Vacuum diode for double-sided exposure
The invention relates to accelerator technology and can be used to output a beam of charged particles in the atmosphere or irradiated environment for irradiating an object with two sides. Vacuum diode contains catalogization, which is made of two parts, allowing to place at the ends opposite each other on the cathode, and the body contains two Windows of the anode opposite to each other between the cathodes to output beams of electrons in air for exposure of the object. Vacuum diode allows the irradiation of objects from two sides, and by changing the distance cathode-anode in one of the shoulders of the diode, it is possible to modify the algorithm irradiation on the sides of the object. 6 Il., 1 PL.The invention relates to accelerator technology and can be used to output a beam of charged particles in the atmosphere or irradiated environment for irradiating an object with two sides.Currently, the accelerators of charged particles, especially electrons, are widely used in radiation technologies. This is most beneficial to perform the irradiation of products from two sides, which helps to reduce the heterogeneity of exposure and to increase the thickness of the irradiated products  while maintaining uniformity Pogodaev, the geometry of the double-sided irradiation is achieved either through the use of two accelerators, or special system scan beam .However, such solutions require the use of two accelerators that expensive, or is not applicable to nanosecond beams due to the inability of the control beam.Known solution consists in using a single pulse generator high voltage and two sealed-off electron tubes  posted from different sides.However, this solution:- applicable only for pulses with parameters (amplitude, duration, repetition frequency), formed under the existing types of tubes;- has a significant parasitic capacitance of the high voltage splitter through the use of liquid insulation of high-voltage electrode;- not possible to obtain beams of large area;- does not allow you to specify the algorithm irradiation by each of the parties.The main object of the invention is to create a vacuum diode, allowing to perform bilateral irradiation object with the specified algorithm irradiation on each side using a single accelerator of charged particles.The closest analogue (prototype) is and MK-cathode, which, however, does not allow the irradiation of objects from two sides.This object is achieved in that uses vacuum diode (Fig.1), comprising a housing, a bypass vacuum insulator and catalogization, characterized in that catalogization has a common electrode, which is then divided into two parts. At the end of each part of katalogizacija placed opposite each other on the cathode, and the body contains two Windows-anode to output beams of electrons in air for exposure of the object. Thus, the described design allows you to create a period of two cathode-anode, on which the accelerating voltage is applied simultaneously on the common electrode.Such solution allows to obtain simultaneously two electron beam, and to control separately for each period of the cathode-anode (d1, d2, Fig.1), which gives the opportunity to achieve as uniform irradiation on each side, and to manage this process for a given algorithm.In Fig.1 shows a vacuum diode for double-sided exposure. It consists of passing the vacuum insulator 11, which insulates the common electrode of katalogizacija 1 from the housing 4. Case 4 is used to create an enclosed space for receiving a vacuum, and is divided into right 5 and left 6 parts on the ends of which are the cathode 2. The cathodes 2 are located so that their axes of symmetry coincide with the axes of the Windows of the anodes 3.Vacuum diode for two-way radiation works in the following way. Is formed by a pulse of high voltage and at the same time is applied (Fig.1) through the common electrode 1 and part of katalogizacija 5,6 to the cathode 2. With cathode is connected with the emission of electrons which are accelerated by the applied electric field and through the weekend box-anodes 3 are displayed in the atmosphere for irradiation of the sample 7 from both sides.The work of the proposed vacuum diode was experimentally tested on the accelerator URT-0,5 , a regular diode was replaced by a vacuum diode for double-sided exposure.The housing of the vacuum diode for double sided irradiation is made of carbon steel. Open-anodes for the output beam will have a diameter of 100 mm Each window has an aluminum grille with a transparency of 85%, consisting of slots and ribs of a width of 10 and 2 mm, respectively. On the grill fits output aluminum foil 15 μm thick in two layers. In the lattice there is a channel for water cooling. The left and right side of katalogizacija made of aluminum alloy rods with a diameter of 40 mm, Their design provides the katalogizacija to the common electrode is made so, in order to be able to perform alignment of the cathode lead boxes. In our experiments we used metal cathodes, by design, similar to the one used in , but a larger diameter.Vacuum diode accelerator operates at a pressure of about 10-3Torr, which creates a rotary vacuum pump ABP-50.In our experiments we used a regular electric sensors accelerator URT-0,5, allowing to measure the voltage on the vacuum diode and current in a vacuum diode, running on the common electrode.For the concurrency control actuation of the left and right of the cathodes used an optical diagram (Fig.2, bottom), consisting of phosphors 8, an opaque screen 9 and the camera 10. The signal from the cameras were entered into a personal computer and processed by the program OSC-16. The essence of this technique is that if the electron beams are generated in the left and right cathodes