Vacuum diode for double-sided exposure

 

The invention relates to accelerator technology and can be used to output a beam of charged particles in the atmosphere or irradiated environment for irradiating an object with two sides. Vacuum diode contains catalogization, which is made of two parts, allowing to place at the ends opposite each other on the cathode, and the body contains two Windows of the anode opposite to each other between the cathodes to output beams of electrons in air for exposure of the object. Vacuum diode allows the irradiation of objects from two sides, and by changing the distance cathode-anode in one of the shoulders of the diode, it is possible to modify the algorithm irradiation on the sides of the object. 6 Il., 1 PL.

The invention relates to accelerator technology and can be used to output a beam of charged particles in the atmosphere or irradiated environment for irradiating an object with two sides.

Currently, the accelerators of charged particles, especially electrons, are widely used in radiation technologies. This is most beneficial to perform the irradiation of products from two sides, which helps to reduce the heterogeneity of exposure and to increase the thickness of the irradiated products [1] while maintaining uniformity Pogodaev, the geometry of the double-sided irradiation is achieved either through the use of two accelerators, or special system scan beam [2].

However, such solutions require the use of two accelerators that expensive, or is not applicable to nanosecond beams due to the inability of the control beam.

Known solution consists in using a single pulse generator high voltage and two sealed-off electron tubes [3] posted from different sides.

However, this solution:

- applicable only for pulses with parameters (amplitude, duration, repetition frequency), formed under the existing types of tubes;

- has a significant parasitic capacitance of the high voltage splitter through the use of liquid insulation of high-voltage electrode;

- not possible to obtain beams of large area;

- does not allow you to specify the algorithm irradiation by each of the parties.

The main object of the invention is to create a vacuum diode, allowing to perform bilateral irradiation object with the specified algorithm irradiation on each side using a single accelerator of charged particles.

The closest analogue (prototype) is and MK-cathode, which, however, does not allow the irradiation of objects from two sides.

This object is achieved in that uses vacuum diode (Fig.1), comprising a housing, a bypass vacuum insulator and catalogization, characterized in that catalogization has a common electrode, which is then divided into two parts. At the end of each part of katalogizacija placed opposite each other on the cathode, and the body contains two Windows-anode to output beams of electrons in air for exposure of the object. Thus, the described design allows you to create a period of two cathode-anode, on which the accelerating voltage is applied simultaneously on the common electrode.

Such solution allows to obtain simultaneously two electron beam, and to control separately for each period of the cathode-anode (d1, d2, Fig.1), which gives the opportunity to achieve as uniform irradiation on each side, and to manage this process for a given algorithm.

In Fig.1 shows a vacuum diode for double-sided exposure. It consists of passing the vacuum insulator 11, which insulates the common electrode of katalogizacija 1 from the housing 4. Case 4 is used to create an enclosed space for receiving a vacuum, and is divided into right 5 and left 6 parts on the ends of which are the cathode 2. The cathodes 2 are located so that their axes of symmetry coincide with the axes of the Windows of the anodes 3.

Vacuum diode for two-way radiation works in the following way. Is formed by a pulse of high voltage and at the same time is applied (Fig.1) through the common electrode 1 and part of katalogizacija 5,6 to the cathode 2. With cathode is connected with the emission of electrons which are accelerated by the applied electric field and through the weekend box-anodes 3 are displayed in the atmosphere for irradiation of the sample 7 from both sides.

The work of the proposed vacuum diode was experimentally tested on the accelerator URT-0,5 [5], a regular diode was replaced by a vacuum diode for double-sided exposure.

The housing of the vacuum diode for double sided irradiation is made of carbon steel. Open-anodes for the output beam will have a diameter of 100 mm Each window has an aluminum grille with a transparency of 85%, consisting of slots and ribs of a width of 10 and 2 mm, respectively. On the grill fits output aluminum foil 15 μm thick in two layers. In the lattice there is a channel for water cooling. The left and right side of katalogizacija made of aluminum alloy rods with a diameter of 40 mm, Their design provides the katalogizacija to the common electrode is made so, in order to be able to perform alignment of the cathode lead boxes. In our experiments we used metal cathodes, by design, similar to the one used in [5], but a larger diameter.

