The drying of plant materials

 

The invention relates to the field drying of plant materials and can be used for drying food products of agriculture. Installation for drying plant material is equipped with a receiver and the second drying chamber, which is connected as the first through the pipeline with mounted on it quick-acting valve with a receiver, which amount is made equal to the free volume of the drying chamber, and the installation is equipped with a heat exchanger, means for heating the drying agent, the refrigerating machine for cooling the heat exchanger, vacuum pump and sluice chamber for collecting fluid from the receiver, drying chambers and heat exchanger. Pipelines connecting the drying chamber with the receiver installed in relation to the receiver tangentially, and the diameter of the pipeline connecting the drying chamber with the receiver, is calculated according to the formula specified in the description. Alternating pulses of vacuum exposure with periodic extracts under a residual vacuum of plant material in combination with vacuum and temperature conditions allow for a short time 60-75 min qualitatively dried carrots, potatoes, onions, peppers and other foods, with the added value of:always;">

The invention relates to the field drying of plant materials, in particular to the vacuum chamber driers periodic actions, and can be used in particular for drying foods, namely vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, herbs, spices, etc.

A device for drying fruits and berries universal combined action containing a vertically mounted cylindrical housing located inside the carousel represents a shaft with a rotational drive, mounted on the shaft frame and tiered fixed to the frame mesh trays for placement of the processed material, means for inlet and outlet of the drying agent and means for supplying energy. The frame is made in a cone shape, and a mesh pallets have a funnel and attached to the frame to tilt in the direction of the shaft, and means for supplying energy is a generator of microwave energy, the emitters of which are located in one of the sectors of the housing above each tier of pallets. Cm. patent of Russia № 2051588, M. class. And 23 In 7/02.

The disadvantages of the known devices can be attributed to the complexity of the design and use of dangerous to human health energy source.

Known for more than sochnoe and unloading device the emitter of microwave energy and the input device of drying agent. The side walls of the working chamber is made conical, the supply of drying agent in the lower part of the working chamber is made tangent to the side walls together with input from top energy and provide the rotating separation in the form of a tornado flow and its removal through the holes in the upper part of the chamber. The versatility of the camera is provided by the boot table, which is mounted on a shaft boot screw mechanism located at the bottom of the camera. Cm. RF patent № 2078522 M class. And 23 In 12/08 And 23 In 7/02.

The disadvantages of the known universal installation drying plant products combined action are even higher design complexity and power consumption.

Closest to the technical nature of the decision - prototype - is a radiation dryer for vegetable food products under the patent of Russia № 2034489 M class. And 23 In 7/02, 26 3/30, comprising a drying chamber, the trays product, tiered located in the chamber, means for input and output of the drying agent, the pressure peaks, the swirlers of the drying agent, the IR emitters to the middle region of the spectrum. The processed food product is heated in a direct, reflected the of the product. Through the side slit and the lower cut, the outside air enters the lower part of the drying chamber. Air heating is provided by radiators, partly air-reflectors and ducts. When heating the product of its moisture evaporates, diffuses into the air flow and with it removed through the open lid of the camera. After the drying process the product of the dryer is disconnected from the network, close the top cover, the trays of dried product and the pallet with a small fraction removed from the drying chamber.

Installation allows you to implement a method of drying food, which greatly improves the quality of dry product, increases the drying capacity, provides security and ease of operation in comparison with existing analogues.

Known installation - prototype - has some unsatisfactory performance:

- high specific energy consumption due to the complete transfer of moisture of the product in the vapor state;

- the long duration of the drying process;

- no guarantees are partial, local burning product;

- the vapor-air mixture after drying chamber is not captured and emitted into the atmosphere.

The purpose of this Izanami properties in reducing energy consumption, productivity drying of the product, guarantee its quality characteristics and environmental parameters of the process.