at the same time, the glow from both phosphors 8 hits in one frame of the signal, if the accelerator operates at a frequency substantially less than the camera 10 (50 Hz).To measure the difference in the left and right of the cathodes were used dosimetric method. Measurement of the absorbed dose electrojector installed close to the exit foil. The size of the detector allowed for complete imprint of the beam along one axis.The measurement was carried out on 10 pulses supplied with a frequency f=1 Hz. In addition, the detectors were placed behind the layers of aluminum foil of different thickness, which allowed to measure the distribution of the absorbed dose in the material.At the first stage were selected equal distance cathode-anode d1=d2=90 mmTypical waveforms of the beam current (I) and voltage on the vacuum diode (U) for bilateral diode did not differ from the results obtained on the accelerator URT-0.5 in the normal mode (Fig.3). The luminescence of the phosphors from the electron beam was simultaneous and similar in intensity (Fig.4B), the test methodology was used for measurement without the left of the cathode (Fig.4B). The dosimetry results (table 4) show that within the error of measurements (15%) both cathode work evenly.It was investigated the influence of the vacuum diode distances d1 and d2, which decreased both simultaneously and independently from each other.It is established that the decrease of the distance d2 does not lead to the redistribution of current between the cathodes and the simultaneous actuation of the cathodes is not disturbed. You can see that the values of absorbed doses at the anodes (tnim with decreasing diameter of the beam, which leads to the increase in current density at the anode, which absorbed dose is directly proportional. At equal distances anode-cathode prints beam almost similar (Fig.5).In addition, it was found that a significant reduction of the accelerating voltage and the amplitude of the current in the vacuum diode even when d2=30 mm is not happening. Maybe it's because part of katalogizacija have significant inductance (~100 MT). However, measurement of absorbed dose distribution in aluminum shows a slight (~10%) reduction in the penetrating ability of electrons when d1=d2=90 mm, This decrease becomes significant when reducing d2=30 mm (Fig.6).Thus, the obtained results showed that created a vacuum diode works well and allows the irradiation of objects from two sides, and by changing the distance cathode-anode in one of the shoulders of the diode, it is possible to modify the algorithm irradiation on the sides of the object.Sources of information1. Kozlov, Y. D., Nikulin, K. I., Titkov Y. C. calculation of the parameters and design of radiation-chemical installations with electron accelerators. M: Atomizdat, 1976, 176 S.2. Abrahamian, E. A. Industrial electron accelerators. the UNT of the Russian Federation No. 2191488, CL N 05 N 5/02, H 01 J 1/305. Kotov, Y. A., Sokovnin S. Y., Balesin M. Y. Frequency nanosecond electron accelerator URT-0,5/ Pribory I Tekhnika eksperimenta, 2000, No. 2, S. 112-115.6. Generalova Centuries, Gursky, M. N. Dosimetry in radiation technology. M.: Publishing house of standards, 1981, 184 S.
ClaimsVacuum diode for double sided irradiation, comprising a housing, a bypass vacuum insulator and catalogization, characterized in that catalogization made of two parts, the ends of which are opposite each other are placed on the cathode, and the body contains two Windows-anode to output electron beams opposite to each other between the cathodes.
FIELD: high-voltage charged particles accelerators.
SUBSTANCE: device has high-voltage rectifier transformer, including high-voltage transformer, consisting of magnetic duct, rods with primary winding of which are encased in electrostatic screens, sectioned secondary winding, rectifier elements, inserted between sections of secondary winding, accelerator pipe with charged particles source, safety screen, inside safety screen compensation coil is mounted with possible presence of axial component of magnetic field in counter-phase to field vector, moving charged particles beam from accelerator pipe axis. Correction method includes forming by high-voltage rectifier transformer of high-voltage accelerator potential, initiation of charged particles flow in charged particles source, acceleration of charged particles flow in sectioned accelerator pipe, forming of beam of charged particles, while additional magnetic field is formed using compensating coils, mounted on external surface of safety screen.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher reliability, simplified construction, higher efficiency.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for impact compression of material involves use of relativistic vacuum diode that has axisymmetrical vacuum chamber with electricity conducting walls, plasma cathode, and concentrating anode. Target in the form of axisymmetrical part is produced from condensed material and is used at least as part of concentrating anode. The latter is installed in relativistic vacuum diode in a spaced relation to plasma cathode and pulse discharge is applied from power supply to relativistic vacuum diode as electron beam is self-focused on concentrating anode surface. For the purpose use is made of axisymmetrical plasma cathode in the form of conducting rod and butt-end dielectric member coupled to the latter; surface area of conducting rod in dielectric member is larger than maximal cross-sectional area of concentrating anode. Concentrating anode is installed in a spaced relation to plasma cathode so that center of curvature of concentrating anode working surface is disposed within focal length of collectively self-focusing electron beam.
