The transfer method of a metal conductor in a state of superconductivity
The invention relates to techniques and materials with a high conductivity, the methods of their processing. The method of translation of a metal conductor in a state of superconductivity, including the plastic deformation of the conductor by winding wire in monospiral or by twisting the wire into a spiral, with lead deformation, the dislocation density in the conductor to 1108-11012cm-2and a further increase in the dislocation density in the conductor conducting heat treatment to achieve its 11012-11015cm-2. The technical result in the dislocation density in a metal conductor is required to translate it into a state of superconductivity and not achieved by plastic deformation. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.The invention relates to techniques for materials with a high conductivity.The number of known methods of processing metals and alloys to increase the conductivity of metallic conductors due to the combination of deformation and heat treatment.A method of processing aluminum TMS 450-350With 10-40% compression ratio, heated to 580-450With, in the process of heating rolls with 40% compression ratio, then rolled in 350-100With a compression ratio of 60% while cooling at a rate of 100C/C and subjected to 70% cold drawing. The conductivity can increase by 1-10%, using a stratified multistage processing of metal.The known method of increasing the critical temperature of superconductivity of the material (RF Patent 2127461, IPC 6 H 01 12/00, BI 7-99). The method consists in the deformation and annealing of the material. Pre-produce annealing to remove the plastic internal stresses specified deformation is performed by the compression above the yield strength of the material, creating a uniform tensile internal stress, and the specified annealing to produce complete removal of plastic stress.There is a method of creating anomalous conductivity at elevated temperatures (RF Patent 2061084, IPC 6 22 F 1/00, B 15 - 96). The method consists in carrying out plastic deformation of the conductor by twisting two wires in a spiral with a pitch angle of the spiral turns to its longitudinal axis 20-58The objective of the invention is the achievement of the dislocation density in a metal conductor is required for translation of the conductor in a state of superconductivity and not achieved by plastic deformation.The problem is solved in that the plastic deformation and reduce the dislocation density in the conductor to 1·108-1·1012cm-2and further deformation of conducting heat treatment to achieve the dislocation density of 1·1012-1·1015cm-2.The problem is solved in that thermal treatment is carried out at a temperature not reaching the melting temperature of the metal by any known methods.The problem is solved in that the plastic deformation of the conductor is carried out by winding the wire in monospiral or by twisting the two wires in a spiral.The difference of the proposed method lies in the fact that heat treatment reaches the dislocation density up to 1·1015cm-2that significantly exceeds the dislocation density, achieved by plastic deformation.To translate a metal conductor in status is. The density of dislocations can be achieved by various methods of deformation: bending, rolling, compression and elongation. In addition to the conditions for the formation of high density of dislocations requires regular distribution over the length of the conductor that it is difficult to provide the above methods of metal deformation. However, you can achieve a density of dislocations and their regular distribution along the length of the conductor by winding wire in monospiral or by twisting the two wires in a spiral. In this case, the inner diameter of each monospiral tends to zero, and the outer diameter of monospiral strives to two diameters of the wire, resulting in a maximum packing density, i.e. the larger the angle of torsion of the conductor to the longitudinal axis, the higher the dislocation density.The dislocation density obtained by plastic deformation, was calculated by the formula n=K/b(r+h)Coswhere n is the dislocation density, b is the vector of Borgers, r is the average radius of monospiral, h is the diameter of the conductor,- the angle between the line average circumference of monospiral and plane dislocation slip, the ratio of the diameter of the conductor to the inner diameter of monospiral. Provdnce in a state of superconductivity. The determination of the critical temperature of the transition in SP and conditions for this transition was performed according to the formulawhere tkr- the critical temperature of transition in the JV; tPLthe melting point of the conductor; nkr- critical density of dislocations to move in the JV; n is the dislocation density in the conductor; jkrcritical current density for the transition to the JV; jc- the rate of growth of current density in the conductor.This formula together with the above allows you to calculate all the parameters required for translation of the conductor in a state of superconductivity. For example, the necessary transition temperature of 1250C. By the formula (1) calculate the required density of dislocations for tungsten wire and determined that it should be of 5.7·1010cm-2. Using the above formula, calculate the diameter of the cylindrical monospiral for two wire diameters 0.0025 and 0,0050 cm and determined that the diameter of monospiral should be respectively 0,0081 and 0,0130 seePlastic deformation can be achieved in the dislocation density not higher than 1·1014cm-2. When the density of dislocations of the transition temperature of the conductor in sostoyanii transition into a state of superconductivity from the dislocation density and rate of rise of the current density. When the dislocation density of 1·108cm-2and slew rate current density of 2·105A·cm-2·with-1the temperature of the transition into a state of superconductivity for tungsten is 3410C. the Value of the dislocation density of 5·1015cm-2- experimentally obtained result achieved by heat treatment of a metal conductor. When the density of dislocations transition of the conductor in a state of superconductivity occurs at room temperature. The magnitude of the dislocation density of 1·1015cm-2theoretically impossible, however, due to the heat treatment in separate experiments, with slew rate current density of 1·104A·cm-2·with-1we were able to state transition in a state of superconductivity at 10-20C. Stably obtained results correspond to the parameters in a three-dimensional diagram (Fig.1) and compriseThus, it was found that when approaching the dislocation density to 1·10 cm-2and the marginal rate of rise of the current density, it is possible to ensure the transition to superconductivity at -50C. Increase the Vodnik, deformed pre-mechanically. Samples specially deformed by twisting in