This object is achieved in that the installation comprising a drying chamber with tightly closing doors, means for input and output of the drying agent, the duct is equipped with a receiver and the second drying chamber, which is connected as the first through the pipeline with mounted on them fast-acting valves with the receiver volume is made equal to the free volume of the drying chamber after filling out its product, provided with a heat exchanger, means for heating the coolant, refrigerating machine for cooling the heat exchanger, vacuum pump and sluice chamber for collecting fluid from the receiver, drying chamber and a heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger, chiller, vacuum pump and airlock connected to each other and to the receiver through pipelines and mounted on their vehicle.

Pipelines connecting the drying chamber with the receiver installed in relation to the receiver tangentially.

The diameter of the pipeline connecting the drying chamber with the receiver, is calculated by the formula: -

<about- pressure in the receiver, PA

- kinematic viscosity of air-vapour mixture, cSt;

Vo- free volume of the drying chamber, m3;

l is the length of the connecting pipe, m;

t - time set of the set pressure in the drying chamber, with

Drying chamber is mounted with a slope toward the drain accumulated during the drying chamber, moisture.

The drying chamber is connected by means of pipelines and mounted them valves with rotary camera.

Signs that the installation is equipped with a receiver and the second drying chamber, which is connected as the first through the pipeline with mounted on it quick-acting valve with a receiver, which amount is made equal to the free volume of the drying chamber after filling out its product, provided with a heat exchanger, means for heating the coolant, refrigerating machine for cooling the heat exchanger, vacuum pump and sluice chamber for collecting fluid from the receiver, drying chamber and a heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger, chiller, vacuum pump and airlock connected to each other and to the receiver through pipelines and mounted them valves and are aimed at achieving the invention to reduce time and improve quality drying of plant materials.

Thus, the execution of the receiver volume is equal to the free volume of the drying chamber, allows the speed to increase the vacuum and to provide optimal drying of plant materials and gradually reach the required drying vacuum, and also allows the use of existing small receivers and achieve the unexpected result of increasing the productivity and quality of drying of the product.

Giving the receiver the drying chamber and the heat exchanger airlock allows to reduce the workload of the receiver, drying chamber and the heat exchanger by removing accumulated liquids without resetting vacuum, which has a positive effect on the performance of the installation as it is not required after each drain the fluid again to dial the vacuum. If there is a second, parallel connected with the receiver, drying chambers and airlock allows you to get unexpected result is increased productivity of the installation using the same auxiliary equipment (chillers, pump, heat exchanger, receiver) and to improve the quality of drying of products, since the drying is performed at optimal speed mode set deep vacuum, chereduushiesya due dried product with the atmosphere during the entire drying process.

A sign that the pipelines connecting the drying chamber with a receiver installed in relation to the receiver tangentially, are signs necessary, essential, aimed at improving the quality of drying of the product, since the tangential inlet piping to the receiver allows you to quickly vacuum pulse, it is more efficient to separate and to more fully capture the receiver water from Tamano-vapor state in the drying chamber and passing during the vacuum pulse in the receiver.

Signs that the diameter of the pipeline connecting the drying chamber with the receiver, is calculated by the formula:

where d is the pipe diameter, m;

P is the pressure in the drying chamber, PA;

Paboutthe accumulator pressure, PA;

- kinematic viscosity of air-vapour mixture, cSt;

Vo- free volume of the drying chamber, m3;

l is the length of the connecting pipe, m;

t - time set of the set pressure in the drying chamber, with,

are signs of significant, necessary and ensuring the achievement of invention tasks, because the diameter of the pipeline depends Vestavia its quality and the whole process of drying.

A sign that the drying chamber is mounted with a slope toward the drain accumulated during the drying chamber moisture - is a sign of complementary and ensuring the achievement of invention tasks as part of a more comprehensive and qualitative remove moisture from the drying chambers and prevent exposure to remaining in the drying chamber of the moisture in the drying material.

Signs of connection of the drying chamber through piping and mounted them valves with rotary camera - are signs of developing a positive result of a reduction in drying time resulting from maintaining vacuum when draining liquid from the drying chamber.