EFFECT: ability of compressing material to superdense condition.
22 cl, 17 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: accelerating equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device has induction system in form of a set of ferromagnetic cores, enveloped by magnetization coils. On both sides of cores outputs of magnetization coils are electrically joined and connected to outputs of last compression links of two or more magnetic pulse generators. Magnetic pulse generators are in form of series of not less than two compression links, consisting of capacitors and saturation valves. Forming by an inducting system of high voltage pulse with microsecond duration is realized due to serial discharge of capacitor of last compression links of magnetic pulse generators through windings of saturation valves onto magnetization coils delay of sending pulses from different magnetic pulse generators onto inductive system is achieved by selecting values of flow engagements of saturation valves of last compression links.
EFFECT: realization of serial discharge of several magnetic pulse generators on coils of magnetization of ferromagnetic cores.
FIELD: technical physics, in particular, accelerators of light ions, possible use as generator of neutrons.
SUBSTANCE: accelerator of ions with magnetic isolation contains vacuumized cylindrical cover, made of dielectric material, provided with vacuum pump, magnetic coils positioned outside the cover, connected to impulse electric power source and creating axial magnetic field, anode and cathode, made in form of coaxial tubes, connected to high voltage source. Accelerator is provided with gas tank, adjustable by gas inlet valve and means for controlling gas pressure, accelerating inducers and additional magnetic coils, which are positioned on external surface of vacuum cover between inducers and are connected to impulse electric power sources. Device is also provided with inverse coaxial magnetrons with smooth anodes, each magnetron is connected to accelerator space via through slit, made in cathode of magnetron and lying in plane, passing through appropriate cover diameter in parallel to its generating line. Anode tube is made in form of part of cover, on vacuum surface of which axially-symmetrically and with provision of electric contact by their cathodes magnetrons are mounted, while their anodes are connected to impulse electric power sources.
EFFECT: decreased instability of ion current.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: accelerating equipment, possible use for creating high voltage impulses, generating electronic or ionic beams of microsecond duration with high repetition frequency.
SUBSTANCE: generator of high voltage linearly fading impulses contains high voltage impulse transformer in form of a set of ferromagnetic inductors, enveloped by magnetization coils. On both sides of inductors, outputs of magnetization coils are electrically combined and connected to outputs of last compression units of two or more magnetic impulse generators, connected in parallel. Magnetic impulse generators represent a sequence of at least two compression units, consisting of capacitors and saturation chokes. Creation of high voltage output impulse of microsecond duration is realized due to sequential discharge of capacitors of last compression units of magnetic impulse generators through windings of saturation chokes onto primary winding of high voltage impulse transformer. Impulse feeding delay for different magnetic impulse generators is achieved by selecting values of magnetic linkage of saturation chokes of last compression units. For creation of linearly fading high voltage impulse, capacity values of capacitors of last compression units of magnetic impulse generators comply with expression: C1N>kC2N>...>kCmN, where k=1,1-2 and following condition is fulfilled: C1N·L1N≈C2N-L2N≈...≈CmN·LmN, where L1N, L2N,...,LmN - capacity values of capacitors of last compression units of magnetic impulse generators, L1N, L2N,...,LmN - inductiveness values of windings of saturation chokes of last compression units of magnetic impulse generators.
EFFECT: output of impulses in linearly fading form.
FIELD: acceleration equipment engineering, possible use for generating high voltage impulses, generating electronic or ionic beams of microsecond duration with high repetition frequency.
