A method of burning fuel

 

The invention can be used in boiler plants with pulverization systems direct injection. A method of burning fuel in a chamber furnace of a steam boiler with filesystems direct injection of fuel is to supply the primary air-dust mixture and secondary air through the pulverized coal burner, mounted on the front wall of the furnace chamber, with the formation zone of the torch with the lack of oxidant, secondary fuel, preferably highly reactive through burners installed under pulverized coal burners on the walls of the furnace chamber, perpendicular to the axis of the input dusty main stream and the air stream through the tertiary air nozzles above the coal burners to burn the resulting products of incomplete combustion in the area of coal-fired burners, the excess air coefficient is 0.95...1,0, and the primary paleofauna mixture is 80...85% of heat and the flow of secondary fuel is 15...20% warmth, in addition, form a recovery area with a lack of oxidizer when the air excess factor equal 0,86...0,93. The secondary fuel is injected directly into the area of subsidence of the flame through the burner, the offset is aricela in the flow of secondary air. The invention allows to improve the environment by reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to thermal energy and can be used in steam boilers with pulverization systems for direct injection of fuel.

A known method of burning fuel in a chamber furnace of a steam boiler, allowing to reduce the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products. In the known method the fuel and 80-85% of the air supplied through the burners, arranged in two tiers on the front wall of the furnace chamber. The rest of the air supplied through the nozzle sharp blast, three layers on the back wall of the furnace chamber, and the air flow through each layer of burners installed with the excess over the previous (and.with. The USSR №1456699).

The disadvantage of this method is that it cannot adequately apply to boilers with pulverization systems for direct injection of fuel.

Also known is a method of burning fuel in a chamber furnace of a steam boiler with filesystems direct injection fuel containing vertical shielded parallel combustion chamber with cold funnel located on the front wall of the combustion chamber of ambr is razuri sloping down nozzle secondary blast. On the slope of the cold front funnel wall of the combustion chamber installed the tertiary air nozzles [2].

The disadvantage of this method is the high concentration of nitrogen oxides in flue gases.

Also known furnace with vertical prismatic combustion chamber, under which there is a cold funnel, and the vertical chamber walls installed coal-fired burners with an input device highly reactive fuel and air nozzle [3]. Enter the highly reactive fuel together with coal dust improves the conditions of ignition and combustion of coal dust by increasing the local temperature. This solution, however, significantly increases the formation of nitrous oxides.

The closest technical solution known to the present invention is a method of co-combustion of gaseous and pulverulent fuel by filing a dusty mixture and secondary air through the burner, mounted on the front wall of the furnace chamber, with the formation zone of the torch with a disadvantage for complete combustion of the oxidizer and the compensating flow of air for post-combustion products incomplete combustion through the nozzle above the input flow of fuel from the wall with dust burners and unload the om zone of the combustion chamber formed by the counter flow of the tertiary air. A disadvantage of the known solution is that it does not consider the characteristics of aerodynamics chamber of the furnace of a steam boiler with filesystems direct injection of fuel and chemical kinetics of combustion processes. Stoichiometric, rehabilitation and secondary furnace will produce zones are arranged in series along the gas, as is customary on gas / oil fired steam boilers (classic "direct" scheme). The disadvantage of this method is that the secondary fuel (gas) and air are distributed evenly across the entire width of chamber furnaces for steam boiler filesystems direct injection of fuel leads to increased values of temperatures in local areas torch and significant entities of the NOx.

Task (effect) of the present invention is to reduce the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products.

The technical result is achieved by a method of burning fuel in a chamber furnace of a steam boiler with filesystems direct injection of fuel by feeding primary air-dust mixture and secondary air through the pulverized coal burner, mounted on the front wall of the furnace chamber, with the formation zone of the torch, with the lack of oxidant supply secondary fuel predomina furnace, perpendicular to the axis of the input dusty main flow, and the air jets through the tertiary air nozzles located above the coal burners to burn the resulting products of incomplete combustion in the vicinity of coal-fired burners, the air excess factor equal to10,95-1,0, and the primary dust-air mixture is 80-85% of heat and the flow of secondary fuel is 15-20% in the warmth, in addition, form a recovery area with a lack of oxidizer when the excess air coefficient is equal to20,86-0,93.

The method is implemented by feeding the secondary fuel directly into the area of subsidence of the flame through the burner, is shifted towards the rear wall of the furnace chamber.