The drawing is a schematic representation of the proposed drying plant materials.

The proposed drying plant material consists of drying chambers 1 and 2, each of which is equipped with a device 3 for uniform distribution of the heat carrier (drying agent), the heaters 4 for heating the coolant and the fan 5 coolant throughout the volume of the drying chamber. Pipelines with 6 built-in high-speed valves 7 and 8 connect the drying chamber 1 and 2 with resive the Liwa free moisture from the chamber, and also has an airtight door 12 for loading and unloading trucks with the product. The vacuum pump 13 provides a specified vacuum in the receiver 9. Airlock 14 is designed for collection and removal of condensate from receiver 9 and a heat exchanger 15 which is cooled by the refrigerant from the refrigeration machine 16. To drain the fluid from the airlock 14, without depressurization of the entire system using the valve 17. The operation of the pneumatic valves 7 and 8 of the compressor 18, which via the remote control 19 provides compressed air quick-acting valve. In the cavity of the drying chambers set the level of the liquid 20. The drying of plant materials is as follows.

Plant material intended for drying, pre-washed, peeled and sliced according to the requirements of the standard, evenly placed on mesh trays, which are then mounted on the carriage 21, which rolled into the drying chamber 1, and then tightly close the door 12 includes a heating coil 4, a fan 5 and heated air in the drying chamber is initially at atmospheric pressure. While drying chamber 1 is isolated from the receiver 9 and the external environment by means closing fast the temperature 0 - 5And the vacuum pump 13 to create in the receiver 9 pressure 1-10 mm RT.article Simultaneously with the vacuum pump 13 includes a compressor 18.

Plant material in the drying chamber 1 is heated to a volumetric average temperature which will not cause it to denature. Heating leads to a decrease of the surface tension of the water in the cells and the intercellular space of the plant material and to increase the vapor pressure of water to values equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature. Using fast-acting valves 7 of the drying chamber 1 during 0.1-0.5 sec, connected to the receiver 9, which previously created the pressure of 1-10 mm RT.art., thereby creating in the drying chamber 1, the vacuum under which the plant material is left within, for example, carrots for 5 minutes, then drying chamber 1 are isolated from the vacuum by closing a fast-acting valves 7 and maintain the plant material in a drying chamber under a residual vacuum to its equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature, for example, for 7 minutes With quick, sharp vacuum on plant material, its temperature is reduced by 10-15C. When Ala and accumulate at the bottom of the drying chamber, which is drained from the chamber after removal of all free moisture from the plant material into the lock chamber. The moisture level is controlled by the transmitter 20. Heating the plant material to a temperature which will not cause denaturation of the material is maintained constantly. The process is carried out in automatic mode with the remote control 19.

A uniform flow of the fluid in the purge, heating, multiple alternating vacuum and extracts of plant material throughout the volume of an isolated drying chamber is performed with the flow of the vapor-air mixture using the adjustable guide device 3 from the continuous, permanent, and counter to the opposite.

Heating of the plant material, high-speed vacuum with heating, the extract under vacuum with heating of the plant material throughout the volume is one drying cycle. Depending on the properties of plant material: density, thickness and other parameters of the number of cycles can be at least more than two, i.e., increased multiple times to achieve a residual moisture content of 30%.

After cooling of the product under a residual vacuum and the pressure of water vapor in the drying chamber to a pressure equal uravnoveshennogo the saturated vapor pressure for a given temperature and again make an extract of plant material present in the drying chamber deeper vacuum. During the second exposure of plant material under vacuum through the valve 17 without depressurization systems will remove drain formed, separated from the plant material and water condensate is captured by the receiver 9 and the heat exchanger 15 and are stuck in a lock chamber 14. Next, the drying chamber 1 through the overlap of fast-acting valves 7 are isolated from the receiver 9. While continuously produce heating plant material under residual pressure up to volumetric average temperature which will not cause denaturation of the material.