SUBSTANCE: generator of high voltage linearly increasing impulses contains a high voltage impulse transformer in form of a set of ferromagnetic inducers, circled by magnetization coils. On both sides of inducers, clamps of magnetization coils are electrically combined and connected to clamps of last compression links of two or more magnetic impulse generators, installed in parallel. Magnetic impulse generators represent a series of at least two compression links, consisting of capacitors and saturation throttles. Generation of high voltage output impulse of microsecond duration is realized due to serial discharge of capacitors of last compression links of magnetic impulse generators through windings of saturation throttles onto the primary winding of high voltage impulse transformer. Impulse feeding delay from various magnetic impulse generators is achieved by selection of interlinking values of saturation throttles of last compression links. To create a linearly increasing impulse of output voltage, capacities of capacitors of last compression links of magnetic impulse generators are compliant with expression: C1N<kC2N<...<kCmN, where k=1,1-2 and following condition is fulfilled: C1N·L1N≈ C2N·L2N≈...≈CmN·LmN, where C1N, C2N,..., CmN - capacities of capacitors of last compression links of magnetic impulse generators, L1N, L2N,..., LmN - inductances of windings of saturation throttles of last compression links of magnetic impulse generators.
EFFECT: realization of serial discharge of capacitors of different capacity through windings of saturation throttles of last compression links of several magnetic impulse generators onto the primary winding of a high voltage impulse transformer.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics, possible use in laboratory research, and also during development of new devices for medicine and engineering, where it is needed to eject electron or laser beams in impulse mode.
SUBSTANCE: the essence of method is in using the difference of spreading speeds of gas and electrons. Ejection channel is opened for the time, sufficient for flight of electrons, but insufficient for passage of gas molecules. This allows ejection of short electron beams of any power without loss of their energy with minimal flow of gas in direction of lesser pressure. Claimed device, which realizes the method, does not exhaust all of its capabilities. It is engineered for ejection of electrons from radioactive gas environment with pressure of 1Pa order into vacuum with pressure 10-5-10-6 Pa. Special feature of the method is that on its basis devices may be created for ejection of electron and laser beams without limitation of energy and distortion of their spectrum.
EFFECT: possible creation of devices, which, depending on conditions of operations in conjunction with various methods and means of vacuum and compressor engineering will ensure ejection of electron and laser beams of any energy into space with any pressure.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: generation of fast pulsating neutron fluxes; small-sized sealed-off acceleration tubes; acceleration engineering and geophysical instrumentation engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed neutron vacuum tube that can be used for instance in commercial neutron impulse generators for investigating wells by way of pulsating neutron logging has target inside vacuum-sealed shell saturated with heavy isotopes of hydrogen, ion-optic electrode set for generating and accelerating ion beam, means for maintaining working pressure, and arcing ion source. Ion source has cathode, anode, and igniter electrode, as well as cylindrical permanent magnet setting up heterogeneous axial magnetic field around anode and ion source disposed coaxially to electrodes. Flat axially saturated permanent magnet is disposed directly under ion source cathode. Cylindrical permanent magnet producing axially heterogeneous magnetic field and flat axially saturated permanent magnet are facing one another by unlike-polarity poles.
EFFECT: enhanced operating stability of ion source which enhances stability of neutron flux and extends service life of neutron vacuum tube.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: accelerator of high-speed solid particles contains high-voltage power supply, toroid deflectors, high-voltage amplifier and tunable oscillator. In gaps between toroid deflectors there are attached induction sensors and paired cylindrical electrodes connected to outputs of high-voltage amplifier inputs of which are connected to output of PC controlled generator with time-dependent frequency and duration of packed pulses. PC is connected through interface block which accepts signals of output amplifier of induction sensors signals and velocity selector.
EFFECT: extended range of accelerated particles and extended range of accelerated particle materials.
SUBSTANCE: electron accelerator outlet is design to let out wide-aperture, intensive, radially converging beams of accelerated electrons into atmosphere or high-pressure gas, and can be used for gas laser electron beam pump. The outlet represents a cylinder and is made up of several sections. A cylindrical carcass makes an integrating element of the structure and has rectangular through openings, each closed with a rectangular foil pieces with sizes exceeding those of the opening. The foil is fitted tightly onto the carcass using a rubber or indium sealer laid into the slot along the carcass rectangular opening edges. The foil is held down to the sealer with the help of clamping screws through rectangular support grid. The screws are screwed into blunt holes of the carcass.
EFFECT: efficient letting out of radially converging electron beams.