The method is implemented by changing the depth of subsidence of the torch by means of controlling the position of the swirl in the flow of secondary air.

When this co-combustion air-dust mixtures and secondary fuels in terms of lack of oxidizer is characterized by the release of gaseous reducing agents and, consequently, the recovery of part of the formed oxides and the Ah with filesystems direct injection is an area of subsidence coal-dust flame with a significant excess of oxidant. The method takes into account the peculiarity of the aerodynamics of the torch, which is my area of subsidence is shifted towards the rear wall of the furnace chamber with a corresponding offset of the burner nozzles introduce the secondary fuel. Therefore, given the specificity of aerodynamics chamber of the furnace of a steam boiler with filesystems direct injection of fuel and the chemical kinetics of combustion processes, the recovery area is formed below the pulverized coal burners. In other words, the concentration of oxidant scheme may be called "inverted". Along the gas recovery area, stoichiometric combustion in the area of coal-fired burners and the area of the combustion chamber above the coal burners.

The method differs from the rest in that when changing the mode of operation of a steam boiler and consequently systems of direct injection fuel change absolute streams of primary air-dust mixture and secondary air, which leads to a repositioning of the area of subsidence (subsidence "floats") and fixed the introduction of the secondary fuel will be inefficient from the standpoint of solving the above mentioned technical problem. Therefore, the depth of subsidence torch change by affecting the position of the swirl in the flow vtorichnoe with filesystems direct injection of fuel and the scheme of realization of the proposed method.

The device comprises a vertical shielded prismatic chamber furnace 1 with cold funnel 2, located on the front wall of the chamber 3 of the furnace 1, the recess 4 for supplying primary air-dust mixtures are connected using mine or transport pipes 5 mill 6, the burner 7 for supplying secondary fuel, located on the side walls 8 of the chamber 1 below the pulverized coal burners, nozzle 9 tertiary air to the rear wall 10 of the furnace chamber 1 above pulverized coal burners, and swirl 11 channel 12 secondary air to pulverized coal burners 4.

When the device is fuel in the form of finished primary air-dust mixture from the mill 6 on the shaft 5 through the burner 4 is supplied into the furnace chamber 1. Primary dust-air mixture is 80-85% warmth. Secondary air is supplied based education in the field of coal-fired burners zone of the torch with the lack of oxidant, providing a stoichiometric combustion. The value of the coefficient of excess air in the area of coal-fired burners equal1=0,95-1,0.

A characteristic feature of this class of steam boilers is significant subsidence of the torch in the direction of cold funnel 2. The depth of the depression is reguliruuschie body to its stabilization in the area of secondary fuel burners, for example, by changing the position of the swirler 11 in the flow of secondary air.

Through the burner 7 in the region of subsidence torch served a secondary fuel 13 (15-20% heat) from the calculation of the excess air coefficient2in the area of the joint combustion of pulverized coal and secondary fuels20,86-0,93. The area of the joint combustion of pulverized coal and secondary fuels in terms of lack of oxidizer is characterized by the release of gaseous reducing agents and as a consequence the recovery part of the formed nitrogen oxides to molecular nitrogen. Burner 7 also provides for the filing, if necessary, a small amount (5-10% V0) as the oxidant.

The remainder of the air required for combustion chamber formed products of incomplete combustion, is fed through the tertiary air nozzles 9, which allows to maintain performance efficiency of a steam boiler in the regulatory limits.

Thus, the technical result is achieved by forming an "inverted" three-step firing scheme, in which along the gas forming zone: recovery

Example. The method of burning implement boiler TPE-208 with filesystems direct injection of fuel on the basis of hammer mills with mine separators. Through pulverized coal burners located on the front wall, served 80-85% of fuel for heat and a portion of the secondary air from the calculation of maintaining the excess air coefficient in the area of coal-fired burners1of 0.95 to 1.0. Through burner nozzles, located on the side walls of the furnace and is shifted towards the rear wall, in the region of subsidence torch (below the level of the input air-dust mixtures) served a secondary predominantly highly reactive fuel (15-20% heat) and, if necessary, additional air from the calculation of the excess air coefficient2=0,86-0,93 that allows you to create recovery area of the torch. Through the tertiary air nozzles located on the back wall of the furnace chamber, served the remainder of the air required for complete combustion of the fuel.