Vacuum diode accelerator operates at a pressure of about 10-3Torr, which creates a rotary vacuum pump ABP-50.

In our experiments we used a regular electric sensors accelerator URT-0,5, allowing to measure the voltage on the vacuum diode and current in a vacuum diode, running on the common electrode.

For the concurrency control actuation of the left and right of the cathodes used an optical diagram (Fig.2, bottom), consisting of phosphors 8, an opaque screen 9 and the camera 10. The signal from the cameras were entered into a personal computer and processed by the program OSC-16. The essence of this technique is that if the electron beams are generated in the left and right cathodes at the same time, the glow from both phosphors 8 hits in one frame of the signal, if the accelerator operates at a frequency substantially less than the camera 10 (50 Hz).

To measure the difference in the left and right of the cathodes were used dosimetric method. Measurement of the absorbed dose electrojector installed close to the exit foil. The size of the detector allowed for complete imprint of the beam along one axis.

The measurement was carried out on 10 pulses supplied with a frequency f=1 Hz. In addition, the detectors were placed behind the layers of aluminum foil of different thickness, which allowed to measure the distribution of the absorbed dose in the material.

At the first stage were selected equal distance cathode-anode d1=d2=90 mm

Typical waveforms of the beam current (I) and voltage on the vacuum diode (U) for bilateral diode did not differ from the results obtained on the accelerator URT-0.5 in the normal mode (Fig.3). The luminescence of the phosphors from the electron beam was simultaneous and similar in intensity (Fig.4B), the test methodology was used for measurement without the left of the cathode (Fig.4B). The dosimetry results (table 4) show that within the error of measurements (15%) both cathode work evenly.

It was investigated the influence of the vacuum diode distances d1 and d2, which decreased both simultaneously and independently from each other.

It is established that the decrease of the distance d2 does not lead to the redistribution of current between the cathodes and the simultaneous actuation of the cathodes is not disturbed. You can see that the values of absorbed doses at the anodes (tnim with decreasing diameter of the beam, which leads to the increase in current density at the anode, which absorbed dose is directly proportional. At equal distances anode-cathode prints beam almost similar (Fig.5).

In addition, it was found that a significant reduction of the accelerating voltage and the amplitude of the current in the vacuum diode even when d2=30 mm is not happening. Maybe it's because part of katalogizacija have significant inductance (~100 MT). However, measurement of absorbed dose distribution in aluminum shows a slight (~10%) reduction in the penetrating ability of electrons when d1=d2=90 mm, This decrease becomes significant when reducing d2=30 mm (Fig.6).

Thus, the obtained results showed that created a vacuum diode works well and allows the irradiation of objects from two sides, and by changing the distance cathode-anode in one of the shoulders of the diode, it is possible to modify the algorithm irradiation on the sides of the object.

Sources of information

1. Kozlov, Y. D., Nikulin, K. I., Titkov Y. C. calculation of the parameters and design of radiation-chemical installations with electron accelerators. M: Atomizdat, 1976, 176 S.

2. Abrahamian, E. A. Industrial electron accelerators. the UNT of the Russian Federation No. 2191488, CL N 05 N 5/02, H 01 J 1/30

5. Kotov, Y. A., Sokovnin S. Y., Balesin M. Y. Frequency nanosecond electron accelerator URT-0,5/ Pribory I Tekhnika eksperimenta, 2000, No. 2, S. 112-115.

6. Generalova Centuries, Gursky, M. N. Dosimetry in radiation technology. M.: Publishing house of standards, 1981, 184 S.

Claims

Vacuum diode for double sided irradiation, comprising a housing, a bypass vacuum insulator and catalogization, characterized in that catalogization made of two parts, the ends of which are opposite each other are placed on the cathode, and the body contains two Windows-anode to output electron beams opposite to each other between the cathodes.

 

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