monospiral with an inner bend radius tends to zero. When this happens geometric redistribution of atoms on the inner (small curvature) and outer (large curvature) surfaces, the formation of a wall of dislocations. Annealing the metal conductor, stranded in monospiral with a large radius of curvature of the conductor, with the rate of rise of current density greater than 100 a/cm2·moves electrons between the walls of dislocations, as de Broglie waves in waveguides. This happens, for example, in microwave equipment with electromagnetic waves. When heated over 3000With deformed by the twisting of the conductor, are formed in the monocrystalline blocks along the conductor length from 0.5 to 2 diameters of the wire with a high density of dislocations that can be observed in the microscope. The wire is not round and is a pack of blocks along the wire. These blocks have a different shape depending on the degree of curvature and due to the high density of dislocations. If 2D/chr/176.gif">With the spiral goes into a state of superconductivity, the temperature of the spiral is reduced to room temperature and the spiral is in a state of SP until then, until the electric current. To reduce the time to achieve the transition of the conductor in the state of SP at room temperature you must use an external source of heat to 3000C. On thousands of samples was experimentally tested the stability of the transition of the conductor in the state of SP depending on the heating temperature, current density and the dislocation density. For testing methods thermal annealing to increase the density of dislocations due process polygonization and to control the density of dislocations was performed measurement of the junction temperature in a JV volt-ampere characteristic for each specific sample, the transition temperature is stored in multiple (up to 10000 cycles) the conclusion of the conductor in the state of SP and back with an accuracy of 0.01%. It was found that the use of electric heating spiral is irrational, as it would require a lot of time for lowering the temperature of the translation of the conductor in the JV to room. So, if you take monospiral with parameters sooted src="https://img.russianpatents.com/chr/176.gif">With requires many thousands of hours and the process becomes inefficient. It is proposed to use other methods of heating spiral, which is reflected in paragraph 2 of the claims. In order to obtain a high density of dislocations during heat treatment necessary to achieve a temperature close to the melting point to reduce the elapsed time of the process.Methods of heat treatment can be various: electric heating, ion current, electron current, electron gun, a plasma discharge, the plasma torch, laser beam, etc., if only heating is provided the main goal of achieving the dislocation density required for translation of the conductor in a state of superconductivity.The practical applicability of the invention is proved by the following examples.Example 1. From a tungsten wire with a diameter of 0.005 cm made of tungsten conductor by winding in monospiral. The conductor is placed in a chamber with an inert gas and is connected to the current leads. Current-voltage characteristics recorded on two of the recorder. The conductor serves current, increasing in time, but it is in the stabilization mode, i.e., any set value TKA time set by the regulator stabilization current. Keep increasing the current density to stop the growth of tension in the conductor. Stopping the growth of the voltage is the beginning of a transition in a state of superconductivity, and a further slight increase in current density leads to decrease the voltage to zero, so at the moment of stopping of the growth of the voltage stops increasing current and reduce the voltage by 5% in relation to recorded at the moment of transition of the conductor in a state of superconductivity.Operation is repeated many times, each time reducing the voltage by 5% by decreasing the current density. Graph of Fig.2 explains the process of the discrete dynamics of the temperature of heat treatment and processing to reduce the junction temperature of the conductor in superconductivity.Example 2. Have studied the dependence of the transition time in a state of superconductivity from the operating voltage of the coil is heated. In Fig.3 shows a dependency graph, x-axis is the change in the voltage in % of rated, on the y - axis duration of the heat treatment in an hour.Thus, by using the heat treatment can increase the dislocation density up to 1·1015that leads to lower temperature transition in the state surpra in a state of superconductivity, including the plastic deformation of the conductor by winding wire in monospiral or by twisting the two wires in a spiral, characterized in that the lead deformation, the dislocation density in the conductor to 1108-11012cm-2and a further increase in the dislocation density in the conductor conducting heat treatment to achieve its 11012-11015cm-2.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the heat treatment is carried out at a temperature below the melting temperature of the metal by any known method.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; piston internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to valve of internal combustion engine, method of its manufacture and heat-resistant titanium alloy used for manufacture of valve consisting of following components, mass %: aluminum 7.5-12.5; molybdenum 1.6-2.6; zirconium 1.4-2.4; silicon 0.1-0.2' yttrium 0.005-0.1; titanium - the rest. It has α+α2+β phase composition with intermetallide α2 phase on Ti3Al base dispersed in α phase. Proposed method includes forming of valve from cylindrical blank by deformation machining with preliminary heating and subsequent heat treatment. Preliminary heating of part of blank related to rod done to temperature 5-20oC lower than temperature of complete polymorphic transformation of alloy, and its deformation machining is carrying out by wedge cross rolling. Deformation machining of part of blank related to head is done by forging with preliminary heating to temperature 5-50oC higher than temperature of complete polymorphic transformation of alloy corresponding to beginning of forging, and forging is finished at temperature lower than complete polymorphic transformation of alloy to form plate head of valve and transition section provided smooth changing of head into rod. Invention provides designing of valve, method of its manufacture and heat-resistant alloy used in manufacture of valve making it possible to operate valve within operating temperature range owing to increased long-term strength and creep resistant of valve head material and increased strength, modulus of elasticity and hardness of valve rod material.
EFFECT: improved quality of valve and increased reliability in operation.
16 cl, 3 tbl, 1 ex, 15 dwg