Experimental studies have shown that the concentration of NOxunder the new method of burning is about 390 mg/m3i.e. there is a significant reduction in harmful emissions, about 2-3 Cgi increase efficiency of the boiler by reducing the uncontrolled loss with suction cups in cold funnel.

Claims

1. A method of burning fuel in a chamber furnace of a steam boiler with filesystems direct injection of fuel by feeding primary air-dust mixture and secondary air through the pulverized coal burner, mounted on the front wall of the furnace chamber, with the formation zone of the torch with the lack of oxidant, secondary fuel, preferably highly reactive, through burners installed under pulverized coal burners on the walls of the furnace chamber, perpendicular to the axis of the input dusty main stream and the air stream through the tertiary air nozzles above the coal burners to burn the resulting products of incomplete combustion, characterized in that in the area of the pulverized coal burners, the excess air coefficient is 0.95 to 1.0, and the primary paleofauna mixture is 80-85% of heat and the flow of secondary fuel is 15-20% in the warmth, in addition, form a recovery area with a lack of oxidizer when the air excess factor, equal 0,86-0,93.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the secondary fuel is injected directly into the area of subsidence of the flame through the burner, is shifted towards the rear wall xtia on the position of the swirl in the flow of secondary air.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to the combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels in boilers and other heat consuming installations

The invention relates to a method of ignition and stabilization of combustion of carbon-containing liquid fuel

The invention relates to fuel combustion in the vibrational mode

The invention relates to power engineering, mainly to heat technology, and can be used to obtain infrared radiation in a predetermined wavelength range

The invention relates to a power system and can be used for burning fuel in low-emission combustion chambers of different energy systems: gas turbine units (GTU), gas turbine engines (GTE), furnaces, boilers, etc

The invention relates to a power system, namely the technology bassanova combustion of fuel and raw materials

The invention relates to burners for burning liquid fuel

FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.

EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: combustion apparatus for fluent fuels.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying gas to be burnt out from the head of the burner of the torch plant in the combustion zone. The composition of gases is variable. The gas flow rate varies from 1m/s to 3.5 of sound speed due to generating excess static pressure of gas from 0.00001 MPa/cm2 to 3.0 MPa/cm2 by the movable control device. The gas jet is turbulent with a cone angle from 2o to 155o.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: combustion apparatus using fluent fuel.

SUBSTANCE: burner comprises casing made of a scroll, hollow shaft for fuel supply arranged inside the casing, sucking and exhausting branch pipes for air secured to the casing, nozzle mounted in the conical sleeve, diffuser, and drive. The shaft is mounted for rotation and provided with blades of the fan. The nozzle and conical sleeve are secured to the hollow shaft. The drive is secured to the casing inside the sucking branch pipe. The branch pipe is mounted with a space relation to the casing to provide a space for air flow. The shaft of the drive is hollow to provide fuel flow to the nozzle. The shaft of the drive and hollow shaft of the burner are axially aligned and interconnected. The drive shaft is provided with emulsifier for generating emulsion or suspension and supplying fuel and/or water emulsion and cock for fuel supply.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: methods of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the method of combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel in a burner. The method of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel in a burner provides, that along the burner external surface a non-corroding technical atmosphere is set in motion, chosen from a group including steam, CO 2 , nitrogen or their mixture. In the capacity of the non-corroding technical aerosphere they use steam. Combustion is carried out at the presence of steam. At least a part of the non-corroding aerosphere is added to the hydrocarbon fuel. The non-corroding aerosphere is used in an amount sufficient to dilute or replace a corroding technical aerosphere existing around the external surface of the burner. The invention allows to avoid a corrosive spraying of the metal and carbonization of the industrial burners exposed to action of the corroding technical aerosphere.

EFFECT: the invention allows to prevent a corrosive spraying of the metal and carbonization of the industrial burners.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: methods of burning pulverized fuel.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preparation of fuel for burning, delivery of fuel, transportation of high-pressure air, mixing air with pulverized fuel and delivery of high-concentrated aeromixture to boiler burners. Transporting air is ozonized before mixing it with pulverized fuel ; part of ozonized fuel is delivered to transport of pulverized fuel and remaining part is delivered autonomous passage of burner to flame root via pipe line.

EFFECT: steady ignition of pulverized fuel; enhanced efficiency of burning process.

