood products.

6. The cannula according to any one of paragraphs.1-5, characterized in that its working part is made in the form of a right-handed spiral.

7. The cannula according to any one of paragraphs.1-5, characterized in that its working part is made in the form of a zero helix.

8. The cannula according to any one of paragraphs.1-7, characterized in that its working portion is at an angle to the connecting part.

 

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SUBSTANCE: device has casing with lumen, cannula and sharp tip. It is connected to Waldmann unit for measuring current and filling sterile solution. The casing has a lateral opening soldered acute end and mandrin having through canal. The mandrin has cannula and is set in the lumen to enable the lateral opening to be fully overlapped.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in measuring intraosseous pressure and making medullary canal puncture.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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