Water in the plant material is in two main structural elements: in the cavities of the cells and capillaries - free moisture, and in the walls of the cell membrane - associated moisture. The cell size of the pores is within 100and 10. The maximum number of bound moisture, which can be located in plant materials is approximately the same for all plant materials and is at 20With about 30 wt.%. The rest of the moisture is free. When drying products with humidity of about 30% in the first free moisture is removed, and then linked.

Pdou.

Drying of plant materials at the proposed installation includes two stages. The first stage produces the removal of free moisture when the moisture in the capillaries and michaelango space is removed due to the rapid establishment of a saturated vapor pressure of water in the volume of the drying chamber and into the plant material at a given temperature and moisture is pushed out of the capillaries due to the expansion of dissolved and trapped in the plant material gas and partially taking place in the material process of vaporization.

In the second stage is the removal of bound moisture only due to intensive evaporation and then remove it from the pore volume of plant material. This is achieved by pre-heated plant material at a pressure equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure at a given temperature, is subjected to a rapid connection to the vacuum receiver and short-term establishment in the drying chamber pressure below the equilibrium vapor pressure, i.e., start to re-vacuum pulse effects on plant material, but for the removal of bound moisture.

Creating in the drying chamber 1 pressure nor is the dramatic transformation of the moisture on the surface of the material in pairs. This leads to cooling of the liquid on the surface of plant material below the boiling point at a given pressure. Due to the low thermal conductivity of vegetable materials of pairs that are in the whole volume of the material and inside the capillaries, does not have time to cool down to a temperature below the boiling point and due to the increased pressure against the outer surface squeezes the moisture out of the capillaries. Creating in the drying chamber 1 pressure below the equilibrium leads to a sharp expansion of trapped and dissolved in capillary liquid gases. The sharp increase in gas pushes the liquid out of the capillary into the volume of the drying chamber in the form of a finely dispersed phase.

The beginning of the removal of bound moisture is determined by the reducing temperature changes of plant materials during high-speed vacuum. With the decrease of moisture content increases the porosity of plant material and decreases thermal conductivity, it leads to reduction of extracts under vacuum after high-speed vacuum and increase the time of heating of the plant material under a residual vacuum to achieve equilibrium pressure.

Removal of bound moisture assumes, heat vegetable product in an isolated drying chamber under a residual vacuum to achieve equilibrium pressure at the maximum possible for a given product temperature.

A specific embodiment of the drying plant material.

The process of drying of plant materials experimentally implemented at the installation process scheme shown on the drawing.

In two drying chambers 1 and 2 with the volume of 4 m3each is equipped with a device 3 for directions and uniform distribution of air flow, fan heaters 4 for heating and a fan 5 for moving the carrier, place a uniform layer of plant material on the mesh pallets of the moving truck. Each chamber is connected by pipes 6 with built-in high-speed valves 7 and 8 to a receiver 9. In the drying chamber 1 and 2 was downloaded 1 m3pre-washed and chopped foods.

Example 1

Drying was subjected carrots dining area with initial mass moisture content of 83%. Pre-washed and peeled, cut in the form of cubes with size from 5 to 10 mm carrots were placed on mesh trays with a layer of 30 mm thicker than 8%.

In each drying chamber 1, 2 on trucks was established on 8 pallets with diced carrots. In the panels 12 each drying chamber, when carrying out the drying process of carrot were installed finned electric heating Elements with power of 1 kW in quantity of 25 PCs and two axial fan No. 4 performance 3000 m3air, under normal conditions, providing a pressure not less than 50 mm of water. Art. at 3000 rpm

To create a vacuum in the receiver 9 used a vacuum pump AP-20, which ensured the creation of a working vacuum in the receiver 9 and the suction ballast gases from him. High-speed evacuation was carried out with the help of receiver 9 volume 43and air valves 7 and 8 Do-88-mm type 65233. The cooling heat exchanger 15 conducted refrigerating machine 16, type MA 2,8-20 cent to 8.85 cooling capacity KW.