2 dwg

FIELD: methods of burning hydrocarbon fuel.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel includes separate delivery of fuel and air to burner; fuel is delivered mainly to central area of air flow and is burnt over periphery of flame at excess air mode and at excess of fuel in central area of flame; vapor is fed to central area of flame and field of acoustic oscillations is applied. Burner proposed for burning the gaseous hydrocarbon fuel includes air box, hollow gas manifold with outlet gas holes; it is coaxially arranged inside vapor swirler manifold made in form of hollow cylindrical body with profiled passages and mounted in cylindrical body at radial clearance; cylindrical body has nozzle hole; one end face of vapor swirler is blanked-off and opposite end face is smoothly engageable with nozzle hole in body. Burner for combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuel includes air box and injector mounted on fuel swirler and vapor swirler which are mounted in cylindrical body at radial clearance; said cylindrical body is provided with nozzle unit made in form of hollow detachable cap with holes over spherical end face; mounted at spaced relation inside this cap is cap of smaller diameter and similar in shape; smaller cap has holes which are coaxial to outer cap; outer cap is provided with additional holes; inner cap is not provided with such holes.

EFFECT: reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions by power-generating boilers at enhanced combustion of fuel.

5 cl, 5 dwg

Ejection burner // 2262040

FIELD: fuel burning devices.

SUBSTANCE: proposed ejection burner has body with branch pipes for delivery of combustion components, stabilizer, purging ports and injector additionally provided with mixing ejector consisting of body, contraction passage, fuel and oxidizer supply pipe unions; its construction makes it possible to regulate sectional areas of ejecting and ejected flows due to change of penetration of oxidized supply pipe union into contraction passage of ejector. Widening of flow of fuel-and-gas mixture in injector is made in two sections at different taper angles; diameter of spherical cover exceeds diameter of flow section of injector. Purging ports are made in form of three-stage system; first-stage purging ports are made in form of holes in burner body; second-stage purging ports are made in form of row of holes in combustion chamber; their flow sections change by means of regulating ring moved over surface of combustion chamber; third-stage purging port is made in form of coaxial circular passage copying the combustion chamber geometry. Stabilizer tube is twisted in form of cylindrical spiral. Proposed burner makes it possible to improve quality of mixing and evaporability of fuel in injector and to obtain complete combustion of fuel at extended range of stable operation by excess air coefficient.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; enhanced stability of combustion.

Incinerator burner // 2265157

FIELD: burning separated oil-containing wastes formed during operation of ships.

SUBSTANCE: proposed incinerator burner includes several injectors for delivery of oil and diesel fuel wastes sprayed by air. Air injector equipped with swirler is located in front of oil and diesel fuel waste injectors; oil waste injector is located closer and distance of both fuel injectors may be changed relative to air injector whose axis lies at right angle relative to axes of fuel injectors; mounted in front of fuel injectors are jets whose orifices have diameter lesser than that of injectors.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of burning fuel; reduction of toxic emissions from reactor.

3 dwg

FIELD: mode of incineration of hydrocarbon fuel and an arrangement for its realization refers to engines and power engineering with working processes including preliminary processing of fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the invention may be applied for incineration of fuel as in a periodic regime which is characteristic for reciprocating motors of internal combustion so as for fulfillment of streaming regimes of incineration of fuel, for example, in jet, turbojet, gas turbine engines and power installations. The mode realizes induced destruction of molecules of metastable intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons, accumulated in gas volume of fuel-airy mixture, by way of power impact leading to explosive three-dimensional spontaneous combustion of gas mixture. Peculiarity of the mode consists in that fuel-airy mixture is enriched with free electrons and power impact on molecules of the mixture for excitation of oscillatory degrees of freedom of molecules is fulfilled by means of their inelastic concussion with free electrons, speeded up by electric field, which tension E is less than tension of switching to independent gas discharge. Enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons is fulfilled by way of its ionization or by way of injection of electrons. The installation for realization of this mode has a combustion chamber with a source of power impact. The source of power impact consists of a unit of enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons and a source of a speeded up electric power which includes a system of electrons with controlled multiplexer switch connected to the sources of high-voltage tension. The invention allows to realize in a necessary moment of time momentary development of three-dimensional radical explosion in fuel-airy mixture due to simultaneous destruction of the majority of accumulated metastable molecules of intermediate products. Destruction of molecules of intermediate products generates a great number of active radicals and particles dividing and creating new circuits of reaction of oxidation of hydrocarbon and leads to development of chain-radical explosion.

EFFECT: high effectiveness of incineration mode.

21 cl, 7 dwg

Up!