The drying chamber 1 is hermetically closed and turned on the heaters 4 and 5 fans for air heating and carrots in the drying chamber 1. The air from the heater went out with a temperature of 60C at atmospheric pressure in the drying chamber 1, which was isolated from the receiver 9 and from the external environment by overlapping high-speed valve 7 and the valve 10. Simultaneous with the start of pre the temperature carrots 60(Heating time was 12 min for each type of product is determined individually) included quick-acting valves 7 connecting the drying chamber 1 with a receiver 9, and made the carrot extract under vacuum for 7 minutes Then quick-acting valves 7 of the drying chamber 1 blocked, isolated thus the drying chamber 1 from the receiver 9, and made the extract of carrot under a residual vacuum for 5 minutes While the heater worked without disabling the temperature in the drying chamber and the temperature of carrots during the time when the residual vacuum is again reached 60C. Quick-acting valves 8 second drying chamber 2 at this time was in the “Closed”position.

These operations were repeated two times and the total time it took to remove free moisture, amounted to 36 minutes of Free moisture released from carrots, were removed from the drying chamber 1 by opening the drain valve 11, which connects it with the lock chamber.

During the first exposure carrots under a residual vacuum in the first drying chamber launched the heating in the second drying chamber 2, with the same sequence pursued it further drying operations.

Remove connected the heating and carrot extract under vacuum for 5 min, heat carrots in a drying chamber under a residual vacuum to the equilibrium pressure at the temperature of 60C for 5 min. Number of the above cycles when this is equal to three.

The total time of drying of carrots was:

- 36 min - removal of free moisture;

- 36 min - removal of bound moisture.

Just 72 minutes Received the product in terms of quality indicators correspond to GOST 12326-66.

The proposed installation of the drying of plant materials, particularly food products, successfully passed experimental tests in the conditions of industrial plants for drying vegetables, Barnaul and gave a good, stable quality of drying. The quality of drying of plant materials (potatoes, onions, carrots, peppers and other) received at this facility complies with the requirements of Russian standards.

The proposed installation of a drying plant material does not cause difficulties in its manufacture and operation, allows the use of existing equipment and prevents the possible cost of production of expensive and bulky equipment.

Currently, the authors work on the greater use of pre what about the material, comprising a drying chamber with sealed doors, means for input and output of the drying agent, ducts, characterized in that the installation is equipped with a receiver and the second drying chamber, which is connected as the first, with the help of the pipeline with mounted on it quick-acting valve with a receiver, which amount is made equal to the free volume of the drying chamber after filling out its product, provided with a heat exchanger, means for heating the coolant, refrigerating machine for cooling the heat exchanger, vacuum pump and sluice chamber for collecting fluid from the receiver, drying chambers and heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger, chiller, vacuum pump and airlock connected to each other, with the receiver and with drying chambers through pipelines and mounted on their vehicle.

2. The drying of plant material under item 1, characterized in that the pipelines connecting the drying chamber with a receiver installed in relation to the receiver tangentially.

3. The drying of plant material under item 1, characterized in that the diameter of the pipeline connecting the drying chamber with the receiver, is calculated by the formula

/p>Paboutthe accumulator pressure, PA;

- kinematic viscosity of the vapor mixture, cSt;

Vo- free volume of the drying chamber, m3;

l is the length of the connecting pipe, m;

t - time set of the set pressure in the drying chamber, C.

4. The drying of plant material under item 1, characterized in that the drying chamber is mounted with a slope toward the drain accumulated during the drying chamber moisture.

5. The drying of plant material under item 1, characterized in that the drying chamber is connected by means of pipelines and mounted them valves with rotary camera.

 

Same patents:

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EFFECT: reduced power consumption, accelerated process of drying and enhanced quality of dried materials.

3 ex

FIELD: chemical industry.

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